The name reflection cracking indicates that the crack is initiated by action in the underlying layers that produce stresses in the asphalt pavement surface which exceed the strength of the materials. The textbook definition of reflection cracking at joints is “ cracks in asphalt concrete overlay surfaces that occur over joints in concrete pavements. ” But a more general definition of reflection cracking is: Cracks in the asphalt overlay that reflect the crack pattern in the pavement structure underneath
Bleeding or flushing, as it is sometimes called, is most often caused by too much asphalt in one or more of the pavement layers. A surface treatment that had too high an application rate, or that has lost its cover aggregate may also be responsible. Spillage of oils on the pavement can force the asphalt to the surface, as well.
Common asphalt pavement distresses treatments 02272013 eng
滑移裂缝 Slippage cracking 病害描述 Description 在刹车、转弯、加速路段出现的的 U 型开裂 U-shaped cracks in areas of braking, turning, accelerating. 可能的原因 Possible Causes 沥青表面层与其下卧层间的粘结力差 Poor bond between asphalt surface and underlying layer 病害处治 Cures 局部修补 Localized patching
车辙 Rutting 可能的原因 Possible Causes 施工过程中沥青混合料压实不足 Insufficient compaction of HMA layers during construction. (If it is not compacted enough initially, HMA pavement may continue to densify under traffic loads.) 路面承载不足致使路基出现车辙 Subgrade rutting (e.g., as a result of inadequate pavement structure) 沥青混合料设计或生产不正确 （如沥青含量过高、粉料过多 、规则集料量不足） Improper mix design or manufacture (e.g., excessively high asphalt content, excessive mineral filler, insufficient amount of angular aggregate particles)
推挤 / 拥包 Shoving and Corrugation 可能的原因 Possible Causes 不稳定的沥青混合料层 An unstable (i.e. low stiffness) HMA layer (caused by mix contamination, poor mix design, poor HMA manufacturing, or lack of aeration of liquid asphalt emulsions) 路基湿度过大 Excessive moisture in the subgrade 层间移动滑移 Slippage between layers
推挤 / 拥包 Shoving and Corrugation 病害处治 Cures 局部修补 ( 挖除和填补 ) Localized patching （ Remove the distorted pavement and patch ） 铣刨和重铺 Milling and Overlay （ Remove the damaged pavement and overlay ）
泛油 Bleeding 可能的原因 Possible Causes 沥青混合料沥青含量过高 ( 沥青混凝土路面） Excessive asphalt binder in the HMA (either due to mix design or manufacturing) 沥青洒布量过大 （沥青表处路面） Excessive application of asphalt binder during BST application 沥青混合料孔隙率过低 Low HMA air void content (e.g., not enough room for the asphalt to expand into during hot weather)
泛油 Bleeding 病害处治 Cures 碎石封层 Seal coat or Double chip seal 稀浆封层 Slurry seal 微表处 Micro Surfacing 热拌沥青混合料薄层罩面 Thin hot-mix overlay
松散 Raveling 可能的原因 Possible Causes 骨料颗粒和沥青之间缺乏粘结力（原因：骨料含尘 量大、骨料离析、施工过程中压实不够） Loss of bond between aggregate particles and the asphalt binder as a result of: A dust coating on the aggregate particles that forces the asphalt binder to bond with the dust rather than the aggregate. Aggregate Segregation. Inadequate compaction during construction.
松散 Raveling 病害处治 Cures 局部修补（挖除和修补 ） Localized patching (Remove the raveled pavement and patch) 雾封层 Fog seal 碎石封层 Seal coat or Double chip seal 稀浆封层 Slurry seal 微表处 Micro Surfacing 热拌沥青混合料薄层罩面 Thin hot-mix overlay