Italian Baroque Post


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Italian Baroque Post

  1. 1. The Baroque in Italy<br />
  2. 2. Baroque<br />Meant as derogatory, exaggerated, excessive, perverse<br />Advanced techniques of Renaissance married to the intense emotions of Mannerism<br />Courts and palaces designed to impress visitors<br />Theatrical – emphasis on emotion over rationality<br />
  3. 3. Catholic Protestant<br />Spain<br />Portugal<br />France<br />Italy<br />Provinces (Belgium)<br />Austria<br />Poland<br />Rhineland<br />Holy Roman Empire<br />England<br />Scotland<br />Scandinavia<br />Swiss Confederation<br />Holland<br />North Germany<br />
  4. 4. Catholic Protestant<br />Caravaggio - Italian<br />Bernini – Italian<br />Poussin – French<br />Versailles and Louis XIV – French<br />Rubens – Flemish<br />Velazquez – Spain<br />The Counter Reformation & Absolutism<br />Rembrandt – Dutch<br />Vermeer – Dutch<br />Capitalist markets for Art<br />The Age of Science<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Caravaggio (1573 – 1610)<br />Rebelled against convention<br />Started in Rome, but fled after murder and worked in many cities<br />Used drowned corpse as a model for Death of a Virgin – refused by patron but purchased by Duke of mantua on advice of Rubens<br />Used prostitutes, drunks and street people for models<br />New Powerful Naturalism<br />Died at 37 (unknown cause but lots of speculation)<br />Intense Light/Dark contrasts<br />Dramatic chiarioscuro revolutionizes European art as well as the use of common people<br />Varicose veins, dirty fingernails, and other attributes of “truth” in painting<br />Often worked straight onto canvas without preliminary drawings<br />High Psychological content<br />
  7. 7. In 1565 the French Monsignor Matteo Contarelli acquired a chapel in San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome, but when he died twenty years later it had not yet been decorated. The executor of his will, Virgilio Crescenzi, and later his son, Giacomo, undertook the task. The decorative scheme called for a statue of St Matthew and the Angel, commissioned first to Gerolamo Muziano, and then to the Flemish sculptor Cobaert, for the high altar; and for a fresco cycle for the walls and ceiling by Cavalier d&apos;Arpino. The latter decorated the vault in 1591-93, but the walls were left bare. On 13 June 1599 a contract was stipulated before a notary by which Caravaggio undertook to execute two paintings for the lateral walls (The Calling of Saint Matthew and The Martyrdom of St Matthew), for which he was paid the following year (1600), after the paintings had been set in place. Later, on 7 February 1602, after Cobaert&apos;s statue had been judged unsatisfactory, an altarpiece was entrusted to Caravaggio in a separate contract that called for delivery of the work by 32 May, the Feast of the Pentecost. This painting was rejected, the artist made another one (which was accepted) in a surprisingly brief time, receiving payment for this second work on 22 September. <br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Caravaggio, Calling of Saint Matthew<br /><ul><li>Tenebroso
  11. 11. Light comes from two sources on the right; top source illuminates Saint Matthew
  12. 12. Ordinary figures
  13. 13. Some dressed as 17th Century dandies, fashionably coiffed
  14. 14. Influence of Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam in the hand of Christ: God’s hand but Adam’s reversed position </li></li></ul><li>Caravaggio, Conversion of Saint Paul<br /><ul><li>Unknown source of light
  15. 15. Common figures
  16. 16. Little to suggest a spiritual event
  17. 17. Dark tenebroso effect; limited color palette
  18. 18. Figures are very closely spaced
  19. 19. Awkwardness in the man holding the horse with his very long arms and legs that don’t line up with his head
  20. 20. Awkwardness of the foreshortened horse
  21. 21. Little depth; very shallow stage, figures pushed forward
  22. 22. Positioning of horse guides viewer “into” painting seen to the right</li></li></ul><li>
  23. 23. Judith and Holofernes (Judith 13,1-10)<br />&quot;Judith was left alone in the tent, with Holofernes stretched out on the bed, for he was overcome with wine (Judith 13,2)... She went up to the post at the end of the bed, above Holofernes&apos; head, and took down his sword that hung there. She came close to the bed and took hold of the hair of his head, and said: &quot;Give me strength this day, O Lord God of Israel!&quot;. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed his head from his body (Judith 13,6-8)... After a moment she went out and gave Holofernes&apos; head to her maid (Judith 13, 9)&quot;.<br />The Old Testament narrates the episode of Judith who saved her city of Bethulia from the siege of Holofernes, general of the Assyrian king Nabucodonosor, by killing him after a banquet at which he had been made drink, beheading him and bringing his head to his fellow citizens (Judith ch. 10-13). <br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes<br /><ul><li>Painted six versions of the story
  26. 26. Gentileschi raped when young: is there a relationship of this event to the painting?
  27. 27. Artist identified with Judith, Gentileschi’s self-portrait as the heroine
  28. 28. Not idealized but realistic figures
  29. 29. Gory moment of decapitation, blood squirting out: shock value
  30. 30. Holofernes defenseless
  31. 31. Tenebroso
  32. 32. Dramatic light effect from the left</li></li></ul><li>Baroque Ceiling Painters<br />Influenced by Mantegna, Corregio and Michelangelo<br />Use of flying figures common<br />High achievement in perspective, foreshortening and issues of overlapping space, color and value in compositions.<br />
  33. 33. Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods (Palazzo Farnese)<br /><ul><li>Gallery intended to exhibit antique sculpture
  34. 34. Di sotto in sù and quadroriportatopainting intermingled
  35. 35. Figures flow harmoniously
  36. 36. Each figure is studied from life
  37. 37. Figures overlap frames of paintings
  38. 38. Painted herms bordering main scenes, inspired by Sistine Chapel ignudi
  39. 39. Hermes seem sculptural, seen from below
  40. 40. Golden frames seem three-dimensional but figures overlap them
  41. 41. Venetian color
  42. 42. Robust, healthy, muscular figures, defined contours: idealized</li></li></ul><li>Polyphemus attacking Galatea<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Di Sotto In Su: Italian phrase that refers to the idea of looking up from below. A type of illusionism in painting, achieved by means of sharp foreshortening, in which the figures and architecture seem to be high above and receding from the spectator.<br />Mantegna, 15th century<br />PietrodaCortona, 17th Century<br />
  46. 46. quadroriportato(Italian: ‘carried—or transferred—picture’). Term applied to a ceiling picture that is intended to look as if it is a framed easel picture placed overhead; there is no illusionistic foreshortening, figures appearing as if they were to be viewed at normal eye level.<br />Guido Reni, Aurora (1613)<br />
  47. 47. Guido Reni, Aurora (1613)<br /><ul><li>Quadroriportato
  48. 48. Glowing dramatic colors
  49. 49. Aurora leads Apollo’s chariot, Hours guide the chariot
  50. 50. Soft modeling
  51. 51. Idealized, sweetly lyrical females
  52. 52. Wavy compositional lines</li></li></ul><li>Pozzo, Glorification of Saint Ignatius<br /><ul><li>Walls of church are foreshortened into painted architecture
  53. 53. Di sotto in sù
  54. 54. Ceiling of church painted as if it were removed and figures are hovering above us
  55. 55. Four continents of the known world are represented between the windows: Europe, America, Africa and Asia
  56. 56. St. Ignatius floats above, his deeds and good works span to the four continents
  57. 57. Rays spring from his head to the four continents</li></li></ul><li>                                     <br />Bernini, David<br /><ul><li>David is energetically swinging the slingshot
  58. 58. Chose not to wear his armor to fight Goliath, it is at his feet and acts as a physical support for the statue
  59. 59. Harp at his feet suggests David as a poet and singer
  60. 60. Said to have Bernini’s likeness: intensity of expression
  61. 61. Must be seen in the round, though may have been originally set against a wall
  62. 62. Recalls Hellenistic Greek art
  63. 63. Baroque art: figures caught in the middle of action</li></li></ul><li>Bernini (1598 – 1680)<br />One of the most influential Baroque artists<br />Architect and sculptor<br />Devotion to physical and psychological reality<br />Exquisite sense of textures<br />Patron Cardinal Barberini becomes Pope Urban VII and grants many commisions (especially for St. Peter’s)<br />Mixture of many media in certain pieces<br />When called to France by Louis XIV – sculpture not used – portrait changed rto roman figure and placed in remote part of garden<br />
  64. 64.  Bernini, Pluto and Persephone, 1622<br />
  65. 65. Rape of the Sabine Women (1574-82), by Giambologna<br />
  66. 66. Cornaro Chapel<br />
  67. 67. EXCERPT FROM THE LIFE OF ST. THERESA<br />...Beside me, on the left hand, appeared an angel in bodily form, such as I am not in the habit of seeing except rarely. Though I often have visions of angels, I do not see them...But it was the Lord&apos;s will that I should see this angel in the following way. He was not tall but short, and very beautiful; and his face was so aflame that he appeared to be one of the highest ranks of angels, who seem to be all on fire. They must be of the kind called cherubim, but they do not tell me their names. I know very well that there is a great difference between some angels and others, and between these others still, but I could not possibly explain it. In his hands I saw a great golden spear, and at the iron tip there appeared to be a point on fire. This he plunged into my heart several times so that it penetrated to my entrails. When he plunged it out, I felt that he took them with it, and left me utterly consumed by the great love of God. The pain was so severe that it made me utter several moans. The sweetness caused by this intense pain is so extreme that one cannot possibly wish it to cease, or is anyone&apos;s soul then content with anything but God. This is not physical, but a spiritual pain, though the body has some share in it- even a considerable share. So gentle is this wooing which takes place between God and the soul that if anyone thinks I am lying, I pray God to grant him some experience of it<br />
  68. 68. Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Theresa<br /><ul><li>Stage-like setting
  69. 69. Carved a vision by Saint Theresa of Avila
  70. 70. Members of the patron family, the Cornaro, look on from theatre boxes, in conversation or are reading about the event itself
  71. 71. Baroque as theatrical
  72. 72. Natural light from a hidden window shines on rays and figures
  73. 73. Combination of painting, sculpture and architecture
  74. 74. Directed view
  75. 75. Angel as sexless, Teresa in physical ecstasy, drained of all emotion
  76. 76. Carved marble differently depending on the texture of the surface: clouds are rough, wings are downy, drapery is smooth, and skin has a high shine</li></li></ul><li>Four Rivers, Fountain, Rome (Ganges, Nile, Danube, Rio della Plata) <br />
  77. 77. Ganges<br />Danube<br />Nile (covered head for unknown source)<br />Rio della Plata<br />Americas (note coins on the ledge representing the riches)<br />1648-50 (Pope Innocent X)<br />
  78. 78. Italian Baroque Sculpture<br />Bernini, Baldacchino<br />Over main altar of Saint Peter’s<br />100 feet high, made of bronze<br />Twisting columns inspired by Early Christian designs, corkscrew motif<br />Lively ornate concept<br />Symbol of the patron, the Barberini family, in the sun and bees motif on entablature<br />Baroque concept of directed view: focuses your eyes down the main aisle of Saint Peter’s and acts as a frame for the Cathedra Petri, which though later in date, was likely planned already<br />Bronze taken from the Pantheon: paganism transformed into Christianity<br />
  79. 79. Bernini, Colonnade of Saint Peter’s, Rome<br /><ul><li>Plaza holds half million people, 284 columns, 4 rows, 140 statues
  80. 80. Church in a congested area of Rome, Bernini wanted an open area to overwhelm visitors entering it through the four-deep colonnade with light and space
  81. 81. Tuscan Doric columns with classical temple front
  82. 82. Curving Baroque shape of colonnade
  83. 83. Forms the shape of two arms bringing people into the Church
  84. 84. Also the shape of a skeleton keyhole, symbolic of Saint Peter who holds the keys to the kingdom</li></li></ul><li>Italian Baroque Architecture<br />Borromini, St. Charles of the Four Fountains, Rome<br />Very small site<br />Complex ground plan<br />Alternating convex and concave patterns<br />Exterior:<br />Façade higher than the rest of the building<br />Walls treated sculpturally<br />Emphasis on central portal with kiosk and formerly frescoed medallion above <br />Union of three major arts<br />Interior:<br />Chapels merge into the main room<br />Oval coffered dome<br />