How To Teach Intro


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Powerpoint overview of the book "How To Teach So Students Remember"

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How To Teach Intro

  1. 1. How to Teach so Students Remember Book Study: Fall 2009 Angela Johns Instructional Facilitator Marilee Sprenger
  2. 2. Just for Laughs
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where you’re going so that you better understand where you are now so that the steps you take are always in the right direction.” </li></ul><ul><li>~Stephen Covey </li></ul><ul><li>The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People (98) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Before you take a step, step back
  5. 5. Marshmallow Test
  6. 6. <ul><li>This approach is called backward design (Wiggins and McTighe, 1998), beginning with the end in mind (Covey, 1989), or developing clear targets (Stiggins, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Point: Match instruction to our learning goals. </li></ul><ul><li>If students know from the beginning what the intentions are, they can purposely learn based on your “targets.” </li></ul>Take two steps forward
  7. 7. The Steps Before the Steps <ul><li>Expectations. These are the goals, standards, objectives, or performance descriptors that you want your students to achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Enduring Understandings. From the expectations, what do you want your students to understand? What are your intentions? </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Questions. Take those understandings and put them in the form of questions such as “Why?” or “How?” These are open-ended questions that offer an inquiry approach to learning. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Steps Before the Steps <ul><li>Evidence. How will your students show they understand? </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation. Create the assessment that matches the understandings. </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Points. How will you go from the “big” ideas to the smaller ones that will engage your students? </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences. Design your instruction to match your intentions and your assessment, using the seven steps described in this book ( How to Teach so Students Remember ), to give your students long-term retention and transfer. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Baby Steps (Enduring Understandings) <ul><li>In essence, you are taking your state or district’s expectations and creating a purpose for them. </li></ul><ul><li>An enduring understanding is the purpose for learning—the overarching idea we want our students to internalize about the content area. </li></ul><ul><li>This understanding is not taught as much as it is discovered through inquiry. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Baby Steps (Essential Questions) <ul><li>When developing Essential Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify your unit topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the subtopics of the unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the concepts/big ideas that you want your students to walk away with when they are done studying the unit. These can link directly to state standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reword the concepts into questions that begin with words such as: why, how, should, could, or which. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Essential Questions <ul><li>When essential questions are formed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can decide what the students will need to do to demonstrate their understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You will develop the assessment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then you will determine what experiences will provide the students with the factual and conceptual understandings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the essential questions can be answered, you will know that the students have the enduring understandings. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Factors for Learning <ul><li>These factors (Ardenal and Mann, 2000) can lead to learning new tasks and concepts successfully: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated exposure to the learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning requires rigorous practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different kinds of skills and different forms of memory should be used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor student’s progress and adjust the teaching to meet their needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation and Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep students interested in a task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various strategies will keep students on task </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Seven Steps <ul><li>The seven steps to teach students to remember incorporate the Factors for Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Each step begins with re-, the prefix meaning “again” or “back.” </li></ul><ul><li>Memory is a process that takes going over again and again, and memory takes us back in time. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Seven Steps of the Learning/Memory Cycle
  15. 15. Step by Step <ul><li>Reach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We must “reach” our students, and they [students] must “reach out to make gains in their learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We want our students to “bring back” the information to begin to create an understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives students the opportunity to translate the material and make it their own. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback assists the students in knowing where they are in the learning process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The opportunity to store information more permanently. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examining again. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retrieve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This step is a true test of memory: To recall to mind; to remember. </li></ul></ul>