High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Leonardo,  Virgin of the Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary, mystical feeling </li></ul><ul><l...
High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Leonardo,  Last Supper </li></ul><ul><li>Only remaining work in situ, painted on a wall of th...
High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Leonardo,  Mona Lisa </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid form with hands at base </li></ul><ul><li>She ...
High Renaissance Architecture <ul><li>Bramante, Tempietto, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Circular shrine, spot where Saint Peter ...
<ul><li>Bramante, Saint Peter’s, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Greek cross, four sides equal </li></ul><ul><li>Exact hemisphere o...
High Renaissance Architecture <ul><li>Sangallo, Palazzo Farnese, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Broad front, huge rectangle </li><...
High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Michelangelo,  David </li></ul><ul><li>Terribilità </li></ul><ul><li>First colossal nude sinc...
<ul><li>Michelangelo, Sistine Ceiling, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>4 years to paint, 300 figures, no two of which are in the sa...
<ul><li>Michelangelo,  Creation of Adam </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth scene on the vault of the Sistine Ceiling </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Michelangelo,  Moses </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for the tomb of Pope Julius II </li></ul><ul><li>Central piece, al...
High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Raphael,  Madonna in the Meadow </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular composition echoing Leonardo </l...
<ul><li>Raphael,  Galatea  </li></ul><ul><li>Galatea pursued by Polyphemus </li></ul><ul><li>Galatea’s head turns left, ar...
High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Raphael,  School of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for Pope Julius II’s library/study </li>...
 
High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Michelangelo,  Tomb of Giuliano de’Medici </li></ul><ul><li>Lying atop a sarcophagus, two fig...
Giuliano’s Tomb Lorenzo’s Tomb
High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Michelangelo,  Last Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Beginnings of Mannerism seen here: distortion ...
 
High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Michelangelo, Saint Peter’s, Rome   </li></ul><ul><li>Many architects worked on Saint Peter’s...
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High Renaissance Post

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High Renaissance Post

  1. 1. High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Leonardo, Virgin of the Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary, mystical feeling </li></ul><ul><li>No traditional haloes </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition of mountain opening up miraculously to shelter the Holy Family </li></ul><ul><li>Water running is a symbol of baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Ivy in background symbolizes fidelity and continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Angel Uriel’s expression: to whom is it directed? </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual pattern of hands, forms a cross of Jesus’ head? </li></ul><ul><li>Chiaroscuro, sfumato, atmospheric perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Botanist’s and geologist’s attention to the foreground plants and the mysterious setting of the mist-shrouded cave </li></ul>
  2. 2. High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Leonardo, Last Supper </li></ul><ul><li>Only remaining work in situ, painted on a wall of the monks’ dining room </li></ul><ul><li>Oil, tempera, fresco technique on a damp wall made the fresco flake </li></ul><ul><li>Captures the moment when Christ says, “One of you will betray me” </li></ul><ul><li>Christ appears calm amid the storm of animated gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Various psychological portraits in the reactions of the apostles: surprise, anger, fear, denial, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic groupings of three, Christ at center in open-armed pose of serene acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective beams of the ceiling, floor and tapestries on walls point to Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Fictional space advances real space of room </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramidical shape of Christ’s body, a favorite High Renaissance form </li></ul><ul><li>Subtle halo of the rounded pediment above his head </li></ul><ul><li>Three windows symbolize the Trinity </li></ul><ul><li>Judas obscured by darkness falls back, clutching his bag of coins </li></ul>
  3. 3. High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Leonardo, Mona Lisa </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid form with hands at base </li></ul><ul><li>She is not smiling, but gives the illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological insight, coupled with enticing inaccessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial perspective: she sits in a window box with a fantasy background </li></ul><ul><li>Picture cut down later on three sides, we see only the base of the columns in the window box or balcony </li></ul><ul><li>26 or 27 years old, likely the wife of a Florentine silk merchant, Francesco del Giocondo </li></ul><ul><li>¾ view, more of the body shown, gentle contrapposto suggested </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of figure and landscape </li></ul>
  4. 4. High Renaissance Architecture <ul><li>Bramante, Tempietto, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Circular shrine, spot where Saint Peter crucified </li></ul><ul><li>Cylindrical shape, dome ribbed on outside </li></ul><ul><li>Proportions simple, harmonious, unified </li></ul><ul><li>Alternating masses and voids </li></ul><ul><li>No exterior decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Circle as a symbol of the perfection of the world, used in the Pantheon </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of humanist ideas of pagan and Christian background </li></ul><ul><li>Underground crypt symbolizes the underworld where Saint Peter’s cross was planted </li></ul><ul><li>Main body is a temple, looking like a tabernacle </li></ul><ul><li>Upper body represents the Church triumphant </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Bramante, Saint Peter’s, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Greek cross, four sides equal </li></ul><ul><li>Exact hemisphere of a dome, planned like the Pantheon </li></ul><ul><li>Bell towers frame main dome; drum added for height </li></ul><ul><li>Interior: coupled pilasters, one giant story as in Sant’Andrea </li></ul><ul><li>Never finished according to Bramante’s plan </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller domes accent main dome </li></ul>
  6. 6. High Renaissance Architecture <ul><li>Sangallo, Palazzo Farnese, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Broad front, huge rectangle </li></ul><ul><li>“ Kneeling” windows suspended from a stringcourse </li></ul><ul><li>Second floor alternating triangular with circular pediments </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy cornice tops building </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly articulated stringcourses define horizontal stories </li></ul><ul><li>Rusticated doorway and corners </li></ul><ul><li>Projecting window casements give a solid feel to the façade </li></ul><ul><li>First floor has a darker color, indicating a solid firm base </li></ul>
  7. 7. High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Michelangelo, David </li></ul><ul><li>Terribilità </li></ul><ul><li>First colossal nude since the ancient world </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging figure: calm, tense, concentrating on the enemy </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum vantage point is from the front and below, not meant to be seen from the back </li></ul><ul><li>Slight contrapposto </li></ul><ul><li>Monumentality, simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Undercutting of brow, piercing eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of alertness, awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Holds slingshot over shoulder, rock in hand </li></ul><ul><li>Placed in front of city hall of Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Came to symbolize victorious Florence against larger enemies </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Michelangelo, Sistine Ceiling, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>4 years to paint, 300 figures, no two of which are in the same pose; 70 feet from floor </li></ul><ul><li>Nine main episodes from the book of Genesis, opening book of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Done at the behest of Pope Julius II </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Michelangelo, Creation of Adam </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth scene on the vault of the Sistine Ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Monumental forms, solid figures </li></ul><ul><li>God creates Adam in “his image and likeness” </li></ul><ul><li>Center: two hands do not touch, there is a distance between them </li></ul><ul><li>God the Father is awesome in his power of love, his kindness to create </li></ul><ul><li>Adam modeled on an ancient Roman river god </li></ul><ul><li>Two great forms: Adam as earth and God as sky </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially separate units </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Michelangelo, Moses </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for the tomb of Pope Julius II </li></ul><ul><li>Central piece, although meant to be placed on the second floor of the original tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to be seen from a low angle </li></ul><ul><li>Awe-inspiring, majestic, solid </li></ul><ul><li>Julius as an enlightened lawgiver, as was Moses </li></ul><ul><li>Same face as God the Father on the Sistine Ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Few negative spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Tense coiled feeling </li></ul>
  11. 11. High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Raphael, Madonna in the Meadow </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular composition echoing Leonardo </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric perspective, sun-drenched landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, ordered and deceptively simple composition, but poses complex </li></ul><ul><li>Tenderness and love expressed </li></ul><ul><li>Graceful, tender expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Strong diagonals control composition </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Raphael, Galatea </li></ul><ul><li>Galatea pursued by Polyphemus </li></ul><ul><li>Galatea’s head turns left, arms right, hips left, legs frontal </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular compositional elements </li></ul><ul><li>Twisting bodies seem natural but are highly complex </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests wheeling movement and spontaneity </li></ul>
  13. 13. High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Raphael, School of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for Pope Julius II’s library/study </li></ul><ul><li>Greek philosophers of ancient world in muted conversation </li></ul><ul><li>No dominant colors, weaving of various hues </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, open piazza-like structure </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective points to two central figures under a barrel vault that resembles Saint Peter’s by Bramante </li></ul><ul><li>Plato and Aristotle in center as greatest of philosophers </li></ul><ul><li>Plato has Leonardo’s features </li></ul><ul><li>Plato points up revealing his philosophy of another ideal world </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle points outward to indicate that this material world is the only world </li></ul><ul><li>Bramante as Euclid, balding, in lower right </li></ul><ul><li>Raphael second from the far right, among the scientists, mathematicians and astronomers </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo, as Heraclitus, composing a sonnet in the front foreground painted in his own style </li></ul>
  14. 15. High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Michelangelo, Tomb of Giuliano de’Medici </li></ul><ul><li>Lying atop a sarcophagus, two figures of Day and Night </li></ul><ul><li>Night: female, restless, tense, between the legs is an owl (symbolic of night, watchfulness), she rests on a mask </li></ul><ul><li>Day: twisted, looking over his shoulder, massive muscularity </li></ul><ul><li>Giuliano: a heroic type, classical, dressed in Roman armor, idealized, not an actual portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Neoplatonic ideals expressed in vigorous Giuliano and more contemplative Lorenzo </li></ul>
  15. 16. Giuliano’s Tomb Lorenzo’s Tomb
  16. 17. High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Michelangelo, Last Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Beginnings of Mannerism seen here: distortion of the figures, elongation </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo-like Christ comes to bring the saved to heaven and condemn the lost to Hell </li></ul><ul><li>No weighing of souls, he passes judgment with a movement of his hands </li></ul><ul><li>Christ defiantly swings away the evil souls, gently lifts the blessed </li></ul><ul><li>He is surrounded by the martyrs and saints of the church </li></ul><ul><li>On the skin held by Saint Bartholomew is a self-portrait of Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>Charon ferries the damned into Hell at bottom right </li></ul><ul><li>A serpent wrapped around his torso, Minos awaits to place the damned </li></ul><ul><li>Twisting, complex, and convoluted composition </li></ul><ul><li>Composition organized in horizontal layers </li></ul>
  17. 19. High Renaissance Art <ul><li>Michelangelo, Saint Peter’s, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Many architects worked on Saint Peter’s before Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>Respected Bramante’s plan, and revived portions of it </li></ul><ul><li>Used a double dome as at Florence </li></ul><ul><li>One hundred feet taller than the dome of Florence Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Building has monumental pilasters and columns that extend from the ground to the roof without interruption </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous windows make interior light </li></ul><ul><li>Surmounted by a lantern </li></ul><ul><li>After Michelangelo’s death, the building was completed by Giacomo della Porta, who redesigned the dome to make it more pointed instead of round </li></ul>

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