SAY: I am going to be talking about the Second Vatican Council of the Catholic church and why we as Protestants should care.SAY: When I ask I would like you to participate by reading the plain white text as it appears on the slide. We will start in the front and work our way across first, then on the the next row, etc. Please read without prompting.CHANGE THE SLIDE
SAY: What is an General Council? CLICKSAY: Here is a definition - CLICKSAY: First, I want to be clear that we are talking about the Catholic Church with a big C - CLICKHAVE SOMEONE READ THE DEFINITION – CHANGE THE SLIDE
SAY: In other words: The constituent elements of an ecclesiastical council are the following: SAY: Please read each line as it comes upCLICKCLICKCLICKCLICKCLICKHOLD ON THIS SLIDESAY: Notice two things here:Legally convenedConsists of the hierarchy CHANGE SLIDE
READ so what is the Ecumenical part?HAVE STUDENTS READ EACH LINE AS IT COMES UPCLICKCLICKCLICKHOLD ON THIS SLIDEASK: What do you notice here?The worldwide churchUnder the PopeBinding on all Christians (that is, Catholics, big C)Notice that a council mayfail to secure the agreement of the whole Church or of the pope, and thus not rank in authority with Ecumenical councils. There were many other councils that don’t make this list. They were either local in nature, or did not receive universal acceptance in their decisions.This is the current definition. It has evolved over time, as we shall see.CHANGE SLIDE
SAY - Protestants mean something different when we say “ecumenical.” CLICKSAY - Notice that when Catholics say “ecumenical,” they mean the whole Catholic world. CLICKSAY - When Protestestants say “ecumenical,” we mean the church universal, to include all those who claim Jesus as their Lord and God. We also understand that we are separate communions, not bound dogmatically to the bishop of Rome.CHANGE SLIDE
SAY: How many major councils have been convened since Jerusalem in Acts? It depends upon who you ask. Remember the answer goes to everyone being involved and everyone accepting the canons (rules) as authoritative.CLICKSAY: By the catholic churchs’ account, there have been 21 Ecumenical councils, again to reiterate ecumenical means those councils that invloved the whole church, east and west and are binding on all Christians (Catholics).CLICKSAY: The Orthodox recognize the first seven councils as authoritative.CLICKSAY: Protestants groups differ. The Lutherans, Anglicans, and Methodists accept the first seven, with reservations. Non-trinitarians, Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and most evangelics do not accept any councils as having authority for polity reasons. More ecumenically-minded protestants accept the first four. Only when council decisions follow scripture do Protestants consider them authoritative. Nevertheless Protestant observers have officially attended the last two councils.
SAY: These councils were all concerned with clarifiying doctinal issues. They were all convened by the Emperor of the time. These are accepted by Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox as authoritative.If anyone asks:Nicaea – Arian controversy – Christ is consubstantial with the Father, homo ousiasConstantinople I – Arius again, Christ is begotten from eternity, not madeEphesus – Nestorian controversy - two natures of Christ, the Divine and Human, “without distinction and without separation,” and also declared Marythe Mother of God (both natures). Condemned Pelagianism.Chalcedon - condemned the teaching of the union of the two natures of the Logos merged in One, abolished this theory, and reaffirmed the decrees of he Third Ecumenical Synod. In regard to the two Natures of Christ, it stated “without confusion and without change.”Constantinople II - condemned the misinterpretation of the two natures of Christ, and restated the pronouncement of the two Natures of Christ in One Person. It also condemned the three theological works of Nestorius.Constantinople III – Arius overthrown. Priesthood and marriage.Nicaea II - upported the use of images (Icons) of Christ and the Saints, to which the people should render honor but not worship, for "the honor which is given to the icon passes over to the prototype." **The exact wording in 1) – 7) and 8) -14) on the next slide and quotesfrom http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecumenical_council but backed up in Bellitto, Christopher M. The General Councils: A History of the Twenty-One General Councils from Nicaea to Vatican II. New York: Paulist, 2002, 17-33.
SAY: The Pople rose to prominence in this period and decisions were made in these councils that said he had to convene a council in order for it to have any binding authority. This was a change from the earlier councils, which had been convened by the Emperor.*If anyone asks:SAY: About the great E-W schism of 105: There were cultural differences that from the very beginning the seeds for disagreement. Differences in language and thought, Latin and Greek. For years trouble had been brewing over language issues invloving the understanding of the relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son, which we call the filioque controversy, things like using unleavened bread in the Eucharist, Rome’s claim to universal jurisdiction. Things came to a head in 1054 when Pope Leo IX tried to depose Michael Cerularius,the Patriacrch of Constantinople. He refused. Leo died while he delegation was in Constantinople, andhis legate excommunicated the Patriarch. The Patriarch in turn excommunicated the Pope’s legate. There were attempts made in councils starting with Lyons II (1274) to mend the split, but it did not hold.8) Constantinople IV – desposes Photius and reinstates Ignatius as bishop of Constantinople. The church at Constantinople accepts.Great Schism - 9) Lateran I (name comes from the Basilica in Rome where these councils met) – investment of bishops, role of the Emperor10 Lateran II – reaffirm Lateran I, addressed clearical discipline, marriage11) Lateran III – “restricted papal election to the cardinals, condemned simony, and introduced minimum ages for ordination (thirty for bishops)”12) Lateran IV – “defined transubstantiation, addressed papal primacy, and clearical discipline”13) Lyons I – “deposed Frederick II and instituted a levy for the Holy land”14) Lyons II – “attempted reunion with the Eastern churches, approved Franciscan and Dominican orders, a tithe to support crusades, and conclave procedures.”**Jedin, Hubert. See previous notes andEcumenical Councils of the Catholic Church; An Historical Outline. Translated by Ernest Graf, O.S.B. Freiburg: Herder, 1960. Originally published as Kleine Konziliengeschichte. Freiburg: Herder, 1959, 61-87.
These later medieval councils involve the Avignon exile of the Pope, which lasted from 1305-1377, and the rise of conciliarism, the idea that only ecumenical councils had the authority to bind the conscience of the church, not the Pope. These councils did finally decide when there were three Popes who was the legitimate one, being the height of the conciliar idea. But later, the Popes got the upper hand.If anyone asks:14) Lyons II – attempts reunion, approves Franciscan and Dominican orders, Aquinas dies enroute15) Vienne – suppressed Knight’s Templars and Freemasonry, reinstated Phillip IV of France from excommunication16) Constance – conciliarism, anti-Popes, temporary healing of E-W schism, condemns Hus and Wycliffe, 6 years later the Ottoman Turks overrun Constantinople17) Basel-Ferrara-Florence – conciliarism in Basel elect their own Pope, bubonic plague reqires moving, but the council in Italy gains the upper hand and the Roman Pope wins, temporary agreement with the E over filioque18) Lateran V – leadership squabbles, repudiating the Pisa council, rooting out heresy
SAY: Martin Luther shakes the church. An alternative political and church society is born. The church must respond. And boy does she with the Council of Trent.
CLICKSAY: The council of Trent was called to stop the bleeding, root out heresy, reform the cleagy, and get peace back into the church.CLICKSAY: In response to the success of the Protestants, Trent meant to affirm the Catholic church and its decrees (through the writings of the Fathers, Papal Bulls, council decisions, etc.) to be the only source of authority for all Christians. They specifically denied individual Christians the right or ability to interpret Scripture.CLICKSAY: Trent was very top-down. Only the bishops could vote.CHANGE SLIDE
CLICKSAY: Trent made many statements in opposition and response to Protestant ideas. The seven sacraments established were: baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, pennance, last annointing, holy orders, and marriage. confession, extreme unction, holy orders. CLICKSAY: The doctrine of transubstantiation was pulled from Lateran IV and strengthened.CLICKSAY: The idea that Saints could intercede was retained and strengthened.CLICKSAY: The idea of purgatory was retained and strengthened.CLICKSAY: The Pope’s office was strenthened in regards to presiding over any reform that might take place.CLICKSAY: The Council did decide to teach in the vernacular languages but over time this was watered downCLICKSAY: The Congregation on the Council was formed to control what was written about Council decisions, kind of like a press secretary to compete with what the Protestants were publishing. Nothing could be published that did not meet their approval. In fact, the office acted more to restrict the council’s more innovative reforms than to promulgate them.This office was new to Trent.
SAY: In short, Trent represents a hardening of positions between Catholic and Protestants. There were no more Ecumenical Councils for over 300 years, and the next one did NOT represent a softening of the Catholic position.CHANGE SLIDE
SAY: Met to repudiate modernity: condemned secularism, rationalism, nationalism, individualism, and liberalism.CLICKSAY: It was a big deal, it was the first general to meet in over CLICK SAY: 300 years, the first to meet in the Vatican itself. CLICKSAY: Over 700 bishops attended, from all over the worldCLICKSAY: The documents recording the decisions and debates fill 5 volumes.CLICKSAY: They promulgated a document that said faith and reason are not incompatibleCLICKSAY: The big one: Papal Infallibility when making decisions excathedra and his juridiction over the world-wide church blows a hole in the breech that was already there. The Catholics are standing on their rights. Everybody else has to come to them.At the same time, this was the first council that non-Catholics were invited to come and “watch.”
SAY: Good Pope John announced within 3 months of his election his desire to have a “pastoral” Council that would would be different from past councils. He convened it not to meet a specific threat, but for the “enlightenment, edification, and joy of the entire Christian people.” He invited people from all Christian confessions. He spoke of the council as a “new Pentecost” for a “new age.”This led theologians, bishops, and historians to re-examine the councils and decisions made previously, returning them to original sources in order to renew the church’s traditions. Rome sent invitations to the bishops in the trenches to give their opinions and offer topics for discussion and renewal. The bishops in the field wanted change, liturgical renewal, and more input in the ways of Rome.Of course John was not without his enemies nor was the council without intrigue. John died soon after the council convened and the next Pope, Paul VI picked up where he predecesor left off. But John was the shining light. Nevertheless his Spirit attending the remaining sessions and the results were something the world has never seen from the Catholic church.
You don’t have to look far. Just do a google search on Vatican II and many of the sites you get will be denouncing it.
Significance of Vatican II
The Second Vatican Council and itsSignifican ce
A legally convened assembly ofecclesiastical dignitaries and theologicalexperts for the purpose of discussing andregulating matters of church doctrine anddiscipline.
In other words: The constituent elements of anecclesiastical council are the following:A legally convened meetingof members of the hierarchy,for the purpose of carrying out their judicial anddoctrinal functions,by means of deliberation in commonresulting in regulations and decrees invested with theauthority of the whole assembly.
OK, so what is the Ecumenicalwhich theEcumenical Councils are those to part?bishops, and others entitled to vote,are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene)under the presidency of the pope or his legates,and the decrees of which, having received papal confirmation,bind all Christians.
Protestants mean something different by “Ecumenical.” Catholics – the Catholic church throughout the world. Protestestants -the church universal2 2 Margull, Hans Jochen, and Georg Kretschmar. The Councils of the Church; History and Analysis.Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1966, 485.
How many Ecumenical Councils have there been?3Catholic accounting – 21 Ecumenical CouncilsAnglican and Orthodox accounting – the first7 Ecumenical CouncilsProtestants disagree– some accept the first 4, some 7, and many accept none 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecumenical_council
The first Seven Ecumenical Councils41) Niacea I (325)2) Constantinople I (381)3) Ephesus (431)4) Chalcedon (451)5) Constantinople II (533)6) Constantinople III (680-81)7) Nicaea II (787) 4 Bellitto, Christopher M. The General Councils: A History of the Twenty-One General Councils from Nicaea to Vatican II. New York: Paulist, 2002, 17-33.
Medieval Councils58) Constantinople IV (869-870)Great Schism (1054)9) Lateran I (1123)10) Lateran II (1139)11) Lateran III (1179)12) Lateran IV (1215)13) Lyons I (1245) 5 Bellitto, Christopher M. The General Councils: A History of the Twenty-One General Councils from Nicaea to Vatican II. New York: Paulist, 2002, 33-34, 49-59.
Lateran Façade in Rome65 This and later pictures from http://saintpetersbasilica.org/index.htm
The Council of Trent (1545-1563)7Papal Bull states the Council’s Purpose:“the extirpation of ofheresies, reformation of ecclesiasticaldiscipline, and the peace of the church”Church and Tradition interp ScriptureStrong reaction to lay involvement 7 McDonald, William J, ed. The General Council; Special Studies in Doctrinal and Historical Background. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1962, 91-109, and Bellitto, Christopher M. The General Councils: A History of the Twenty-One General Councils from Nicaea to Vatican II. New York:
The Council of Trent (1545-1563)cont.Sacraments retained and strengthened the doctrine of transubstantiation was retained and strengthenedRetained the veneration of relicsRetained PurgatoryGave Pope authority over reform ofcatechism, breviary, missalDecision to teach in the VernacularFormulation of central office to explainTrent’s decisions
The Council of Trent (Conclusion)A HARDENING OF POSITIONS
Vatican I (1869-1870)81st in over 300 years5 years of preparation700 bishops5 volumes of recordsDei Filius against rationalism alone but faith & reason are not incompatibleThe biggie: Papal Infallibility and primacy of jurisdiction 7 McDonald, William J, ed. The General Council; Special Studies in Doctrinal and Historical Background. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1962 113-114, and Bellitto, Christopher M. The General Councils: A History of the Twenty-One General Councils from Nicaea to Vatican II. New York: Paulist, 2002, 108-119.
“The traditional opinion is that when thebishops of the world unite to define belief inthe light of what they have received fromtheir predecessors, God will protect themfrom error. This is a manifestation of theinfallibility of the teaching church, and papalinfallibility is compared to it in the definitionpublished by the First Vatican Council.”3 3“Ecumenical Council," in The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Ed., 2008. (November 04, 2010). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-council.html / This and the next slide.
Angelo Roncalli is elected Pope John XXIII (1958)
Results of Vatican IILiturgy – Mass in the vernacularRevelation – All truth found in the BibleSecular Media accepted with guidelinesThe church – always in need of reform, she is the mystery of God and all are equal, diaconate can marry, doctrine of Mary is made part of the churchEcumenism – the Church is guilty for separation, others are also Church
Results of Vatican II (cont)The E church is also church and has right to appoint its own bishopsBishops of Dioceses are independent of RomeGod is active in all religions. Jews are Not collectively guilty for Jesus’ death. Anti- semitism must be rooted out.There must be no restrictions to religious libertyLaity are part of universal PriesthoodSeminarians need to be in the real worldReligious orders are free to renew themseles
Results of Vatican II (cont)Non-Christian religions must be respected, we can learn from themThe Priest is to be the servant of the people. The bishop is to be the servant of the Priests. Married bishops of the E are accepted and commended.Catholic schools should accept non-Catholic studentsWar is criminal.Christians have an obligation toward the weak.
The RealityMany voices denounce Vatican IIThe Daily Catholic http://www.dailycatholic.org/history/councils. htm calls it the Great Apostasy, and the Abomination of Desolation and names the Pontificate John Paul II heretical.
The HopeIs that there are voices of sanity within the Catholic church who are striving toward openness toward the world and a the Protestant church