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Physical Fitness Analysis of Aerobic Process

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Physical Fitness Analysis of Aerobic Process

  1. 1. 13 April 2014 Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
  2. 2. Page  2 Physical Work Capacity Physical Work Capacity defined as the in watts specified mechanical power of a man at a defined heart rate Aerobic capacity - the maximum amount of oxygen that the body can utilize during an exercise session The aerobic capacity also known as VO2 max (volume of oxygen maximum) 3 April 2014 2Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
  3. 3. Page  3 The more people exercise, the more efficient the process becomes, and the more oxygen the body can utilize, they can work at a higher level of intensity, and their endurance also tends to be extended A warm up period in which physiological processes adjust to meet the new demands and the work rate increases steadily until a steady state is reached The total physiological cost of work includes “the energy expenditure” during both the working and the recovery period when work finishes Physical Work Capacity 3 April 2014 3Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 2014
  4. 4. Page  4 →Moderate physical work should cause heart rate to increase by no more than 40 beats/min →Heart rate is measured between 30 s and 1 min after the cessation of work and again between 2.5 and 3 min →The first reading should not exceed 110 beat/min and the second reading should be less by at least 20 beats/min →Thermal stress anxiety, ingestion of coffee, tobacco smoking, and working after a heavy meal HR Recovery Intensity Rate 3 April 2014 4Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 2014
  5. 5. Page  5 →Time of the day, food intake, etc. →The cardiac stress index (CSI) is given by →Differences in age and differences in resting heart rate →It can be used to identify how work demands vary and highlight stressful period or tasks. Cardiac Stress Index 3 April 2014 5Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 2014
  6. 6. Page  6 Basal Metabolic Rate 6Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 20143 April 2014 →BMR is the rate of energy consumption necessary to maintain →The decreasing BMR with age is one of the reasons for adult “middle age spread” →The BMR can drop by about 20% in chronically malnourished. →PWC depend primarily on the energy available to the worker and oxygen and sum of the energy provided by oxygen dependent and oxygen independent processes →The rate of energy consumption during physical work is the sum of basal energy consumption and the metabolic cost of the work in the terms of energy consumption
  7. 7. Page  7 individuals can work for 8 hrs at a rate of 30- 50% of their maximum capacity two workers have VO2 max values of 6 and 2 L of Oxygen/min, respectively and the task requires the expenditure of two L of Oxygen/min The first worker will have a greater work capacity because he will be able to work comfortably all day at only 33% of his VO2 max The second worker will be required to work at 100% of VO2 max and will tend to utilize oxygen independent process VO2 Max and Industrial Work 3 April 2014 7Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 2014
  8. 8. Page  8 Measurement of Physiological Work No. Parameters Instruments Used 1 Oxygen consumption Direct calorimetry Indirect calorimetry Closed circuit Benedicts-Roth Spirometer Open circuit Douglas bag Oxygen analyzer Oxylog 2 Energy Expenditure Bicycle Ergometer Treadmill Running Step-stool 3 April 2014 8Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 2014
  9. 9. Page  9 Instruments Used for Oxygen Consumption Direct Calorimeter A bomb calorimeter is used to determine the energy value of foods 3 April 2014 9 Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 2014
  10. 10. Page  10 Indirect Calorimeter Human calorimeter used to measure Heat production Instruments Used for Oxygen Consumption 3 April 2014 10Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 2014
  11. 11. Page  11 Closed Circuit Spirometer used to measure oxygen consumption Instruments Used for Oxygen Consumption 3 April 2014 11Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 2014
  12. 12. Page  12 Open Circuit Instruments Used for Oxygen Consumption 3 April 2014 123 April 2014
  13. 13. Page  13 →The measurement of oxygen uptake using the Douglas bag →The rate of energy expenditure can be calculated. →The „Oxylog measures the volume of inspired air as it passes through A turbine flow meter in A mask placed over the subject‟s nose and face →Harrison et al. (1982) report that the Oxylog is sufficiently accurate to yield reliable estimates of oxygen uptake in the working environment. Instruments Used for Oxygen Consumption 3 April 2014 13Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 2014
  14. 14. Page  14 Oxygen Analyzer Precision measuring device for the determination of oxygen traces in inert and process gases Instruments Used for Oxygen Consumption 3 April 2014 14Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities 3 April 2014
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  23. 23. 1. The Queens College Step Test 2. Harvard’s Step test 3. Modified Harvard’s Step test 3 April 2014 23Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
  24. 24. Advantages – Low cost for equipment – Ease of portability – Permanent calibration – The fact that stepping is a natural activity. – Some tests can be also be self-administered. 3 April 2014 24Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
  25. 25. Disadvantages: −As biomechanical characteristics vary between individuals, a high step height may disadvantage shorter people, underestimating their aerobic fitness. −Testing large groups will be time consuming. −It is sometimes difficult for the subject to maintain an exact pace set by a metronome or other device −It is difficult to take some physiological measurements if they are required (e.g., Heart rate, blood pressure). 3 April 2014 25Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
  26. 26. This test is a multi-workload The objective is to obtain two heart rates between 110 and 150 bpm. The RPM is 50 for all workloads. The workloads are for 3 min each and the pulse should be determined during the last 5 sec of each workload while still pedalling, If the desired heart rate is not achieved, go directly to the next workload and follow the same procedure After obtaining two heart rates between 110-150, the VO2 max is determined using the graphical method as explained in class. 3 April 2014 26Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
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  28. 28. Advantages Cycle ergometer is portable and less expensive Upper body movement is minimal − easier to measure exercise heart rate and blood pressure More applicable for measuring cycling performance 3 April 2014 28Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
  29. 29. The assistant weighs and records the athlete's weight •The athlete warms up for 10 minutes •The assistant sets the initial cycle work rate kg-m/min •This setting should raise the athlete‟s heart rate to 130-160bpm after 2 minutes cycling at 60rpm •The assistant gives the command “GO” and starts the stopwatch 3 April 2014 29Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
  30. 30. •The athlete pedals at 60rpm for 6 minutes whilst maintaining their heart rate between 130-160bpm •The assistant records the athlete‟s heart rate each minute •After 2 minutes - if the athlete‟s heart rate is not in the target range of 130-160bpm then the assistant adjusts the work rate wattage accordingly •The assistant stops the test after 6 minutes and records the final work rate wattage 3 April 2014 30Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
  31. 31. Advantages •Minimal equipment required •Simple to set up and conduct Disadvantages •Specialist equipment required •Assistant required to administer the test 3 April 2014 31Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
  32. 32. Page  32 1. Sex 2. Age 3. Size 4. Weight 5. Lean body mass 6. Bed rest 7. Altitude 8. Geography Factors Affecting VO2 Max 3 April 2014 32 Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
  33. 33. Page  33 A VO2 Max Test is a measurement that reflects a person‟s ability to perform sustained exercise. It is generally considered the best indicator of cardiovascular fitness and aerobic endurance. A complete VO2 Fitness test can give trainers and clients the tools to set realistic goals and assess improvement. Studies show that sedentary people can improve VO2 max by over twenty percent when they begin a running program of 25 miles per week. Conclusion 3 April 2014 33Different Methods of Analyzing of Aerobic Capacities
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