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Y.Bavaneethan.
Lecturer
Department of Food Technology
SLGTI. Sri Lanka.5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 1
Calibration screw
Calibration screw
5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 2
TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLID (TSS)
• Total soluble solid mean, Amount of total soluble solid present in
the unit volume of solution...
Development of the flesh of a fruit, in many species,
• Nutrients are deposited as starch,
• During the ripening process ...
Material
A refractometer measures TSS as °Brix in 0.1% graduations.
There are hand-held refractometers as well as digita...
5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 6
Use of the refractometer
• Depending on the purpose of the analysis, several drops of
distilled water, sucrose solution or...
Checking and Calibration
• Requirements:
- A bottle of distilled water.
- A small bottle of 6 % sucrose solution (TSS Know...
Checking and Calibration
5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 9
HOW TO CALCULATE THE BRIX
Procedure
1. Collect a refractometer (these should be handled carefully
as they are expensive!)
...
Digital handheld refractometer – Brix meter
 Digital handheld refractometer with 5-digi.
 Measurement of liquid media fr...
Visual handheld refractometer
 Handheld refractometers are classic, visual refractometers
and are used for the determinat...
ABBE refractometer
 Designed for the determination of the refractive index of
liquid media with high or low viscosity.
 ...
Applications in food industries
1. Refractometers are used to assess the ripeness of fruits, vegetables,
sugar cane and be...
4. Refractometers are used to monitor and control the quality of,
• yoghurt, jam, fruit extract, syrup, coffee extract, ch...
5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 16
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Total soluble solid

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Total soluble solid

  1. 1. Y.Bavaneethan. Lecturer Department of Food Technology SLGTI. Sri Lanka.5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 1
  2. 2. Calibration screw Calibration screw 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 2
  3. 3. TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLID (TSS) • Total soluble solid mean, Amount of total soluble solid present in the unit volume of solution. • Measure the sugar content of sugar solutions (honey, juices,syrup) which the sugar is the major component using refractometer. -Total soluble solids content of a solution is determined by the index of refraction. - This is measured using a refractometer, and is referred to as the degrees Brix. • Sugar concentration is expressed in degrees Brix. At 20°C, • The Brix is usually consider equivalent to the percentage of sucrose (sugar) in the solution • (60° Brix is equivalent to a sugar content of 60%). 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 3
  4. 4. Development of the flesh of a fruit, in many species, • Nutrients are deposited as starch, • During the ripening process is transformed into sugars. • The progression of the ripening process leads to increasing sugar levels. The method is especially suitable for ripe and juicy fruit, with significant sugar content, As the determination of TSS is based on the capacity of sugars in a juice to deviate light. HAND-HELD MODEL with scale for temperature correction LCD DIGITAL BENCH MODEL 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 4
  5. 5. Material A refractometer measures TSS as °Brix in 0.1% graduations. There are hand-held refractometers as well as digital operated models available.  All models apply similar principles. • Some refractometers automatically compensate for changes in temperature, • whereas others may be calibrated to read accurately at a fixed temperature (usually 20°C). To obtain accurate readings at temperatures other than 20°C it is necessary to refer to the International Temperature Correction Table. 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 5
  6. 6. 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 6
  7. 7. Use of the refractometer • Depending on the purpose of the analysis, several drops of distilled water, sucrose solution or juice are placed on the prism surface. • The liquid on the prism plate should be free from bubbles or floating particles of pulp or other matter. - Hand-held model: • The prism lid is closed. To get proper readings, the instrument is turned towards the light. • If necessary the eye piece is focused until a clear image appears. • The position at which the demarcation line between the light and dark regions crosses the vertical scale gives the percentage soluble solids reading. - LCD Digital model: • Push the button to get the soluble solids reading in percent. 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 7
  8. 8. Checking and Calibration • Requirements: - A bottle of distilled water. - A small bottle of 6 % sucrose solution (TSS Known solution). - The solution should be stored in a bottle, kept away from daylight and used within 48 hrs of preparation. Several drops of distilled water are placed on the prism surface. Distilled water should give a reading of zero. If not and where possible, the refractometer must be adjusted to read zero. The prism plate is wiped dry with a soft tissue free from fluffs. Several drops of 6% sucrose solution are placed onto the clean and dry prism plate. The refractometer should give a reading of 6%. If the reading is not accurate: a) A new fresh solution of accurate 6% sucrose may be required. b) The refractometer may need to be repaired or replaced. 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 8
  9. 9. Checking and Calibration 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 9
  10. 10. HOW TO CALCULATE THE BRIX Procedure 1. Collect a refractometer (these should be handled carefully as they are expensive!) 2. Ensure the refractometer prism surface is clean and dry 3. Place a small amount of fresh juice (a couple of drops is sufficient) onto the prism of the refractometer. 4. Look through the eyepiece while pointing the prism in the direction of good light (not directly at the sun). 5. Focus and take the reading of where the base of the blue colour sits on the scale and record the % percentage sugar (°Brix). 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 10
  11. 11. Digital handheld refractometer – Brix meter  Digital handheld refractometer with 5-digi.  Measurement of liquid media from low to high viscosity.  Handy design, simple operation, reliable, automatic temperature compensated brix value within +5 to 70 °C.  Various models are available, e.g. for applications like honey, wine, saline, glycol. • Perfect refractometer for field analysis • Application specific scales • 5-digit, full view LCD screen • Results displayed in 2 seconds 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 11
  12. 12. Visual handheld refractometer  Handheld refractometers are classic, visual refractometers and are used for the determination of the refractive index of liquid media of low or high viscosity.  They are mainly used for quick on-the-spot-control of process streams and the field analysis in fruit and vegetable plantations.  Different models of handheld refractometers for special application available. 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 12
  13. 13. ABBE refractometer  Designed for the determination of the refractive index of liquid media with high or low viscosity.  It is used in the fast control of liquids and the “in-field analysis“.  The ABBE refractometer AR12 is equipped with hose connections at the prism unit for the thermostatisation of the optical parts.  The temperature is measured with a digital thermometer.  The measuring principle is based on the law of Snellius (law of refractive index) and is able to measure with transmitted or totally reflected light. 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 13
  14. 14. Applications in food industries 1. Refractometers are used to assess the ripeness of fruits, vegetables, sugar cane and beet before harvesting. • To find the maturity index. • It measures the sugar content of the fruit in Brix . • One degree Brix (1% Brix) mean, 1g sucrose in 100g of sucrose water solution. 2. They are used to check the alcohol content of wine and beer during fermentation in breweries. • Special refractometers with scales calibrated to give the alcohol content directly are available. 3. Quality of honey can be checked using special refractometers which directly give the amount of water in honey. • If the % of water is high (>20%) then it leads to fermentation by wild yeasts. 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 14
  15. 15. 4. Refractometers are used to monitor and control the quality of, • yoghurt, jam, fruit extract, syrup, coffee extract, chocolate, milk, baby food etc. • by measuring the total solids in them during processing. 5. The refractive index is an indicator of purity in products such as vegetable oils and animal fats. • By comparing the values with the standard the purity of the product. 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 15
  16. 16. 5/4/2018 Y.BAVANEETHAN. 16

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