Proposal Chater 1 and 2 (literature)


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Proposal Chater 1 and 2 (literature)

  1. 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background and Reason of Choosing the Title Literature is the work of human who uses his/her language as a means of their understanding both oral and written to express what their feeling which beautiful and also soulful readers. Some form of literary works there are such as poems, drama, novels and films or movie. And literature is not only divided into two genres, but it is also divided into three groups: oral literature, literary writing and electronic literature, and film is the once of many samples of electronic literature. Electronic literature is a creation which made from a digital process, because film or movie is an association of many pictures that can make many motions or sounds to express some feeling of the story and also to send a message what they want mean to the people who watch that film. Film also can be the one of many kinds of cultural tools which created by the specific culture and reflect those cultures, in turn, affect who watch it. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment which has a big powerful method for educating and also for indoctrinating for human. There are many instances can be a background for making a film, it used to express a history which related with the real condition of human life in modern era, it was called a historical film, and America is the biggest state in the world which produced many films and the films is created by its film industrial named Hollywood. 1
  2. 2. 2 But lately, there is a film which made to remember the biggest conspiracy that changed the future of America, it based on the truth story about the shocking assassination of the first American president Abraham Lincoln, under the title “Killing Lincoln”. Film “Killing Lincoln” is taken from the best seller book of Billy O‟relly and Martin Dougards which the authors want to recount the most dramatic tragedy about how can one gun can changed American history forever. This film tells about the journey of John Wilkes Booths, the killer of president to escape from the military hunting and intelligence staff, and this film also tells about his reason why must the president killed by his own gun. The tragedy of Lincoln‟s assassination is located at Ford‟s theater in Washington in 14 April 1865, John Wilkes Booths is decide to kill Lincoln at that place but what he want is not only a killing but also to decapitate the government, to carry out his action he calls the confederate agent Lewis Powell and David Herold to kill the secretary of the state who name is William Seward in other location, and George Azterodt ordered by him to meet the vice president. 1.2. Statement of the Problem Through this paper, this film has a big value for a history of America, that was a reason why the writers choose this movie to be a material of this scientific writing, the big result is the first president of America was killed by a person, his name is John Wilkes Booths who has against the president‟s idealism to make America is a liberty state, and consider the enslavement law of black man (negro).
  3. 3. 3 Abraham Lincoln is the first president in United States of America, he is the unifier of the union, he was come from Illinois as a farmer, but he has a strong desire to learn the law, and afterwards he become a lawyer and also a the first president of America. 1.3. Scope of the Problem This paper limits its discussion on analysing about the history of the shocking assassination of the first president of America, and the journey of the killer John Wilkes Booths to escape the military manhunt. 1.4. Method and Procedures of the Analysis This paper uses descriptive qualitative method. The technique of collecting the necessary data and ground theory are through library research. The analyst starts from indentifying the history of Abraham Lincoln before dying by watching a film, and the reason of the killer by analysis the character by using the ground theory of character and history.
  4. 4. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW 2.1. Character Definition Character is one of many part from a drama or novel, it can be the most important thing that used for some authors to explain their story and also describe their mean in some story. The character is also the part of intrinsic element in the novel that is firstly explored by the writer because it takes essential role to display any behavior of each character in the novel. Referring to their degrees of playing role in the novel or movie, they can be grouped into two parts such as main and peripheral character. A character is a person depicted in a narrative or drama. Characters may be flat, minor characters; or round, and major. The main character in a story is generally known as the protagonist; the character who opposes him or her is the antagonist. Character is revealed by how a character responds to conflict, by his or her dialogue, and through descriptions. So, there are many characters that used with the authors to create a sphere between the peripheral character and the main character which is conduct to send a main message to the reader or movie viewer. A character occupies a strategic position to bring and convey message, moral or something that is purposely conveyed to the readers and movie viewer. As Abrams (1981:20) says that character is people presented in narrative work, or drama 4
  5. 5. 5 interpreted by the readers having moral quality and certain tendency as being expressed in what they say, and what they do. Describing as a representation of human being, characters of course have all the good traits and the bad traits of being human. A trait is a meaning of quality of mind or habitual mode of behavior. It is considered important to start the studying of characters by determining their traits first, for each character may have different traits. Sometimes, of course, the traits we encounter are minor and therefore negligible. But often a trait is a person‟s primary characteristic (not only in fiction but also in life). Thus, characters may be ambitious or lazy, serene or anxious, aggressive or fearful, thoughtful or inconsiderate, open or secretive, confident or self-doubting, kind or cruel, quite of noisy, visionary or practical, careful or careless, impartial or biased, straightforward or underhanded, „winners‟ or „losers‟, and so on. Characters also can be defined as “story doer” or characterization. It is a whole unity or correlation between a character and his/her characterization, because it is not rare when mentioning a name of a certain character directly signal us to his/her characterization. Stanton (1965:17) states that the use of character term itself in any English literature suggests two different definition, firstly as the characters of the story presented, and secondly as a behavior, attraction, willing, emotion, and moral principal that possessed by the characters. On the other hand, Edgar V. Roberts and Henry E. Jacobs (1195:135) explain other opinion on how author present their characters. Author use five ways to present their characters, such as :
  6. 6. 6 1. Actions What characters do is our best way to understand what they are. As with ordinary human being, fictional characters do not necessarily understand how they may be changing or why they do the things they do. Nevertheless, their actions express their characters. Actions may also signal qualities such as naïve, weakness, deceit, by scheming personality traits , and strong inner conflicts, or a realization or growth of some sort. 2. Description, both personal and environmental Appearance and environment reveal There are many cases about a character‟s social and economic status, but they also tell us more about character traits. 3. Dramatic statements and thoughts Although the speechless of most characters are functional –essential to keep the story moving along- they provide material from which you can draw conclusions. Often, characters use speech to hide their motives, though we as readers should see through such a ploy. 4. Statements by other characters By studying what characters say about each other, you can enhance your understanding of the character being discussed. Ironically, the characters doing the talking often indicate something other than what they intend, perhaps because of prejudice, stupidity, or foolishness. 5. Statements by the author speaking as storyteller or observer What the author, speaking with the authorial voice, says about a character is usually accurate, and the authorial voice can be accepted actually. However, when the
  7. 7. 7 authorial voice interprets actions and characteristics, the author himself or herself assumes the role of a reader or critic, and any options may be questioned. For this reason, authors frequently avoid. 2.2. Division of Characters According to Burhan Nurgiyantoro in his book Theory of fiction Assessment (1998: 176-191) based on some criteria, the difference of point of view, and observation, characters can be categorized as below : 2.2.1 Main Character and Peripheral Character Main character is classified important and kept on performing that it feels dominating the whole story. The narration of this character is considered as the most important in a novel concern. He is the most narrated character, whether as the hero or the one who is affected in the action. Even in certain novels, a main character always presents in every event and can be found in every page of the novel concern. Though his superiority values are not always the same, main character in a novel can be more than one. There are some characters that are presented only once or a couple of times in a story, and it may be in a relative short narration. These characters are called peripheral character. The appearance of peripheral in the whole story is less, not important, and he appears only if there is connection with the main character, directly or indirectly. 2.2.2. Protagonist Character and Antagonist Character Reading a novel, readers often identified themselves with certain characters, giving sympathy and empathy, involving themselves emotionally on those characters.
  8. 8. 8 Those characters are called protagonist. Therefore, a protagonist is a character that we adore which one of its kinds is popularly called hero a character that is norms manifestation, values, that is ideal for us. A fiction must consist of conflict and tension, especially conflict and tension experienced by protagonist character. Antagonist character can possibly be stated to be the opposite of protagonist character, directly or indirectly, either physically or physiologically. In other words, the antagonist is the character, force, or collection of forces that stands directly opposed the protagonist and gives rise to the conflict of the story. 2.2.3. Simple Character and Complex Character Simple character, in its origin form, is a character that only has certain individual quality, one certain character. As a human being character, any possibility of his life side is not revealed. He does not have any characteristic or behavior that can give any surprising effect to the readers. A simple character‟s behavior and characteristic is flat, monotone, and reflects only one certain character. Different with simple character, complex character is a character who has every possibility of life side and personality is revealed. He could have had a certain characteristic than can be formulated, but he can also present various characteristic and behavior, even can be in contradiction and hard to be guessed. Therefore, it is difficult his characterization precisely in general. Compared with simple character, complex character is more likely as a real human being, because besides having any possibility of behavior and action, he also gives surprise. So, complex character is
  9. 9. 9 more complicated to understand, less familiar because the character presented is not really known before. 2.2.4. Static Character and Developing Character Static character is a story character that essentially does not experience any challenging or developing characterization as the result of events happened. This character apparently less involved and not affected by any environment changing happened because of relationship among human being. He is similar to coral stone that is unshakeable though is rammed by the waves everyday. His behavior and characteristic are relative consonant, undeveloping, from the beginning to the end of the story. On the other side, developing character is a character that experienced changing and developing characterization in compliance with developing events and plot narrated. The changing that outside him, and the relationship among human being which are affected each other can possibly touch his soul and can cause the changing of his developing character and behavior. Thus, this character and behavior will change and develop from the beginning, middle, and the end of the story suitable with the whole coherence on the story. 2.2.5 Typical Character and Neutral Character Typical character is a character whose individually situation is less presented, but his nationality or works are more presented, or some other things that possibly more represent. It is a description and reflection of people, or a group as a part of one institute, which exist in real life.
  10. 10. 10 While neutral character is a character that only exists for the story itself. He is an imaginary character who lives and exists only in fiction. He presents or is presented only for the story; he could even be the storyteller, or the main character. His existence does not have any pretensions to represent or to describe something outside him, someone outside from real life. Or at least, readers experience difficulty to interpret it, due to the lack of evidences reflected from real life. 2.3. Definition of Characterization Every character have different traits in their own life‟s story, it called characterization. Characterization is one of the elements of character‟s personality that used to define who the character is. So, characterization is refers to character‟s personality or the method by, which the writer reveals the personality of the character. Characterization is divided into two parts such as below : 2.3.1. Direct Characterization Direct characterization is the traits that used by a writer when the writer want to tells the reader of novel or movie viewer directly about the character‟s personality. Example: “Novy was a kind, caring individual.” It means the writer or author wan to tell us what the character is like. 2.3.2. Indirect Characterization Direct characterization is the traits that used by a writer when the writer try to reveals a character‟s personality through his/her actions or dialogue. Example: “Novy felt so sad when she saw the hurt little hamster that she began to cry. She immediately approached it to help it get better. “ It means the author or writer want to show us what the character like.
  11. 11. 11 2.4. Historical Perspective Definition Historical Perspective is the way for someone to look at something that taking into consideration all of the things that have happened with that thing in the past time. Historical is taken from the basic word history. Meanwhile historical perspective is belonging to the past, and perspective is the way for someone of thinking about something.