Food security in Martadi VDC of Bajura district, FWDR Nepal

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Elusine caracana, Setaria italic (L.), Triticum aestivum are highly potential dryland cereal crops that need to promoted with special interventions. Some humanitarian agencies with support of Government of Nepal have been playing an important role in reducing the impact of food deficiency in the region.

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Food security in Martadi VDC of Bajura district, FWDR Nepal

  1. 1. Food security in the context of Climate Change in Martadi VDC of Bajura district (FWDR), Nepal By Basudev Upadhyay Registration No: 5-2-37-790-2002 College of Applied sciences - Nepal M.Sc. 63/64 Roll No 525
  2. 2. IntroductionBackground information/Research needPoor self sufficiency (Deficit by 12,935 Mt. in 2011) (CBS 2011)Average income – Rs 3,428 per month (CBS 2011)Approx. 92,700 people out of a district total of 123,400 areclassified as highly or severely food insecure (NeKSAP 2009)Availability and Requirement of Cereals (Mt.) (MoAC 2011)Total edible prod – 9825; Requirement – 22760; Deficit – 12935Transportations is poorly developedNo intensive studies have been carried out in the area ofinterestNo climatic data availableMigrations (poverty induced, seasonal)Calorie consumption for Bajura: 1628 kcal/person/day (MoAC2010)
  3. 3. Introduction… Specific Research QuestionsWhat is Food Security in Nepalese context?Who is food insecure in the far western region?Why are they food insecure?How is the situation likely to evolve and what are the Risks threatening them?How have the climate change affected the food security situation in the district?What will be the future scenario of agricultural productivity with the existing climatic conditions?How have the locals been coping with food insecure situation?What are the government, non-government and other agencies’ interventions to overcome thefood security situation?What can be done to save their lives and livelihoods in food insecure situation?
  4. 4. Introduction…ObjectivesTo understand the food security situation in Martadi VDC of Bajura district offar western region, Nepal.To know the climate change impacts on agriculture and agriculturalproductions.To explore the possible adaptation measures in agriculture and livelihood ofpeople.To analyze the interventions of the government, non government andcommunity organizations in coping food insecure situation.
  5. 5. Methodology Study area maps Literature Reviews Socio-economic surveys Household Questionnaire surveys Sampling: Sample size (n) = N*z2*P (1-P)/N*d2 + z2*P (1-P) (Arkin and Colton 1963)N = Total number of households (1109)z = value of standard variate at 95% confidence level (1.96)P = estimated population proportion (0.05)d = error limit of 5% (0.05)Hence, Sample size (n) = 69 Map of the district (Not to scale) Digital Himalaya Sampling Design = n/N *100n=sample households in the specific village clusterN = total no. of households in the entire study areaVillage Martadi Ukhadi Kabalta Chaurata TotalclustersTotalHH 757 89 100 162 1109Samples 47 6 7 10 69 Stakeholders consultations Field Observations Analysis/Writing Zoom in Map of Martadi VDC (Imported from google earth on 1st Feb 2012)
  6. 6. Result and Discussions Peoples perceptionsResponse to Income Level Response to Occupations 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 13% 50.0% 1% 37% 40.0% 16% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 32% 0.0% Agricultu Livestoc Remitan Services Business Others re k ce <5000 34.5% 38.2% 0.0% 15.5% 0.0% 1.8% Crop farming Livestock 5000-15000 67.3% 20.9% 12.7% 12.7% 0.0% 5.5% Service Overseas employment >15000 7.3% 0.0% 58.2% 20.0% 4.5% 10.9% Others <5000 5000-15000 >15000
  7. 7. People’s perceptions… Landholding sizes 37.3% 30.9% 22.7% 7.3% 1.9%< 10 Ropani 10-20 Ropani 20-25 Ropani > 25 Ropani Landless Landholdings Food Sufficiency 39.4% 28.1% 11.1% 7.0% 8.5% 5.9% Landless 3 Months 6 Months 9 Months 12 Months Others Food Sufficiency
  8. 8. Peoples perceptions…Response to state of climate change awareness No Yes Reason for decrease in production 43% 57% 41.9% Yes No 27.9% 20.2%Response to Impact on crop farming 13.2% 12.7% 48.2% 10.1% 39.1% Disease/pests Lack of Lack of quality Lack of Dont know Irrigation Seed grains Fertilizers Decreasing Increasing No significance
  9. 9. People’s perceptions… Forest status over the years 49.8% 35.6% 14.5% Degraded Improved No change Forest Status Forest utility 41.0% 38.2% 9.0% 11.8% Firewood Fodder and Medicinal Others Grass herbs Purpose of forest use
  10. 10. People’s perceptions…Response to climatic parameters 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Increased Decreased No Change Don know Irrigular Temperature 44.5% 2.7% 23.6% 10.9% 18.2% Precipitation 18.2% 39.1% 18.2% 12.7% 11.8% Snowfall 0.0% 66.4% 2.7% 13.6% 17.3%
  11. 11. People’s perceptions… Source of water for irrigation Disaster types 33.1% 37.8% 34.8% 18.1% 24.7% 11.0% 17.7% 13.6% 9.1%River water Rain water Sprins and Others wells Drought Flood Landslide Soil erosion others Source of water for Irrigation Disaster types
  12. 12. People’s perceptions… Resilience measures 29.1% 21.8% 10.0% 10.0% 10.9% 12.7% 3.6% 1.8% Support Selling Loan Support Migrate Remittance Off-farm No from livestock from response Gos/NGOs neighbour Resilience measuresPreventions measures Climate induced disaster 44.1% 55.8% 24.5% 16.2% 9.8% 5.4% 19.2% 11.7% 13.3% Terraces Mixed Retaining No Quit farming wall measures agriculture taken practice Drinking water Agriculture Infrastructure No impact Preventive measures Climate induced disaster
  13. 13. Adaptation and Mitigation Techniques in PracticeTraditional Practices - Terraces shortening weeding calendar dry leaves spreading and reaping after sawing seed Burning offering Puja Scare crow Mulching Mixed – ( inter ) cropping Keeping the land fallow for sometimes Use of plant indigenous materials (Titepati, Khirro, ashuro, Dhangari.. Planting trees , using stone dykes to prevent extreme case of flooding Fodder collection during August, September, and October small ditches are constructed to cope water needs,Modified techniques – plastic sheet cover over seedling, support sticks to prevent crops from falling, making greenhouse , hybrid seeds..
  14. 14. District Stats Land-use change through 1986 – 2010 Source: NLS 2011 Expenditure of Govt. (Million) Source: ESD 2006/07 200000 3500 150000 3000 2500 100000 2000 1500 50000 1000 0 500 Cultivated Land Grass Lands Forests Shrubs/Bushes Others 0 Agriculture Irrigation Forest Area (ha) 1986 Area (ha) 2001 Area (ha) 2006 Land Cover 2010 Current Capital Total Foreign Aid Distribution in BajuraInvestment comparison (‘000) Source: ESD 2006/07 (Million) Source: ESD 2006/07 1600 Investment in the country Investment in Bajura 14006000000 5000 12005000000 4000 10004000000 30003000000 8002000000 2000 1000 6001000000 0 0 400 200 0 Agriculture Irrigation Forest Grant Loan Total
  15. 15. Precipitation in Bajura 1990 – 2010 Source: DHM 2011 28Hundreds y = -16.74x + 35541 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 1987 1992 1997 2002 2007 2012 Total Annual 3 years moving mean Mean Linear (Total Annual) Linear (3 years moving mean) Rainfall is decreasing with the decrease in total rainy days.
  16. 16. Temperature 2010 (DHM 2011) 80 60 40 20 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Tmax( ) Tmin() Mean Seasonal breakdown of temperatureAnnual mean Annual max Annual min Pre- Monsoon Monsoon Post- Winter monsoon17.8 24.4 6.6 18.63 17.45 19.4 17.73
  17. 17. Discharge Analysis120 y = -2.579x + 5246.100 80 60 40 20 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Annual Mean discharge Mean Average3 yr moving mean Linear (Annual Mean discharge)
  18. 18. Government and stakeholder interventions• NFC distributes cereals at subsidized prices delivers emergency food relief to communities that have been affected by natural disasters.• The World Bank and the ADB are the principal multilateral donors (poverty alleviation interventions: food/cash-for-assets (F/CFA) .• DFID is working especially in helping make the APP more pro-poor: DoLIDAR road project.• WFP works with government to improve food access for the disadvantaged, including mothers and babies, Schoolchildren, refugees!• WUPAP – joint endeavor between GoN and IFAD – poverty alleviation (phase 1: Jan 2003)• local stakeholders playing notable roles - DAO, GIFT Bajura, MISS Bajura, SAPROS, DRSP etc.)
  19. 19. Conclusions and RecommendationsAgricultural Land-use Change land is not so productive – near by pastures and forests being cleared – khets decreasing, Pakho bari increasing irrigated soil washed away due to monsoon rain and flood Increased barren lands due to construction of agriculture roadCrop Farming and Food Sufficiency Each household practiced farming along with livestock raring Not a single irrigation canal exists Winter crops have high potential The main source of every day diet is bread Slight shift in the plantation and harvesting time
  20. 20. Conclusions and Recommendations…Adaptation Measures Planting trees Constructing river embankments and stone dykes Terraces of different forms, Crop rotation Inter cropping Mixed cropping Use of high yielding variety seeds Maintaining seed storages
  21. 21. Conclusions and Recommendations… Climate change and food security •Erratic climatic patterns - Rainfall is decreasing with the decrease in total rainy days. •Natural disasters - deteriorating food security situation (Lack of early warning system and preparedness to disaster) • Decreasing productivity – increasing food deficiency •Several traditional adaptive techniques are practiced to overcome climate induced disasters.. Should be accompanied with modern techniques and improvised..Recommendations• Further research on impact of climate change on specific crops• Promotion of bread yielding and dry land crops (millet, maize, potato wheat and vegetables..)• Irrigations• Create Emergency preparedness stocks (e.g. micro- irrigation equipment; pipe/sprinkler irrigation and cash crop seeds)• Community seed production• Need to increase the supply quota by NFC
  22. 22. Changes high in the mountains affect availability of resources downstream

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