Theories for media


Published on

Media Studies A2

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Theories for media

  2. 2. • The Auteur Theory was established by Film Director and Critic, Francois Truffaut, in 1954.• It states that the Director of a film (or here, a music video) is the main creative force behind it, much like the "author" of a text.• The director oversees and “writes” both the films audio and visual scenario and therefore is considered more responsible for its content than the screenwriter. Their influence would show through all other aspects of production.• This would result in all of a certain producers works recognisably bearing their distinctive mark and giving it a personal feel.• The end product would therefore be highly creative.
  3. 3. Jake Nava:• Jake Nava is an example of an Auteur. He is an English music video director who has won numerous awards and has worked with many of the top famous artists.• He mostly focus on the genre of RnB, and so one would expect his videos to bare not only his personal mark but the conventions of music videos in that genre.• Nava usually works with female artists.• Here I will consider the similarities between two of his music videos, which portray his artistic vision and make the videos recognisable as his work.
  4. 4. Similarities in his work: A comparison of“Crazy in Love” and “My Prerogative” There are extreme close ups of the artists’ face and body parts- this arguably objectifies the artist. The artists are presented in a sexualised manner; they wear revealing outfits and dance provocatively, often gesturing to draw attention to their bodies.
  5. 5. Both videos begin with scenes involving cars- this suggests a “road trip” style narrativeand captures the attention of the audience who are made to wonder where the carmay be heading and why. The car is often used as a status symbol, suggesting that theartists are successful.The cars shown in each of the videos are later destroyed as part of thenarrative, which adds interest as it creates a dramatic and shocking scene, whilstsuggesting a rebellious attitude and extravagance reflective of the glamourized wasteoften found in iconic action films such as James Bond.
  6. 6. There is use ofbright artificial lightat times, oftenflashing in time withthe music toemphasise the beatand create adramaticatmosphere. There are also numerous scenes with low lighting, creating a sense of mystery and drama.
  7. 7. Both of the videos include shots with sexual connotations. An example of this found in both is the use of shots of the artist’s soaked in water.Both of the videosshow the artistsperforming a danceroutine with most ofthe moves performedlying down; on thefloor, on the bonnetof a car, or on a bed.During these scenesthere is also a lot ofdirect address fromthe artist, drawing inthe audience.
  8. 8. Both of the videos make use of actors/ dancers to perform alongsidethe artist, creating a more interesting and varied video with thesense of inclusion. There are also lots of low angle shots, implying that the artist is in control and is someone to look up to and idolise.
  9. 9. With regards to mise-en-scène, both of the videos are shot in an obviouslyurban setting. A number of settings are used in each video, to add variation inorder to keep the video interesting. This is also achieved through numerouscostume changes.Both videos also combine fast cuts (to emphasise the pace of the musicand hold audience interest) with some slow motion style shots (to drawattention to the artist and create suspense).
  10. 10. • This is a theory on audience affect. It suggests that the audience passively accept what is presented to them through the media and are powerless to resist.• This would allow the mass media to have a direct impact on our thoughts and behaviour.• The model has sparked concerns about the or portrayal of violent or delinquent behaviour in the media, as these would be imitated and accepted as “normal”.With this in mind, it is important to ensure that my music video doesnot contain any behaviour which could negatively effect the audience.
  11. 11. • However, it has been argued that this is an outdated theory; rather, the audience’s reception of a media text would be shaped by their own personal background.• Theories suggest that the audience effect will be different depending on the individual’s social, economic and cultural background, as well as their age, gender and sexuality.• The audience’s reception of the media text can be put into one of three categories:• A Hegemonic reading- wherein the audience shares the dominant embedded meaning and ideas in the text.• A Negotiated reading- where the audience shares some of the encoded ideologies of the text.• A Counter-Hegemonic reading- where the audience rejects the embedded ideologies of the text, rejecting the intended perspective. Therefore, I will need to keep my audience in mind whilst planning my video and consider their background as this will help me to produce a video that will be received positively by my target audience.
  12. 12. • The Gratification theory was developed by Blumer and Katz in 1974. It is useful to consider in the production of my music video as it provides a lists of aims that it must meet.• It assumes that the audience are active and states that in order to be successful, a media text must enable the audience: To be informed and educated To be able to identify with characters and situations To be entertained To use it for social interaction with others To escape daily troubles
  13. 13. • Many music videos tell a story, to add interest or meaning to the song. If my music video is to present a narrative, I will also need to consider predominant narrative theory.• Todorov said that narrative begins with equilibrium. There is then a rupture of verisimilitude or disruption, which is then sorted out; leaving the story to return back to equilibrium, producing variations on the typical “happy ever after”.• Therefore, the possible narrative for my music video must either conform to this pattern, or deliberately subvert it.
  14. 14. • Propp said that the characters within the narrative will always be a variation on a certain character role. The possible roles for the characters according to Propp are: The Hero – a character that seeks something and protects the others The Villain – who opposes or actively blocks the hero’s quest The Donor – who provides an object with magical properties The Dispatcher – who sends the hero on his/her quest via a message The False Hero – who disrupts the hero’s success by making false claims and pretences of assistance The Helper – who aids the hero The Princess – she needs rescuing and acts as the reward for the hero and the object of the villain’s plots Her Father – who acts to reward the hero for his effort• According to the theory, the character can also switch roles during the narrative; for example the hero may turn into a villain.• So, if my video is used to tell a story, the “artist” must be portrayed as playing one or more of these character roles.