Feedback, Media, and Cognitive Load<br />Making Feedback Understandable<br />Albert Ingram, PhD<br />Betzi Bateman, MLIS<b...
Background on Feedback<br />Background on Cognitive Load<br />Pilot Study<br />Future Plans<br />Agenda<br />
Small-Scale Feedback<br />Large-Scale Feedback <br />Types of Feedback?<br />
What are the functions of feedback?<br />
What is effective feedback?<br />Students should learn from it<br />Students should improve products with it<br />
Further Reading on Feedback<br />Tagg, J. (2003). The Learning Paradigm College. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company, Inc...
Why is Cognitive Load important in instruction?<br />Working memory capacity is limited<br />Learning occurs when relevant...
What does the research show?<br />Research on integrating visuals and text, visuals and narration<br />Forcing people to d...
Feedback and Cognitive Load<br />Reducing cognitive load when delivering feedback should increase effectiveness<br />
Further Reading on CL<br />Mayer, R. E. & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. In...
Hypotheses<br />Research Design<br />Results<br />Pilot Study<br />
Hypotheses<br />Decreasing the extraneous cognitive load imposed by how feedback is presented will increase learning from ...
Research Design<br />Use intact classes and existing, real-world assignments that must be handed in as drafts and revised ...
Instrument<br />Adapted from:Yao, Y. & Gill, M. (2009). The effect of hypertext annotation presentation formats on perceiv...
Instrument<br />Four categories measuring perceived cognitive load<br />Difficulty (“I think the feedback was easy to foll...
Results of Pilot Study<br />Educational Technology course (N=64; 48% response rate)<br />Series of linked assignments (but...
More Questions<br />Four respondents REALLY disliked audio feedback<br />Gender or style of narrator?<br />Entity vs. Incr...
Plans<br />English Composition Classes<br />Larger N<br />Revised assignments<br />Rich feedback<br />Detailed rubrics<br ...
Time for YOUR Feedback!<br />Is this a DUH! Study?<br />Does embedding vs. separate document matter?<br />What do you thin...
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Feedback and Cognitive Load

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Modified Sloan-C presentation for Research in Learning and Development class.

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  • Traditionally in Ed Tech, the focus has been on small-scale feedback such as learning whether or not you got a correct answer on a multiple-choice quiz. The focus here is on large-scale feedback in which revision of student products is necessary.
  • John Tagg, in his book The Learning Paradigm College uses a road sign metaphor for describing the importance of feedback in learning. When traveling to another city, road signs provide feedback that you are on the right track and heading where you need to be. (pp. 188-189 – metaphor from Wiggins (1993)) He also states that it is more interactive like a conversation.
  • Feedback and Cognitive Load

    1. 1. Feedback, Media, and Cognitive Load<br />Making Feedback Understandable<br />Albert Ingram, PhD<br />Betzi Bateman, MLIS<br />Kent State University<br />
    2. 2. Background on Feedback<br />Background on Cognitive Load<br />Pilot Study<br />Future Plans<br />Agenda<br />
    3. 3. Small-Scale Feedback<br />Large-Scale Feedback <br />Types of Feedback?<br />
    4. 4. What are the functions of feedback?<br />
    5. 5. What is effective feedback?<br />Students should learn from it<br />Students should improve products with it<br />
    6. 6. Further Reading on Feedback<br />Tagg, J. (2003). The Learning Paradigm College. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company, Inc.<br />Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 153-189.<br />
    7. 7. Why is Cognitive Load important in instruction?<br />Working memory capacity is limited<br />Learning occurs when relevant information is connected and operated on in working memory<br />If too much of the processing capacity is taken up with extraneous factors, learning is impaired<br />
    8. 8. What does the research show?<br />Research on integrating visuals and text, visuals and narration<br />Forcing people to divide resources between different sources of information interferes with learning<br />Using methods that work together improves learning<br />
    9. 9. Feedback and Cognitive Load<br />Reducing cognitive load when delivering feedback should increase effectiveness<br />
    10. 10. Further Reading on CL<br />Mayer, R. E. & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. In Bruning, R., Horn, C. A., &PytlikZillig, L. M. (Eds.), Web-based learning: What do we know? Where do we go? Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.<br />Paas, F., Renkl, A., &Sweller, J, (2003). Cognitive load theory and instructional design: Recent developments. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 1-4.<br />Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and Instruction,4, 295-312.<br />
    11. 11. Hypotheses<br />Research Design<br />Results<br />Pilot Study<br />
    12. 12. Hypotheses<br />Decreasing the extraneous cognitive load imposed by how feedback is presented will increase learning from the feedback.<br />Delivering feedback (on textual assignments) as audio will reduce cognitive load because there is less need to switch among stimuli<br />Delivering feedback embedded into an assignment will reduce cognitive over delivering it separately<br />
    13. 13. Research Design<br />Use intact classes and existing, real-world assignments that must be handed in as drafts and revised for a grade<br />Repeated measures, within-subjects design in which people receive feedback on multiple assignments in different ways<br />
    14. 14. Instrument<br />Adapted from:Yao, Y. & Gill, M. (2009). The effect of hypertext annotation presentation formats on perceived cognitive load and learner control. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 20, 359-373.Yeung, A. S., Lee, C. F., Pena, I. M., & Ryde, J. (2000, January). Toward a subjective mental workload measure. Paper presented at the International Congress for School Effectiveness and Improvement, Hong Kong, China.<br />
    15. 15. Instrument<br />Four categories measuring perceived cognitive load<br />Difficulty (“I think the feedback was easy to follow.”)<br />Incompetence (“I was not able to tell what to modify based on the feedback.)<br />Negative Affect (“I like receiving feedback in this format.”)<br />Lack of Effort (“I worked hard on my revision.”<br />5-point Likert-type scale (many items reverse-coded)<br />
    16. 16. Results of Pilot Study<br />Educational Technology course (N=64; 48% response rate)<br />Series of linked assignments (but no revision of individual assignments)<br />Very simple feedback = very low perceived cognitive load<br />Audio feedback: 31.75, 28.27<br />Text feedback: 23.7, 21.67 (out of possible score of 80)<br />Feedback was not embedded as initially planned<br />
    17. 17. More Questions<br />Four respondents REALLY disliked audio feedback<br />Gender or style of narrator?<br />Entity vs. Incremental Theories?<br />Is it even harder for those sensitive to negative feedback to receive it in audio format?<br />Procedural feedback not conducive to audio format?<br />Text or graphics more conducive for procedural feedback?<br />
    18. 18. Plans<br />English Composition Classes<br />Larger N<br />Revised assignments<br />Rich feedback<br />Detailed rubrics<br />Balanced quasi-experimental design<br />Embedded vs. Separate Document<br />Perceived cognitive load and student achievement<br />
    19. 19. Time for YOUR Feedback!<br />Is this a DUH! Study?<br />Does embedding vs. separate document matter?<br />What do you think of the survey instrument on perceived cognitive load?<br />

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