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  • The lingual septum consists of a vertical layer of fibrous tissue, extending throughout the entire length of the median plane of the tongue, though not quite reaching the dorsum.It is thicker behind than in front, and occasionally contains a small fibrocartilage, about 6 mm. in length.It is well displayed by making a vertical section across the organ.
  • Superior longitudinal- fibrous tissue near epiglottis, hyoid and median fibrous septum to lateral margins of tongue and region of apex.Inferior longitudinal-root of tongue and corpus hyoid to tip below verticalis and transversus (apex of tongue)
  • anterior surface of soft palate through faucial pillar (anterolateral palatal aponeurosis) to posterolateral tongue body (sides of posterior tongue
  • tongue

    1. 1. Parts of the Tongue  Root  Located between the hyoid bone and mandible.  Dorsal portion sits in the oropharynx.  Attaches the tongue to roof of the mouth.  Body  Makes up the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.  Rough surface due to the lingual papillae.  Surrounded by anterior and lateral teeth.  Mobile portion of the tongue.  Apex  Also known as the tip, is the anterior one-third of the anterior tongue surface.  Rests against the incisor teeth.  Highly mobile.
    2. 2. MUSCLES OF TONGUE A median fibrous septum divides the tongue into Rt. & Lt. halves. Each half contains 4 intrinsic & extrinsic muscles. Intrinsic muscles Extrinsic muscles  Superior longitudinal  Inferior longitudinal  Transverse  Vertical  Genioglossus  Hypoglossus  Styoglossus  Palatoglossus
    3. 3. INTRINSIC MUSCLES  Occupy the upper part of tongue and attached to the submucous fibrous layer and to median fibrous septum.  Alter the shape of tongue.  4 in no. they are  1. Superior longitudinal  2. Inferior longitudinal  3. Transverse  4. Vertical
    4. 4.  Superior longitudinal-  beneath the mucous membrane.  Shortens the tongue.  Make dorsum concave.  Inferior longitudinal-  Lying close to inferior surface of tongue between genioglossus and hypoglossus.  Shortens the tongue.  Makes its dorsum convex.  Transverse-  Extend from median septum to the margins.  Makes the tongue narrow and elongated.  Vertical-  Found at the borders of anterior part of tongue it make tongue broad & flattened.
    5. 5. Palatoglossus-  Origin-  Oral surface of palatine aponeurosis.  Insertion-  Descends in the Palatoglossus arch to the side of tongue at junction of its oral and pharyngeal parts.  Action-  Pulls up the root of tongue, approximates the Palatoglossus arches and thus closes the oropharyngeal isthmus.
    6. 6. Lymphatic drainage-  Tip of tongue-  Drains bilaterally to the sub mental nodes.  Remaining part-  Ant. Rt. & lt. 2/3 drains unilaterally to the submandibular nodes.  Few central lymphatics drains bilaterally to same nodes  Post. 1/3 drains bilaterally to the jugulo-omohyoid nodes.
    7. 7. Taste Bud  Taste buds are sensory organs that are found on your tongue and allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter  The sense of taste called gustation.  10,000 taste buds are present in its papilla.  A papilla contains few to 100 taste buds.
    8. 8. Location of Taste Buds  Taste buds contains sensory receptors found in the papillae of tongue and widely distributed in the epithelium of tongue, soft palate, pharynx and epiglottis.
    9. 9. Papillae  The majority of taste buds on the tongue sit on raised protrusions of the tongue surface called papillae.
    10. 10. Function of Tongue  Mastication  Deglutition  Speech  Taste