Warm up: How do I compose and deliver a speech?
How do you feel about speaking in public?
Whether you love the limelight or avoid it, you may
need to deliver a speech as a class assignment, as
an after-school activity, or as part of a campaign for a
Speeches fifer from written compositions. Your
audience must grasp the main point of your speech
just by hearing your words once. They can not
review what you have said as they could if they were
reading. To get your messages across, you must use
precise words, emphasize important ideas,, and
write sentences with a pleasing sounds and rhythm.
Can inform, persuade, evaluate, and entertain
Uses language that suits the occasion, audience, and
Is clearly organized and easy for audience to
Uses rhythm, repetition, and variety to help keep
an audience’s attention
Is delivered in relaxed manner, with careful attention given
to voice quality and audience reaction
Follow these steps as you prepare a speech:
Step1: Consider purpose and
audience and choose a suitable topic
Make your speech fit the occasion
The occasion, purpose, and audience
will determine your subject, your
words, the organization of your ideas,
the length of your talk.
Here some questions that will help you plan your speech:
Where and why am I giving this speech? What is the
What is my purpose? Do I want my audience to laugh? To
What age is my audience? What topic would suit them?
What does my audience already know and not know about
my subject? What information must I give them?
How long should my speech be to maintain my audience’s
What language should I choose for this occasion and this
audience? Do I need to be formal or informal?
Once you have thought about these questions, you will be
ready to plan, compose, and practice your speech.
Step2: Organize ideas
Step2: Organize ideas
Arrange you ideas in either chronological order
or order of importance. Use chronological, or
time, order to talk about a series of events or a
process, as in a speech about programming .
Use order of importance to analyze a topic or to
present argument in a persuasive speech.
Step 3: Use speech –making strategies
Use sentence variety. Make your speech
interesting by varying the length and structure of
Applying for a Student Visa
When Do I Need to Apply for My Student Visa?
Students are encouraged to apply for their visa early
to provide ample time for visa processing. Students
may apply for their visa as soon as they are
prepared to do so.
Students should note that Embassies and
Consulates are able to issue your student visa 120
days or less, in advance of the course of study
registration date. If you apply for your visa more than
120 days prior to your start date or registration date
as provided on the Form I-20, the Embassy or
Consulate will hold your application until it is able to
issue the visa. Consular officials will use that extra
time for application processing.
Students are advised of the Department of Homeland
Security regulation which requires that all initial or
beginning students enter the U.S. 30 days or less in
advance of the course of study start/report date as
shown on the Form I-20. Please consider this date
carefully when making travel plans to the U.S.
A beginning student who wants an earlier entry into
the U.S. (more than 30 days prior to the course start
date), must qualify for, and obtain a visitor visa. A
prospective student notation will be shown on his/her
visitor visa and the traveler will need to make the intent to
study clear to the U.S. immigration inspector at port of
entry. Before beginning any studies, he or she must obtain
approval for a change to Exchange Visitor status,
Application for Change of Nonimmigrant Status
and pay the fee. Also you must submit the
required Form I-20 to the Department of
Homeland Security office where the application
is made. Please be aware that one can not begin
studies until the change of classification is
Continuing students may apply for a new visa at
any time, as long as they have been maintaining
student status and their SEVIS records are
current. Continuing students may also enter the
U.S. at any time before their classes start.
Repeat key words and phrases. Stress key points
by repeating words and phrases and by summarizing
Use parallelism. The use of similar words, phrases,
and clauses to express similar ideas is called
parallelism. When you use parallel structures in a
speech, listeners will remember your words more
Step 4: Practice your speech
Practice aloud. Rehearse your speech in front of a
mirror while you time it. if possible, tape-record or
videotape your speech, and ask your family and
friends for advice on how to improve your
Memorize the speech but outline key points on
Watching someone read a speech can be boring.
Therefore, outline the main points of your speech on
note cards and memorize the rest. That will help you
look at your audience most of the time and glance
down only occasionally at your note cards to remind
you of your main point.
Step 5: Deliver your speech
Relax while delivering the speech. Stand up
Distribute your weight evenly on both feet. Don’t
fidget or pace. Use natural gestures and facial
expressions to emphasize your points.
Look at audience.
Make brief eye contract with individuals in different parts
of the room. Try to make each person think you are
speaking directly to him or her. Another strategy is to find a
face that inspires confidence and speak to that person.
Your voice well
Speak so that you can be understood and heard.
Otherwise, you may lose your audience’s attention.
Experienced speakers ask people to raise their hands if they
Pause when appropriate. Give you audience at least three or
four seconds to think about an idea before you go on the
next one. Dramatic pauses help emphasize your important
Watch for audience cues.
The expressions on your listeners’ faces can tell you how
they are receiving your message. The following chart lists
possible trouble signs and solutions.
People are looking at their
watches or fidgeting
The audience is becoming
The audience can’t hear you
People are leaning far
forward and holding their
hands behind their ears.
People are looking at one
another and seem puzzled
The audience is confused
Vary the pitch and tone of
Move on to more interesting
Pause, and ask someone in
the audience to shut doors
and windows to keep out
Summarize your main ideas.
Ask for questions