Petrarch 1304 - 1374 <ul><li>The father of “Humanism” </li></ul><ul><li>Big Fan of Cicero and classical antiquity, especia...
Early Influences (outside the role of Antiquity) <ul><li>Clement V begins the Avignon papacy  in 1308, leading to Great Sc...
Nicola Pisano Pisa Baptistry The Cathedral Pulpit is Giovanni Pisano's masterpiece, and was built between 1302 and 1311. T...
Duccio, Maestà (Madonna with Angels and Saints) 1308-11 Tempera on wood,
Sienese School of Painting <ul><li>Duccio,  Maestà </li></ul><ul><li>Mary as Queen of Heaven surrounded by angels and sain...
Cappella Scrovegni (Arena Chapel), Padua
 
Arena Chapel, Padua
Sienese School of Painting <ul><li>Simone Martini,  </li></ul><ul><li>Annunciation </li></ul><ul><li>International Style <...
Sienese School of Painting <ul><li>Pietro Lorenzetti,  Birth of the Virgin </li></ul><ul><li>Birth of Mary, mother of Jesu...
 
 
Sienese School of Painting <ul><li>Ambrogio Lorenzetti,  Allegory of Good Government </li></ul><ul><li>Painting done in th...
 
 
Northern Renaissance 15 th  Century <ul><li>Limbourg Brothers,  October </li></ul><ul><li>From a Book of Hours </li></ul><...
Unfinished Calendar Page January The Très Riches Heures is  the  classic example of a medieval  book of hours . This was a...
Northern Renaissance 15 th  Century <ul><li>Campin,  Mérode Altarpiece </li></ul><ul><li>Donors at left: grave, sedate, mi...
 
Northern Renaissance 15 th  Century <ul><li>Jan van Eyck,  Ghent Altarpiece </li></ul><ul><li>Outside wings: theme of salv...
<ul><li>Inside: </li></ul><ul><li>No attempt to idealize figures, as in Adam and Eve </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of scale ...
 
Northern Renaissance 15 th  Century <ul><li>Jan van Eyck,  Arnolfini and His Bride </li></ul><ul><li>Wedding symbolism in ...
Northern Renaissance 15 th  Century <ul><li>Van der Goes,  Portinari Altarpiece </li></ul><ul><li>Painted in Bruges, insta...
Hugo van der Goes , c. 1436-1482  (Flem.),
Northern Renaissance 15 th  Century <ul><li>Van der Weyden,  Escorial Deposition </li></ul><ul><li>No deep landscape, figu...
 
 
Northern Renaissance 15 th  Century <ul><li>Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights </li></ul><ul><li>Left: Garden of Eden with ...
Northern Renaissance 15 th  Century <ul><li>Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Behind Eve is ...
 
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Early Renaissance

1,494 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual, Education
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,494
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
45
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
55
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Early Renaissance

  1. 2. Petrarch 1304 - 1374 <ul><li>The father of “Humanism” </li></ul><ul><li>Big Fan of Cicero and classical antiquity, especially literature </li></ul><ul><li>Originally from Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Invented the modern ideal of the “autonomous individual” </li></ul><ul><li>Sought to define of the Virtuous Life </li></ul><ul><li>Began the debate on the contemplative vs. the active life </li></ul><ul><li>Perfected the sonnet </li></ul><ul><li>Unleashed the obsessive recovery of ancient texts in early Renaissance </li></ul>
  2. 3. Early Influences (outside the role of Antiquity) <ul><li>Clement V begins the Avignon papacy in 1308, leading to Great Schism of 1378 and the period of “3 Popes” until 1409 </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Death; Plague in 1348 </li></ul><ul><li>The Introduction of Gunpowder and the changing role of the Nobility (from warrior to dilettante) </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the Merchant Class and Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas conquests, migration and colonization </li></ul><ul><li>A growing Interest in the Natural World and the fidelity of depiction as opposed to symbolism </li></ul>
  3. 4. Nicola Pisano Pisa Baptistry The Cathedral Pulpit is Giovanni Pisano's masterpiece, and was built between 1302 and 1311. The beautifully sculpted panels represent scenes from the life of Jesus. The Baptistery Pulpit was built in 1260 by Nicola Pisano. It is hexagonal in shape and the six sculpted panels depict the life and death of Christ.
  4. 5. Duccio, Maestà (Madonna with Angels and Saints) 1308-11 Tempera on wood,
  5. 6. Sienese School of Painting <ul><li>Duccio, Maestà </li></ul><ul><li>Mary as Queen of Heaven surrounded by angels and saints </li></ul><ul><li>Most opulent and complex altarpiece of its time </li></ul><ul><li>Mournful gaze characteristic of Duccio </li></ul><ul><li>Almond eyes and rosebud mouth of the Mary are typical of Byzantine art </li></ul><ul><li>Throne opens up for all to see </li></ul><ul><li>Figures arranged in a hierarchy, however formal frontality of figures relaxed a bit </li></ul>
  6. 7. Cappella Scrovegni (Arena Chapel), Padua
  7. 9. Arena Chapel, Padua
  8. 10. Sienese School of Painting <ul><li>Simone Martini, </li></ul><ul><li>Annunciation </li></ul><ul><li>International Style </li></ul><ul><li>Elegant shapes, swaying figures </li></ul><ul><li>Radiant color </li></ul><ul><li>Fluttering drapery </li></ul><ul><li>Courtly ritual, courtly dress </li></ul><ul><li>Angel: white and gold brocade with floating plaid-lined mantle </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin: mantle lined with deep gold lines </li></ul><ul><li>No recession of space, only relationship of two main figures </li></ul><ul><li>Vase of white lilies symbolizes Virgin’s purity </li></ul><ul><li>Dove of Holy Spirit surrounded by Cherubim </li></ul>
  9. 11. Sienese School of Painting <ul><li>Pietro Lorenzetti, Birth of the Virgin </li></ul><ul><li>Birth of Mary, mother of Jesus, at home </li></ul><ul><li>A midwife holds a fan to cool Saint Anne </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday items of the Gothic period on display in the home </li></ul><ul><li>Mary’s father, Joachim, is waiting outside to hear the news of the birth </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden frame </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaway cross-section allows viewer to look directly into a typical middle class home </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneering attempt at building a consistent interior space </li></ul><ul><li>Single vanishing point suggested </li></ul><ul><li>Palpable sense of three-dimensionality on a two-dimensional surface </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion of great depth on left </li></ul><ul><li>Local women bring gifts of bread and wine to symbolize the Eucharist </li></ul>
  10. 14. Sienese School of Painting <ul><li>Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Good Government </li></ul><ul><li>Painting done in the chief council chamber of Siena, the Hall of Peace </li></ul><ul><li>Panoramic view of the city of Siena with walls and countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Security in center has a banner that proclaims everyone can walk freely because justice reigns </li></ul><ul><li>Singing and dancing in the streets of the ideal republic (actually against Sienese law) </li></ul><ul><li>Crafts, professions, trades are highlighted as thriving </li></ul><ul><li>Bountiful harvests: a good city feeds its people </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects of leisure: hunters and falconers leave the city unafraid of their safety </li></ul><ul><li>Dark blue sky in contrast with well lit scenery </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocratic elegance of figures </li></ul>
  11. 17. Northern Renaissance 15 th Century <ul><li>Limbourg Brothers, October </li></ul><ul><li>From a Book of Hours </li></ul><ul><li>Top: paired signs of the zodiac: Libra & Scorpio </li></ul><ul><li>Divide between peasant class in foreground and ruling nobility in castle in background </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants work at farm routines </li></ul><ul><li>Very detailed observation of nature: from birds eating the seed to the shadows cast by the horse </li></ul><ul><li>Sumptuous colors </li></ul>
  12. 18. Unfinished Calendar Page January The Très Riches Heures is the classic example of a medieval book of hours . This was a collection of the text for each liturgical hour of the day - hence the name - which often included other, supplementary, texts. Calendars, prayers, psalms and masses for certain holy days were commonly included.
  13. 19. Northern Renaissance 15 th Century <ul><li>Campin, Mérode Altarpiece </li></ul><ul><li>Donors at left: grave, sedate, middle class, witness a holy event </li></ul><ul><li>In center: Annunciation scene </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication of religious scenes, no haloes </li></ul><ul><li>Water and water basin as a baptism symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Candle just snuffed out: divine light puts out human light </li></ul><ul><li>Candles have a phallic connotation; extinguished candle: consummation of marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Lilies: Mary’s purity </li></ul><ul><li>Three flowers indicate the Trinity, one bud: Christ as yet unborn </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin on floor: her humility </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin blocks off entrance to hell, symbolically the fireplace </li></ul><ul><li>At right: Joseph in his workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Outside, a view of a Flemish city, with a mousetrap for sale in the window; mousetrap as symbol of Christ ensnaring the devil </li></ul><ul><li>Thin figures, sinuous curves of drapery </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic sense of surface detail </li></ul>
  14. 21. Northern Renaissance 15 th Century <ul><li>Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece </li></ul><ul><li>Outside wings: theme of salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Figures sit in small niches, claustrophobic </li></ul><ul><li>Saint John the Evangelist and Saint John the Baptist done in grisaille; both patron saints of Ghent </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme realism of figures, cf. donors </li></ul><ul><li>Many detailed surfaces from stubble on beard to leaves on trees </li></ul><ul><li>Inscriptions denote Christ’s coming </li></ul><ul><li>Donors kneel in Gothic frames </li></ul><ul><li>Flemish landscape is revealed in background </li></ul>
  15. 22. <ul><li>Inside: </li></ul><ul><li>No attempt to idealize figures, as in Adam and Eve </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of scale of figures </li></ul><ul><li>God the Father enthroned wearing the Pope’s tiara flanked by Mary and John the Baptist, then the angels, then Adam and Eve </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrifice of Christ symbolized by the Lamb bleeding on the altar in the lower central panel </li></ul><ul><li>The case that housed the altarpiece is now lost </li></ul>
  16. 24. Northern Renaissance 15 th Century <ul><li>Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini and His Bride </li></ul><ul><li>Wedding symbolism in painting </li></ul><ul><li>Dog as symbol of fidelity </li></ul><ul><li>Slippers cast off symbolizing standing on holy ground; slippers also served as traditional wedding gifts </li></ul><ul><li>One candle in the chandelier symbolizes one act of intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>Candle burns all night on first night of wedding </li></ul><ul><li>Bed curtains are open, revealing marriage bed </li></ul><ul><li>Bride pulls up dress as an allusion to a wife’s role as child bearer </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Margaret: patron saint of childbirth on the bed headboard </li></ul><ul><li>Painting signed and dated: “Jan van Eyck was here 1434” </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny medallions surrounding mirror depict Passion of Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Priest not necessary for a wedding, only two witnesses who appear in the mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Figures are extremely pale, very richly robed </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to detail, light, texture and luster </li></ul>
  17. 25. Northern Renaissance 15 th Century <ul><li>Van der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece </li></ul><ul><li>Painted in Bruges, installed on altar of a Florentine church attached to the city’s largest hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin represents alleviation of suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Oddly different sizes of figures </li></ul><ul><li>Solemn grandeur </li></ul><ul><li>Shepherds in wonder, gazing in curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat, serving as the bed for the Christ Child, is a Eucharistic symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for a church associated with a maternity hospital in Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Mary as the great mother of childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers are symbolic of suffering: scarlet lily, white and purple irises, Mary’s suffering in childbirth, Christ’s suffering on the Cross </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the flowers were known for their healing properties, appropriate for hospital setting of work </li></ul><ul><li>Background left wing: Mary’s pregnant state revealed as Joseph helps her </li></ul><ul><li>Christ: tiny and frail newborn </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret: patron saint of childbirth on right panel with female donors </li></ul><ul><li>Left panel: male donors and saints </li></ul>
  18. 26. Hugo van der Goes , c. 1436-1482 (Flem.),
  19. 27. Northern Renaissance 15 th Century <ul><li>Van der Weyden, Escorial Deposition </li></ul><ul><li>No deep landscape, figures on a shallow stage, silhouetted against a gold ground </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamically curved composition </li></ul><ul><li>Strong emotional impact on the observer, particularly in the tear-streaked face of swooning Mary </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic stress </li></ul><ul><li>Zigzag rhythm and profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel relationships in positioning of the figures: Mary and Christ, the two figures holding them, and the two end figures </li></ul><ul><li>Brilliantly colored </li></ul>
  20. 30. Northern Renaissance 15 th Century <ul><li>Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights </li></ul><ul><li>Left: Garden of Eden with God and Adam and Eve </li></ul><ul><li>Center: Garden of Earthly Delights: a treacherous peril-filled paradise </li></ul><ul><li>Right: Hell </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse: the earth in a glass globe, surrounded by water </li></ul><ul><li>Four panels are an allusion to the four states of alchemy: bringing together of opposites, unification of elements in a balanced whole, purging in a fire and rinsing clean </li></ul><ul><li>Also an allusion to the Four Ages of Man </li></ul><ul><li>Filmy transparent surface </li></ul><ul><li>People are soft and boneless, glowing, have no dignity or power </li></ul><ul><li>High horizons get as much detail in the paintings as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are without individuality, have no will, follow trends, are a helpless tool in the power of greater forces </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual scenes suggested, commonly understood Flemish symbols of lust include the birds and berries </li></ul>
  21. 31. Northern Renaissance 15 th Century <ul><li>Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Behind Eve is a rabbit, indicating how she will reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Central panels has phallic symbols, as in the spiky towers and the pond in the center </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangements suggest the consequences of a sinful life </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the consequence of the middle panel are graphically exposed in the right panel </li></ul><ul><li>Compositional elements continue from one panel to another: horizontal line through each scene </li></ul>

×