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1784
Social Conditions <ul><li>Secularization of European Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Social Democracy & Scientific progress </li...
1775 - 1815 <ul><li>Great Upheavals </li></ul><ul><li>American and French Revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Dictatorship of Na...
Neoclassicism <ul><li>1748 – Excavation begins at Pompeii renewing interest in classical forms </li></ul><ul><li>Publicati...
NeoClassicism <ul><li>A way of Life affecting religion, dress and attitudes of politics </li></ul><ul><li>Distaste for the...
Painting <ul><li>Apparent rather than suggestive </li></ul><ul><li>No obscurity or ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Heroic masc...
Neoclassicism in France <ul><li>David,  Oath of the Horatii, 1784 </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture frames groups of figures ...
Neoclassicism in France <ul><li>David,  Death of Marat, 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Marat was a leader of the French Revolution...
<ul><li>David,  Coronation of Napoleon, 1804 </li></ul><ul><li>Coronation of Empress Josephine by Napoleon </li></ul><ul><...
 
Napolean <ul><li>1769 Born in Corsica </li></ul><ul><li>1793 Quickly rises to General (24 yrs old) </li></ul><ul><li>1796 ...
<ul><li>1812 – war with Russia </li></ul><ul><li>1814 – surrenders to Allied Armies, exiled to Island of Elba </li></ul><u...
Napolean, 1806 <ul><li>Highly recognized 18 th  century sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation rests on portrait busts of l...
Neoclassicism in Italy <ul><li>Canova,  Pauline Borghese as Venus, 1801 – 1808 </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s sister as Venu...
Neoclassicism in England <ul><li>Kauffmann,  Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplum virtutis </li></ul...
Neoclassicism in England <ul><li>Boyle and Kent, Chiswick House, London </li></ul><ul><li>Modeled on the Villa Rotonda </l...
Neoclassicism in England <ul><li>Wood the Younger, Royal Crescent, Bath </li></ul><ul><li>Single continuous Palladian faça...
Neoclassicism in the United States <ul><li>West,  Death of General Wolfe </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy over whether histor...
Neoclassicism in the United States <ul><li>Copley,  Paul Revere </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as an artisan at work </li></ul><ul...
Neoclassicism in the United States <ul><li>Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Doric ...
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Neoclassicism

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Neoclassicism

  1. 1. 1784
  2. 2. Social Conditions <ul><li>Secularization of European Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Social Democracy & Scientific progress </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalism (global economy) </li></ul><ul><li>Art is an open Market </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious effort to preserve art and artifacts </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1775 - 1815 <ul><li>Great Upheavals </li></ul><ul><li>American and French Revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Dictatorship of Napoleon who attempts to unify Europe under French Rule </li></ul>
  4. 4. Neoclassicism <ul><li>1748 – Excavation begins at Pompeii renewing interest in classical forms </li></ul><ul><li>Publication of The History of Ancient Art by J.J. Winkelmann in 1764 </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct turn from Rococo toward clarity of line and color </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp transitions of area </li></ul><ul><li>Retreat from ambiguity and playfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Noble Simplicity and grandeur </li></ul><ul><li>Classical costume elevated subjects to universal significance (generally) </li></ul>
  5. 5. NeoClassicism <ul><li>A way of Life affecting religion, dress and attitudes of politics </li></ul><ul><li>Distaste for the refined, manipulative, and enigmatic feminism </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue of moral rectitude associated with physical clarity and social reform </li></ul>
  6. 6. Painting <ul><li>Apparent rather than suggestive </li></ul><ul><li>No obscurity or ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Heroic masculinity </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of Line, Polished Finish and isolated color </li></ul><ul><li>Intolerant, righteous and dogmatic </li></ul>
  7. 7. Neoclassicism in France <ul><li>David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture frames groups of figures </li></ul><ul><li>Unconventional columns and capitals </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplum virtutis </li></ul><ul><li>Caravaggio light and shadow </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast in attitudes of men and women </li></ul><ul><li>Horatii brothers of Rome pledge to fight three brothers from Alba; one of the sisters is engaged to an Alba brother </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition of forms </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on body expression and intensity of drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Departure from the florid Rococo </li></ul>
  8. 8. Neoclassicism in France <ul><li>David, Death of Marat, 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Marat was a leader of the French Revolution, murdered in his bath </li></ul><ul><li>He was dying of skin disease; David does not show us this to increase pathos </li></ul><ul><li>He was taking a mendicant bath </li></ul><ul><li>Idealized image reminiscent of Pietà by Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>On the paper is an act of generosity on his part </li></ul><ul><li>Blood on handle of knife: blood on murderer’s hands </li></ul><ul><li>Inscribed, “To Marat, David, Year 2” </li></ul><ul><li>Caravaggesque background and lighting </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>David, Coronation of Napoleon, 1804 </li></ul><ul><li>Coronation of Empress Josephine by Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Veronese style draperies </li></ul><ul><li>Cf. Rubens, Marie de’Medici </li></ul><ul><li>Figures lost in a disparate busy crowd </li></ul><ul><li>Pius I lost in crowd but maintains dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Pageantry, opulence </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon asked David to rework actual event for this painted version </li></ul>
  10. 11. Napolean <ul><li>1769 Born in Corsica </li></ul><ul><li>1793 Quickly rises to General (24 yrs old) </li></ul><ul><li>1796 Campaigns into Italy against Austrians </li></ul><ul><li>1798 Campaigns into Egypt – Fleet is destroyed by the English </li></ul><ul><li>1799 Returns, there is a coup, and is elected one of the Triumverate Consulate </li></ul><ul><li>1800 Gains dictatorial powers (first consul) </li></ul><ul><li>1804 Crowns himself emperor </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>1812 – war with Russia </li></ul><ul><li>1814 – surrenders to Allied Armies, exiled to Island of Elba </li></ul><ul><li>1815 – returns to France </li></ul><ul><li>1815 – June, Waterloo & second abdication </li></ul><ul><li>1815 – Exiled to St. Helena </li></ul><ul><li>1821 – Dies at age 51 </li></ul>
  12. 13. Napolean, 1806 <ul><li>Highly recognized 18 th century sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation rests on portrait busts of leading Enlightenment figures </li></ul><ul><li>High Physical accuracy and psychological insight </li></ul>Jean Antoine Houdon Frenchn 1741 - 1828
  13. 14. Neoclassicism in Italy <ul><li>Canova, Pauline Borghese as Venus, 1801 – 1808 </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s sister as Venus </li></ul><ul><li>She was known for her scandalous and notorious behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cold, classically nude </li></ul><ul><li>Marble’s sensitivity to chiaroscuro: soft forms </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses Paris’ apple that Venus won in a contest </li></ul><ul><li>Very few people allowed to see this work, and then only by torchlight </li></ul><ul><li>Pose not realistic, compositional inventiveness </li></ul>
  14. 15. Neoclassicism in England <ul><li>Kauffmann, Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplum virtutis </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Roman setting </li></ul><ul><li>Good mother painting </li></ul><ul><li>Visitor shows Cornelia her jewels, asks to see her own jewels </li></ul><ul><li>Cornelia responds that her children are her jewels </li></ul><ul><li>Austere life of a family with children </li></ul><ul><li>Jewels momentarily distract one child </li></ul><ul><li>Severely simplified costumes </li></ul>
  15. 16. Neoclassicism in England <ul><li>Boyle and Kent, Chiswick House, London </li></ul><ul><li>Modeled on the Villa Rotonda </li></ul><ul><li>Squat round Palladio-like dome, but octagonal in shape, with semi-circular windows </li></ul><ul><li>Four chimney stacks flank each side, shaped like obelisks </li></ul><ul><li>Palladian decorative balls decorate projecting wings </li></ul><ul><li>Palladio’s statue is on the left </li></ul><ul><li>2 grand staircases </li></ul><ul><li>Corinthian columns </li></ul><ul><li>Main living quarters on second floor </li></ul><ul><li>Rusticated first floor </li></ul><ul><li>Pedimented windows </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical ground plan </li></ul>
  16. 17. Neoclassicism in England <ul><li>Wood the Younger, Royal Crescent, Bath </li></ul><ul><li>Single continuous Palladian façade </li></ul><ul><li>30 residences in a semi-circle, resembles the Colosseum inside-out </li></ul><ul><li>March of Ionic columns </li></ul><ul><li>English: roofline punctured by chimney pots </li></ul><ul><li>English: excessive length </li></ul><ul><li>Main residences on second floor for a better view </li></ul><ul><li>Columns extend between second and third floors, uniting them </li></ul><ul><li>Windows interspersed between columns </li></ul>
  17. 18. Neoclassicism in the United States <ul><li>West, Death of General Wolfe </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy over whether history paintings should be in classical dress or contemporary clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of the Greek Hellenistic Dying Gaul and Michelangelo’s Pietà </li></ul><ul><li>Three part composition </li></ul><ul><li>Tells story of the Battle of Quebec in the background: ships unloaded in the middle of the night at right, guns pulled ashore in morning in center, battle occurs around 10 am at left </li></ul><ul><li>Wolfe shot three times in the Battle. West shows us a hand wound and a shot in the side </li></ul><ul><li>Indian sets the place as America, none at the battle </li></ul><ul><li>Ranger in green comes in to tell West he has won the battle and captured the French flag before he dies </li></ul><ul><li>Meticulous handling of paint </li></ul>
  18. 19. Neoclassicism in the United States <ul><li>Copley, Paul Revere </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as an artisan at work </li></ul><ul><li>Polished table and engraving tools before him </li></ul><ul><li>Silver teapot in one hand, he is seen as a man of thought and action </li></ul><ul><li>Takes a measure of us with his glance </li></ul><ul><li>Holds teapot as a political act: the tax on tea </li></ul><ul><li>Seems to ask us where we stand on this issue </li></ul><ul><li>Engraving tools and sand cushion on table </li></ul><ul><li>The shine of the table and teapot offers highly reflective surfaces </li></ul>
  19. 20. Neoclassicism in the United States <ul><li>Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Doric style </li></ul><ul><li>French doors </li></ul><ul><li>Appears as though it were one story with a dome, but actually two </li></ul><ul><li>Balustrade masks second floor, in the French style </li></ul><ul><li>Octagonal dome </li></ul><ul><li>Studied Palladio </li></ul><ul><li>Visited Roman ruins in southern France </li></ul><ul><li>Columns made of brick, covered in stucco </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical ground plan </li></ul>

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