TABLE OF CONTENTSBiographyCleopatra’s ReignRelations with RomeRelationship with Julius CaesarCleopatra in the Roman Civil WarCleopatra and Mark AntonyDeath
She was member of Ptolemic dynasty a family ofBiography Greek origin that ruled Egypt duing Hellenistic period. The identity of her mother is unknown but , she is belived to be Cleopatra V the sister or cousin and wife of Ptolemi XII who was Cleopatra’s father. He was a direct descendant of Alexandre the Great . He was originaly ruled with his daughter . In 51 B.C Ptolemy XII died and left hisCleopatra VII kingdom to his eghteen yearsPhilopator the last old daughter Cleopatra andpharaon of Ancient his young brother PtolemyEgypt was born in 69 XIII . She was married to herB.C in Alexandria, younger brother PtolemyEgypt. XIII when he was twelve
Cleopara’s reign By 48 BC, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerfulcourt officials of Alexandria by some of her actions. Agroup of men led by Theodotus, the eunuch Pothinusand a half-Greek general, Achillas, overthrew her in favorof her younger brother. They believed him to be mucheasier to influence and they became his council ofregency. Between 51 and 49 BC, Egypt was sufferingfrom bad harvests and famine because of a droughtwhich stopped the much needed Nile flooding. PtolemyXIII signed a decree on October 27, 50 BC whichbanned any shipments of grain to anywhere. In the meantime, Pompey had been defeated atPharsalus in August of 48 BC. He headed for Alexandriahoping to find refuge with Ptolemy XIII.He wasmurdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48BC.Four days later, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. Hebrought with him thirty-two hundred legionaries and eighthundred cavalry. This was considered a badge ofauthority that gave a clear hint of his intentions.
relations with rome Ptolemy XIII was gone to Pelusium and Caesar placedhimself in the royal palace and started giving out orders. Cleopatra had no intentions of being left out of any deals thatwere going to be made. She had herself smuggled in throughenemy lines rolled in a carpet. She was delivered to Caesar.Both Cleopatra and Ptolemy were invited to appear beforeCaesar the next morning. By this time, she and Caesar werealready lovers and Ptolemy realized this right away. He stormedout screaming that he had been betrayed, trying to arouse theAlexandrian mob. He was soon captured by Caesars guards andbrought back to the palace. It is thought that Caesar hadplanned to make Cleopatra the sole ruler of Alexandria. Hethought she would be a puppet for Rome. The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus called forPtolemy XIIIs soldiers in November and surrounded Caesarin Alexandria with twenty thousand men. . Cleopatras sister,Arsinoe, escaped from the palace and ran to Achillas. She wasproclaimed the queen by the Macedonian mob and the army.Cleopatra never forgave her sister for this. During the fighting,Caesar executed Pothinus and Achillas was murdered byGanymede.
relationship with julius Caesar Cleopatra became Caesar’s mistress, and nine monthsafter their first meeting, in 47 BC, Cleopatra gave birth totheir son, Ptolemy Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion, whichmeans "little Caesar.“ At this point Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt,instead backing Cleopatras claim to the throne.After Mithridates raised the siege of Alexandria Caesardefeated Ptolemys army at theBattle of the Nile, PtolemyXIII drowned in the Nile and Caesar restored Cleopatra toher throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV asher new co-ruler. Although Cleopatra was 21 years old when they met andCaesar was 52, they became lovers during Caesar’s stay inEgypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. Cleopatra claimed Caesarwas the father of her son and wished him to name the boy hisheir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grandnephew Octavianinstead. The relationship between Cleopatra and Caesar wasobvious to the Roman people and it was a scandal, becausethe Roman dictator was already married toCalpurnia Pisonis.But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatrarepresented as Isis in the temple of Venus Genetrix.
Cleopatra and mark antoni After Civil War In 41 BC, Mark Antony, at that time in dispute with Caesars adopted son Octavian over the succession to the Roman leadership, began both a political and romantic alliance with Cleopatra. They subsequently had three children - two sons and a daughter. In 31 BC, Mark Antony and Cleopatra combined armies to take on Octavians forces in a great sea battle at Actium, on the west coast of Greece. Octavian was victorious and Cleopatra and Mark Antony fled to Egypt. Octavian pursued them and captured Alexandria in 30 BC. With his soldiers deserting him, Mark Antony took his own life and Cleopatra chose the same course, committing suicide on 12 August 30 BC. Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire.
Cleopatra’s death The ancient sources, particularly the Roman ones, are in general agreement that Cleopatra killed herself by inducing an Egyptian cobra to bite her.