Late 19th and Early 20th Century


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Late 19th and Early 20th Century

  1. 1. 1905-06
  2. 2. Early Modern Architecture <ul><li>Eiffel, Eiffel Tower, Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Eiffel designed hundreds of metal structures, mostly railway bridges </li></ul><ul><li>The base of the Eiffel Tower resembles a railway bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Built as the symbol of the 1889 World’s Fair in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Elevator invented in Yonkers, NY in 1853 by Elisha Otis, who designed the radical tilting elevators of the Eiffel Tower </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed iron allows wind forces to go through the building </li></ul>
  3. 3. Early Modern Architecture <ul><li>Henry Richardson, Marshall Field Warehouse, Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Rounded arches, rusticated masonry which decreases as it goes up </li></ul><ul><li>Flat cornice on top </li></ul><ul><li>Cf. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi </li></ul><ul><li>Iron columns as interior supports </li></ul><ul><li>Self-bearing masonry loads </li></ul><ul><li>7 story embryonic skyscraper </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged around a central court </li></ul><ul><li>No architectural features: pediments, pinnacles, capitals </li></ul><ul><li>Main entrance unaccented </li></ul><ul><li>Subtle grouping of windows: variation in size and shape of bays </li></ul><ul><li>Simplification of rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Solid look of building despite large proportion of window space </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine image of wholesale store, rather than the feminine image of a retail store </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed 1930 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early Modern Architecture <ul><li>Louis Sullivan, Guaranty Building, Buffalo </li></ul><ul><li>Ornament as a major design feature </li></ul><ul><li>Building entirely covered in decorative terra cotta panels </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration of Romanesque buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Taller and more slender, with windows recessed to allow for height of piers to seem more dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>No office space more than 25 feet from windows </li></ul><ul><li>Generous rear lighting courts </li></ul><ul><li>Steel frame with lighter outer walls </li></ul><ul><li>First building to use Gray columns, designed with distinctive open webs, had lateral stiffness against wind loads </li></ul><ul><li>Arrow-like motifs on façade are a playful account of stress forces on the building </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental grills that Sullivan designed for the elevators were to be silhouetted against daylight </li></ul>
  5. 5. Art Nouveau In design Art Nouveau was characterized by writhing plant forms and an opposition to the historicism which had plagued the 19th century. There was a tension implicit throughout the movement between the decorative and the modern which can be seen in the work of individual designers as well as in the chronology of the whole. Its emphasis on decoration and artistic unity links the movement to contemporary Symbolist ideas in art, as seen in the work of the Vienna Secessionists, but the movement was also associated with Arts and Crafts ideas and, as such, Art Nouveau forms a bridge between Morris and Gropius
  6. 6. <ul><li>Beardsley, The Peacock Shirt </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese influence </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeping curved lines </li></ul><ul><li>Erotic connotations </li></ul><ul><li>Very thin lines </li></ul><ul><li>Based on peacock motifs </li></ul><ul><li>No shading, no shadows </li></ul>
  7. 7. Art Nouveau <ul><li>Gaudi, Casa Mila, Barcelona, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Sinuous curved façade of an apartment building </li></ul><ul><li>Wrought iron balconies a Catalonian specialty </li></ul><ul><li>Produces the effect of a great piece of sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Wavy stringcourses define floors </li></ul><ul><li>Roses at top are a religious symbol of Mary </li></ul><ul><li>Small windows of attic story peak out over roof line </li></ul><ul><li>Fanciful chimneys dominate the top </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic expression in the forms </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional use of stone carving façade with modern sense of design </li></ul><ul><li>Interior curving walls respond to vegetal designs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Expressionistic, fantastic, organic forms in undulating facade and roof line. light court
  9. 9. &quot;Church of the Holy Family&quot;. 1882 - 1926
  10. 10. Vienna Secessionists At the turn of the century, Vienna was a center of radical intellectual vitality, home to Freud, Schoenberg, the architect Adolf Loos, and others. In general, especially in German-speaking countries, young artists complained of he stranglehold the establishment had on exhibitions and policies. In 1897, 19 artists from the Viennese Artists' Association broke off from the organization, including Austrian painter and illustrator Gustav Klimt (1862-1918), the architects and designers Josef Hoffmann (1870-1956), Olbrich, and Moser. These were the Secessionists. They celebrated modernity vs. the retreat into revivalism seen in other movements. Nevertheless, they did share notions with Arts and Crafts: that art belongs to all, that the notion of great art vs. minor art needs to be abolished. They designed and erected a geometric building for permanent exhibition space, and they published a periodical. They supported Art Nouveau, and Klimt especially was the preeminent exponent. In 1905 came a further split within the movement: a split between the fine arts people and the applied arts people. The latter, including Klimt, associated art with industry and were dismayed by the increasingly strong trend towards naturalism. Geometrics, functionalism, and a two-dimensional quality were features instead here. In 1939 growing Nazism contributed to the dissolution of the movement.
  11. 11. 1907 <ul><li>Klimt, The Kiss </li></ul><ul><li>Couple kissing on the edge of a bed </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies lost in decorative patterning </li></ul><ul><li>Only heads, hands, and feet visible </li></ul><ul><li>Surface pattern embraces all </li></ul><ul><li>Background is flat and offsets foreground patterns </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1901 In the Old Testament, the Jewish widow, Judith, saved the city of Bethulia from siege by the Assyrians by adoring herself and venturing into the enemy camp to gain access to the Assyrian general, Holofernes. He invited her to a banquet intending to seduce her, and while they were alone at the feast, Judith took advantage of Holofernes' drunkenness to decapitate him, and returned to Bethulia with his head in a sack. The Jews saw Judith as a virtuous heroine, but Klimt portrays her as a Viennese femme fatale. Her expression of cruel triumph has often led to her being confused with Salome, who ordered the beheading of John the Baptist to satisfy the vengeful spirit of her mother.
  13. 13. Fauvism Matisse, Red Room (Harmony in Red) <ul><li>First appeared in 1905 at the third Salon d’Automne in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Dubbed by a critic as “wild beasts” </li></ul><ul><li>Color used as an expression of the artist’s mindset, not as a description of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Color inspired by Gauguin </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast of warm and cool colors, straight and curved lines </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity, clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Artist free to use color independent of natural conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified and schematized drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Loud bold colors </li></ul><ul><li>Depth suggested: forms flattened at curve of table, but curve is suggested by bending of floral patterns, not by the undelineated edges </li></ul><ul><li>Same floral patterns on walls and table </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1911
  15. 15. <ul><li>Kirchner, Street, Dresden </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of “The Bridge” a German Expressionist movement that saw itself as a bridge between traditional and modern art </li></ul><ul><li>Jarring and dissonant colors and shapes, clashing colors </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontational art </li></ul><ul><li>Ghoulish figures, seemingly fashionably dressed but in reality they appear threatening </li></ul><ul><li>Tilted perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Bright pink street offset by darker sinister figures </li></ul><ul><li>Paint thickly applied in broad brushstrokes </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Kandinsky, Improvisation 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of the “Blue Rider” school of German Expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Representative elements of art eliminated: birth of abstract art </li></ul><ul><li>Subconscious sensations in art </li></ul><ul><li>Titles inspired by musical compositions </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant black lines broadly play horizontally, vertically, diagonally </li></ul><ul><li>Lines define space, color added at intervals around lines </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1906 'Rouault was a deeply religious man, considered by some to be the greatest religious artist of the 20th century. The terrible compassion with which he shows his wretched creatures makes a powerful impression. A savage indictment of human cruelty; she is a travesty of femininity although poverty drives her still to prance miserably before her mirror in hope of work. Yet the picture does not depress but holds out hope of redemption. This work is for Rouault a profoundly moral one. She is a sad female version of his tortured Christ, a figure mocked and scorned, held in disrepute.' From: D Solle, Great Women of the Bible in Art and Literature (Eerdmans 1994)
  18. 18. Free Homework Pass <ul><li>Bring a printout of this slide to class on Monday, April 21, and receive one free pass on the next homework assignment of your choice worth 20 points or less. </li></ul>