1.1. Background and Reason of Choosing the Title
Literature is the work of human who uses his/her language as a means of
their understanding both oral and written to express what their feeling which beautiful
and also soulful readers. Some form of literary works there are such as poems,
drama, novels and films or movie. And literature is not only divided into two genres,
but it is also divided into three groups: oral literature, literary writing and electronic
literature, and film is the once of many samples of electronic literature.
Electronic literature is a creation which made from a digital process, because
film or movie is an association of many pictures that can make many motions or
sounds to express some feeling of the story and also to send a message what they
want mean to the people who watch that film. Film also can be the one of many kinds
of cultural tools which created by the specific culture and reflect those cultures, in
turn, affect who watch it. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of
popular entertainment which has a big powerful method for educating and also for
indoctrinating for human.
There are many instances can be a background for making a film, it used to
express a history which related with the real condition of human life in modern era, it
was called a historical film, and America is the biggest state in the world which
produced many films and the films is created by its film industrial named Hollywood.
But lately, there is a film which made to remember the biggest conspiracy that
changed the future of America, it based on the truth story about the shocking
assassination of the first American president Abraham Lincoln, under the title
Film “Killing Lincoln” is taken from the best seller book of Billy O‟relly and
Martin Dougards which the authors want to recount the most dramatic tragedy about
how can one gun can changed American history forever. This film tells about the
journey of John Wilkes Booths, the killer of president to escape from the military
hunting and intelligence staff, and this film also tells about his reason why must the
president killed by his own gun.
The tragedy of Lincoln‟s assassination is located at Ford‟s theater in
Washington in 14 April 1865, John Wilkes Booths is decide to kill Lincoln at that
place but what he want is not only a killing but also to decapitate the government, to
carry out his action he calls the confederate agent Lewis Powell and David Herold to
kill the secretary of the state who name is William Seward in other location, and
George Azterodt ordered by him to meet the vice president.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
Through this paper, this film has a big value for a history of America, that was
a reason why the writers choose this movie to be a material of this scientific writing,
the big result is the first president of America was killed by a person, his name is
John Wilkes Booths who has against the president‟s idealism to make America is a
liberty state, and consider the enslavement law of black man (negro).
Abraham Lincoln is the first president in United States of America, he is the
unifier of the union, he was come from Illinois as a farmer, but he has a strong desire
to learn the law, and afterwards he become a lawyer and also a the first president of
1.3. Scope of the Problem
This paper limits its discussion on analysing about the history of the shocking
assassination of the first president of America, and the journey of the killer John
Wilkes Booths to escape the military manhunt.
1.4. Method and Procedures of the Analysis
This paper uses descriptive qualitative method. The technique of collecting
the necessary data and ground theory are through library research. The analyst starts
from indentifying the history of Abraham Lincoln before dying by watching a film,
and the reason of the killer by analysis the character by using the ground theory of
character and history.
2.1. Character Definition
Character is one of many part from a drama or novel, it can be the most
important thing that used for some authors to explain their story and also describe
their mean in some story. The character is also the part of intrinsic element in the
novel that is firstly explored by the writer because it takes essential role to display
any behavior of each character in the novel. Referring to their degrees of playing role
in the novel or movie, they can be grouped into two parts such as main and peripheral
A character is a person depicted in a narrative or drama. Characters may be
flat, minor characters; or round, and major. The main character in a story is generally
known as the protagonist; the character who opposes him or her is the antagonist.
Character is revealed by how a character responds to conflict, by his or her dialogue,
and through descriptions. So, there are many characters that used with the authors to
create a sphere between the peripheral character and the main character which is
conduct to send a main message to the reader or movie viewer.
A character occupies a strategic position to bring and convey message, moral
or something that is purposely conveyed to the readers and movie viewer. As Abrams
(1981:20) says that character is people presented in narrative work, or drama
interpreted by the readers having moral quality and certain tendency as being
expressed in what they say, and what they do.
Describing as a representation of human being, characters of course have all
the good traits and the bad traits of being human. A trait is a meaning of quality of
mind or habitual mode of behavior. It is considered important to start the studying of
characters by determining their traits first, for each character may have different
traits. Sometimes, of course, the traits we encounter are minor and therefore
negligible. But often a trait is a person‟s primary characteristic (not only in fiction but
also in life). Thus, characters may be ambitious or lazy, serene or anxious, aggressive
or fearful, thoughtful or inconsiderate, open or secretive, confident or self-doubting,
kind or cruel, quite of noisy, visionary or practical, careful or careless, impartial or
biased, straightforward or underhanded, „winners‟ or „losers‟, and so on.
Characters also can be defined as “story doer” or characterization. It is a
whole unity or correlation between a character and his/her characterization, because
it is not rare when mentioning a name of a certain character directly signal us to
his/her characterization. Stanton (1965:17) states that the use of character term itself
in any English literature suggests two different definition, firstly as the characters of
the story presented, and secondly as a behavior, attraction, willing, emotion, and
moral principal that possessed by the characters.
On the other hand, Edgar V. Roberts and Henry E. Jacobs (1195:135) explain
other opinion on how author present their characters. Author use five ways to present
their characters, such as :
What characters do is our best way to understand what they are. As with ordinary
human being, fictional characters do not necessarily understand how they may be
changing or why they do the things they do. Nevertheless, their actions express their
characters. Actions may also signal qualities such as naïve, weakness, deceit, by
scheming personality traits , and strong inner conflicts, or a realization or growth of
2. Description, both personal and environmental Appearance and environment reveal
There are many cases about a character‟s social and economic status, but they also
tell us more about character traits.
3. Dramatic statements and thoughts
Although the speechless of most characters are functional –essential to keep the story
moving along- they provide material from which you can draw conclusions. Often,
characters use speech to hide their motives, though we as readers should see through
such a ploy.
4. Statements by other characters
By studying what characters say about each other, you can enhance your
understanding of the character being discussed. Ironically, the characters doing the
talking often indicate something other than what they intend, perhaps because of
prejudice, stupidity, or foolishness.
5. Statements by the author speaking as storyteller or observer
What the author, speaking with the authorial voice, says about a character is usually
accurate, and the authorial voice can be accepted actually. However, when the
authorial voice interprets actions and characteristics, the author himself or herself
assumes the role of a reader or critic, and any options may be questioned. For this
reason, authors frequently avoid.
2.2. Division of Characters
According to Burhan Nurgiyantoro in his book Theory of fiction Assessment
(1998: 176-191) based on some criteria, the difference of point of view, and
observation, characters can be categorized as below :
2.2.1 Main Character and Peripheral Character
Main character is classified important and kept on performing that it feels
dominating the whole story. The narration of this character is considered as the most
important in a novel concern. He is the most narrated character, whether as the hero
or the one who is affected in the action. Even in certain novels, a main character
always presents in every event and can be found in every page of the novel concern.
Though his superiority values are not always the same, main character in a novel can
be more than one.
There are some characters that are presented only once or a couple of times in
a story, and it may be in a relative short narration. These characters are called
peripheral character. The appearance of peripheral in the whole story is less, not
important, and he appears only if there is connection with the main character, directly
2.2.2. Protagonist Character and Antagonist Character
Reading a novel, readers often identified themselves with certain characters,
giving sympathy and empathy, involving themselves emotionally on those characters.
Those characters are called protagonist. Therefore, a protagonist is a character that we
adore which one of its kinds is popularly called hero a character that is norms
manifestation, values, that is ideal for us.
A fiction must consist of conflict and tension, especially conflict and tension
experienced by protagonist character. Antagonist character can possibly be stated to
be the opposite of protagonist character, directly or indirectly, either physically or
physiologically. In other words, the antagonist is the character, force, or collection of
forces that stands directly opposed the protagonist and gives rise to the conflict of the
2.2.3. Simple Character and Complex Character
Simple character, in its origin form, is a character that only has certain
individual quality, one certain character. As a human being character, any possibility
of his life side is not revealed. He does not have any characteristic or behavior that
can give any surprising effect to the readers. A simple character‟s behavior and
characteristic is flat, monotone, and reflects only one certain character.
Different with simple character, complex character is a character who has
every possibility of life side and personality is revealed. He could have had a certain
characteristic than can be formulated, but he can also present various characteristic
and behavior, even can be in contradiction and hard to be guessed. Therefore, it is
difficult his characterization precisely in general. Compared with simple character,
complex character is more likely as a real human being, because besides having any
possibility of behavior and action, he also gives surprise. So, complex character is
more complicated to understand, less familiar because the character presented is not
really known before.
2.2.4. Static Character and Developing Character
Static character is a story character that essentially does not experience any
challenging or developing characterization as the result of events happened. This
character apparently less involved and not affected by any environment changing
happened because of relationship among human being. He is similar to coral stone
that is unshakeable though is rammed by the waves everyday. His behavior and
characteristic are relative consonant, undeveloping, from the beginning to the end of
On the other side, developing character is a character that experienced
changing and developing characterization in compliance with developing events and
plot narrated. The changing that outside him, and the relationship among human
being which are affected each other can possibly touch his soul and can cause the
changing of his developing character and behavior. Thus, this character and behavior
will change and develop from the beginning, middle, and the end of the story suitable
with the whole coherence on the story.
2.2.5 Typical Character and Neutral Character
Typical character is a character whose individually situation is less presented,
but his nationality or works are more presented, or some other things that possibly
more represent. It is a description and reflection of people, or a group as a part of one
institute, which exist in real life.
While neutral character is a character that only exists for the story itself. He is
an imaginary character who lives and exists only in fiction. He presents or is
presented only for the story; he could even be the storyteller, or the main character.
His existence does not have any pretensions to represent or to describe something
outside him, someone outside from real life. Or at least, readers experience difficulty
to interpret it, due to the lack of evidences reflected from real life.
2.3. Definition of Characterization
Every character have different traits in their own life‟s story, it called
characterization. Characterization is one of the elements of character‟s personality
that used to define who the character is. So, characterization is refers to character‟s
personality or the method by, which the writer reveals the personality of the
character. Characterization is divided into two parts such as below :
2.3.1. Direct Characterization
Direct characterization is the traits that used by a writer when the writer want
to tells the reader of novel or movie viewer directly about the character‟s personality.
Example: “Novy was a kind, caring individual.” It means the writer or author wan to
tell us what the character is like.
2.3.2. Indirect Characterization
Direct characterization is the traits that used by a writer when the writer try to
reveals a character‟s personality through his/her actions or dialogue. Example: “Novy
felt so sad when she saw the hurt little hamster that she began to cry. She
immediately approached it to help it get better. “ It means the author or writer want to
show us what the character like.
2.4. Historical Perspective Definition
Historical Perspective is the way for someone to look at something that taking
into consideration all of the things that have happened with that thing in the past time.
Historical is taken from the basic word history. Meanwhile historical perspective is
belonging to the past, and perspective is the way for someone of thinking about