世界都市 森林再生 資源開発 国土軸 世界都市 国土開発軸 A reforestation exploitation of resources country axis world city Country development axis
We facilitate discussions in this manner in the stakeholder workshops. First, where are we now? This is important question to recognize the reality of the situation of their city. For this question, we, the consultant team provided diagnostic analysis and comparative advantages. The second question is where would we like to be? This calls for participants’ visioning their city in the future. This question is rather difficult to clearly answer. The third question is what issues do we need to address? Since the participants are facing some problems in their city lives, they can easily demonstrate their project ideas. However, the most difficult question is the next one: What action must we take to get there? At present, we are progressing up to the third question.
One of the major changes taking place today is the shift of government functions from the historic “provider” of public services to the “manager of providers” of public services . Taking into consideration the financial viability dominated by inherent characteristics of rail transit development versus government’s limited fiscal situation, URMAP recommended to adopt a PPP-based delivery system. In the system, public sector should share part of initial costs and remain responsible for overall project management, whilst private sector should share the remaining costs for completing the system, and operate and maintain the system after completion. The basic rationale for this change is that when properly implemented, it results in significant benefits, in terms of improved performance and lower costs, to both the government and to the public being serviced. Essentially, it is a shift from a monopoly government provider to a competitive environment. PPP is a broader concept covering PFI, Privatization, Outsourcing, Concession, Joint Venture, Sales Leaseback, Wider Market Initiative , etc. However, what I am presenting is the concept more akin to PFI / Huviin sankhuujiltiin sanaachlaga/ in UK.
Here, I will touch on the VFM maximization by PPP. Obviously, VFM implies the value of public services against the tax money input . More specifically, VFM is measured as the difference of probable total public spending between the two implementation cases under conventional public initiative and PPP. The former public spending is measured as Public Sector Comparators - PSC in terms of Net Present Value, including risk cost, repair / renewal cost, operation / maintenance cost, and construction cost. Whilst, the latter public spending is measured as Life Cycle Cost - LCC in terms of Net present Value, including project formation cost and total service charges. The difference between PSC and LCC is VFM. According to the experiences in UK, average 15 to 17 percent of VFM was produced from the application of PFI.
Intro to urban planning mon
The Study on City Master Plan and Urban Development Program of Ulaanbaatar City (UBMPS) Intensive Learning Session on Urban Planning under Market Economy Õîò òºëºâëºëò òàíèëöóóëãà 2007 îíû 7-ð ñàðûí 24 Äîêòîð. Ê. Íàãàÿìà ÆÀÉÊÀ-ãèéí ñóäàëãààíû áàãèéí äýä àõëàãч 1