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Asphalt mongolian

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Asphalt mongolian

  1. 1. Asphalt PrinciplesFebruary 2012
  2. 2. Course Objectives To provide participants with an overview of asphalt surfacing types and their application
  3. 3. Learning Objectives Participants will develop an understanding of: – Asphalt surfacing design and selection – Asphalt principles and practice
  4. 4. Course Outline The session will cover: – Basic Principles of Asphalt – Use and Types of Asphalt – Asphalt Mix Design – Asphalt Production – Treatment Selection
  5. 5. Basic Principles of Asphalt Engineered material comprising of Bitumen, aggregate, filler and air voids. Has engineering properties that can be used for design. Asphalt is produced according to asphalt mix designs (recipes) based on raw materials Asphalt is typically produced as a hot material, approx 160oC, and placed as a hot material at >90oC
  6. 6. 1. Basic Principles of AsphaltPerformance Requirements of Asphalt Resistance to permanent deformation (ie rutting) Resistance to fatigue Durable Workable (for placement) Good Skid resistance. Specialist mixes that have added performance properties such as low noise, low spray generation, or increased resistance to cracking or rutting
  7. 7. 1. Basic Principles of Asphalt - Binder Binder is the ‘glue’ that holds all of the asphalt mix components together. Can be Class 170, 320, 600 or multigrade bitumen. Class 320 most commonly used Can include polymer modified binders to enhance the performance properties of the bitumen and is commonly used in high performance mixes such as SMA and OGA
  8. 8. 1. Basic Principles of Asphalt - Aggregate Coarse aggregate ( larger than 4.75mm) Fine aggregate (between 4.75mm and 0.075mm) Less than 0.075mm material is called “filler” Aggregates need to be hard, clean and durable rock with minimal unsound stone VicRoads Specification 407 and 831 cover the various requirements for asphalt aggregates
  9. 9. 1. Basic Principles of Asphalt - Filler Filler materials are particles that are smaller than 0.075mm. Can include – natural or manufactured sand – crushed material (crusher dust) – hydrated Lime, Slag, Fly ash, ground limestone, cement, kiln dust The actual filler materials vary between mixes and rely on the mix design and available materials
  10. 10. 2. Use and Types of AsphaltUse of Asphalt Structural part of the pavement – deep lift asphalt, typically >150mm depth Wearing (top) surface of the pavement – typically <40mm Patching of failed pavement areas Regulation to improve ride quality and remove depressions
  11. 11. 2. Use and Types of AsphaltTypes of Asphalt Hot asphalt, cold asphalt, warm mix, warmix and premix Asphalt for wearing surfaces Asphalt for structural layers Various sizes of asphalt mix -7mm, 10mm, 14mm, 20mm, 28mm Binders – Bitumen, Emulsion, Polymer Modified Binder
  12. 12. 2. Use and Types of AsphaltTypes of Asphalt Different types of asphalt wearing surfaces – DGA Dense Graded Asphalt – SMA Stone Mastic Asphalt – OGA Open Graded Asphalt – UTA Ultra Thin Asphalt (UTA, Novachip) – RGG Regulation Gap Graded Asphalt
  13. 13. Austroads Asphalt Guide
  14. 14. 2. Use and Types of Asphalt Dense Graded Asphalt – Most common asphalt type – Dense, continuously graded aggregates and filler – Used for structural layers in asphalt pavements (Types SI, SS and SF) – Used for Wearing courses on both granular and asphalt pavements (Types H, V and HP)
  15. 15. Dense Graded Asphalt
  16. 16. 2. Use and Types of Asphalt Stone Mastic Asphalt – Uses gap graded aggregates with a larger proportion of coarse aggregates that interlocks give a strong interlocked matrix – Includes fibres and a Polymer modified binder – Used as a wearing course only – Provides a strong and robust surfacing that has increased resistance to rutting and cracking.
  17. 17. Stone Mastic Asphalt
  18. 18. 2. Use and Types of Asphalt Open Graded Asphalt – Wearing course only – Uses predominantly coarse aggregates and small amounts of fine material – Provides a mix with a high volume of air voids – Used as a textured, porous surfacing that assists with noise and spray reduction – Used almost exclusively on Freeways – Expected life up to about 12 years
  19. 19. Open Graded Asphalt
  20. 20. 2. Use and Types of Asphalt Ultra Thin Asphalt – Used as a wearing course only – Similar properties to OGA but to a lesser extent – Developed to be placed in thin layers (typically 25mm) – Used where an asphalt surface is desirable but levels are an issue, (Kerb and chanel or an as alternative to sprayed seal surfacing – Expected life 10-12 years
  21. 21. Ultra Thin Asphalt
  22. 22. 2. Use and Types of Asphalt Regulation Gap Graded Asphalt Primarily used as a regulation layer to even out surface roughness prior resurfacing Increased binder content and gap graded aggregate Has greater workability and can be placed in very thin layers and ramped or feathered out to zero depth
  23. 23. Gap Graded Asphalt
  24. 24. 2. Use and Types of AsphaltTypes of Asphalt Different types of DGA asphalt for structural layers – Type SI Structural Intermediate • Multipurpose for heavy duty pavements, or base course for medium duty pavements • Type SP Structural PMB (intermediate layer) • High resistance to deformation at very heavily trafficked intersections – Type SS Structural Intermediate for Stiffness • Stiffness layer for large scale heavy duty asphalt pavement – Type SF Structural Fatigue • Fatigue resistant base course for heavy duty pavements (must be covered by 100mm of other asphalt)
  25. 25. 3. Asphalt Mix Design Mix design undertaken by Asphalt production company. Selection of “Ingredients” – Aggregate type – Filler material – Aggregate grading – Binder type & Content
  26. 26. 3. Asphalt Mix Design Source : AAPA
  27. 27. 3. Asphalt Mix DesignVicRoads Registration System Contractual requirement of all VicRoads Contracts that mix designs used on VicRoads works must be Registered. Mixes can be registered as: – General Mix • Complies with VicRoads Standard Specifications. – Non Standard Mix • Proprietary and other mixes that do not comply in all respects with the requirements of this Code of Practice but where successful field trials have been undertaken for a period of at least three years and the mix performance continues to be closely monitored.
  28. 28. 3. Asphalt Mix DesignVicRoads Registration System – Experimental Mix – • A mix that does not comply with the requirements of this Code of Practice and for which there is little or no history of successful performance and requires more trials to be undertaken and monitored before it is registered as a Non Standard or Conditional mix. – Conditional Mix – • Mixes which do not comply in all respects with the requirements of Standard Specifications but which are considered appropriate for use subject to conditions attached to the registration.
  29. 29. 3. Asphalt Mix DesignVicRoads Registration System – Superseded Mix • Superseded by another registered mix but details are retained for record purposes. – Withdrawn Mix • Withdrawn from use because of unsatisfactory field performance but details are retained for record purposes.
  30. 30. 3. Asphalt Mix DesignVicRoads Registration System All mix designs reviewed and recorded by Technical Consulting and stored in a database. Registrations last for two years and must be renewed New mix designs required if any of the components change Mixes registered as General should only be used unless advice is sought from Technical Consulting. Database contains commercially sensitive information and should not be distributed.
  31. 31. 4. Asphalt Production
  32. 32. 4. Asphalt Production
  33. 33. Batch Plant Figure from Austroads ‘Asphalt Guide, 2002’
  34. 34. 4. Asphalt Production
  35. 35. Drum Plant Figure from Austroads ‘Asphalt Guide, 2002’
  36. 36. Mobile Drum Mixing Plant
  37. 37. Binder Storage Tanks
  38. 38. Cold Feed Storage Bins
  39. 39. Mechanical Sampling Device
  40. 40. Asphalt Laboratory
  41. 41. Solvent Extraction
  42. 42. Ignition Oven
  43. 43. 5. Treatment SelectionWearing Courses DGA Type L very lightly trafficked pavements, <500AADT DGA Type N light to medium duty, <3000AADT DGA Type H heavy duty, >3000AADT DGA Type HP heavy duty, cracked area >3000AADT DGA Type V signalised intersections, roundabouts, >5000AADT
  44. 44. 5. Treatment Selection Wearing Courses SMA improved crack resistance, high texture, rut resistance SMAN for midblock, SMAH for intersections OGA reduced water spray and noise, high texture high speed facilities, multiple lanes UTA increased texture, flexible, shorter service life
  45. 45. Blackburn Road, midblock, 60kph,medium traffic, low HV
  46. 46. Stud Road, intersection, 80kph,heavy traffic, 10% HV
  47. 47. Westernport Highway, roundabout, 80kph,heavy traffic, 15% HV
  48. 48. Holland Road,roundabout, 50kph, low traffic, low HV
  49. 49. FGR, midblock,80kph, heavy traffic, 15% HV
  50. 50. Sesame St, midblock,60kph, low traffic, low HV
  51. 51. Eastern Fwy, midblock, 100kph,heavy traffic, 10% HV
  52. 52. DVH, midblock, 70kph,medium traffic, high HV
  53. 53. Westernport Hwy Road, midblock,100kph, medium traffic, high HV
  54. 54. Westernport Hwy Road, midblock,100kph, medium traffic, high HV
  55. 55. References Austroads/AAPA Work Tips (www.aapa.asn.au) APRG Technical Notes VicRoads Technical Notes Austroads – Pavement Technology Series – 4B: Asphalt Australian Standards VicRoads, Standard Specification for Roadworks and Bridgeworks

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