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Book Of Kells08post


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Book Of Kells08post

  1. 1. •Carolus Magnus (742? – 814) •King of the Franks and Emperor of the Romans (800 – 814) •Son of Pepin the Short (who begins an alliance with the Pope Stephen II) •Campaigns against the Lombards in Italy, Islam in Spain, and many northern European tribes •Crowned Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, 800
  2. 2. Established new Academy at his court and encouraged the copying of manuscripts including pagan and classical literature United the Christian lands of Western Europe and firmly established the power of the church Widespread development of manuscripts and monasteries
  3. 3. Carolingian Art Equestrian Statue of Charlemagne • Inspired by Roman equestrian monuments such as Marcus Aurelius • Imperial crown and robes • Orb as a symbol of the world • Rider larger than the horse he rides on • Horse is on parade, seems tame and obedient • Sits as though he is standing upright
  4. 4. Palatine Chapel at Aachen
  5. 5. Palatine Chapel San Vitale
  6. 6. Palatine Chapel, Aachen •Central plan, topped by an octagon •Built for Charlemagne •Inspired by San Vitale •Capitals taken from old Roman monuments •Large heavy appearance •Arches smaller on first story, larger on second •Arches on second story have Roman columns placed inside that are purely decorative, and do not hold the arches up •Arches on first floor have a low, heavy, thick appearance •Arches have a striped pattern
  7. 7. Comparison of the Plans of San Vitale in Ravenna to the Palace Chapel in Aix-la-Chapelle.
  8. 8. Lorsch Gatehouse, Lorsch
  9. 9. Lorsch Gatehouse, Lorsch (c. 780) • Not really a gateway, but probably in an atrium in a monastery • Cf. a triumphal arch in a Roman forum • Gabled roof for snow • Three equal openings • Columns placed against wall • Surface pattern and design • Fluted pilasters • Chapel on top may have been a reception hall for distinguished guests • Imitation pediments
  10. 10. St. Matthew, the Coronation Gospels, St. Matthew the Ebbo Gospels, c. 816 c. 800
  11. 11. Menander, 1st Century CE
  12. 12. Menander, 1st Century CE
  13. 13. Carolingian Art Monastery Plan, St. Gall, Switzerland • Ideal plan of a self-sufficient monastic community • Church in center, other buildings around • Daily activities in one place • Cloistered monks never leave except to work in the fields • Community of about 250-300 monks with 30 to 40 serfs per monk Timber architecture in outer • Highly organized buildings • Many altars in church, not for Standard of comfort was high for congregation, but for monks to the time say Mass Serfs lived with animals in their • Everything necessary for the pens monks grouped around the cloister Infirmary, school, convent, guest house
  14. 14. Early Medieval Art Sutton Hoo Purse Lid • Geometric interlace designs • Symmetry of forms • Animals and humans interact • Repetition of patterns • Used as a purse cover for a disintegrated purse found in a ship burial in England Purse Cover, Sutton Hoo ship burial, c. 655
  15. 15. In art, exceedingly complicated forms are used all over a figure to create a single unified image. Similarly in literature, multiple plot lines are developed and Animal Head Prow, the abandoned, only to be taken up again in Osberg ship burial, c. 825 order to create a single, unified dramatic narrative.
  16. 16. Borgund Stave Church Norway, 1125 - 50
  17. 17. Animal Head prow, the Osberg ship burial, c. 825 Hiberno-Saxon
  18. 18. Lindau Gospels c. 870-880
  19. 19. The Book of Lindisfarne Vellum sheets arranged so that the spine ridge of the animal runs across the page horizontally at the same place, minimizing movement of the page when the skin tries to return to the shape of the animal, causing the paint to flake
  20. 20. Cross Page from The Book of Lindisfarne •Balanced design •Cross clearly defined, stands apart from the space •Animal interlace •Complicated, spiraling patterns •Symmetry •Colors used in alternate positions around the cross •Known as a carpet page
  21. 21. Saint Matthew Page from The Book of Lindisfarne • Matthew shown as author and scribe writing his book of the Bible • His symbol, the angel, is above him with the words “imago hominis” – “image of a man” • Unknown man behind the curtain: Christ? Moses with the Old Testament? • The word Saint labeled in Greek, using Latin characters, “O Agios” • Mattheus in Latin • Strong use of vibrant color • Heavy outlines delineate forms • Folds in drapery indicated by contrasting lines that sweep in patterns
  22. 22. The Book of Kells is not simply a religious manuscript. True, it contains the four gospels of Mark, Mathew, Luke and John and that was the sole original purpose of the book. But its age and its design, although damaged, allow us a glorious glimpse into the art and style of ancient Ireland. The book is, quite simply, considered a crowning glory of the Celtic art form, and possibly one of the most important treasures of Western Europe.
  23. 23. Experts are uncertain where the Book of Kells was first begun, but evidence points to the Isle of Iona, which was the center of St. Columba's influence and the home of his church. Later, during the Viking raids of the 9th century, it was moved for its protection to Kells Monastery, County Meath, Ireland. Here it remained for almost two hundred years, until it was stolen in 1007. Its golden cover, which was probably encrusted with gems, was ripped from the book, and the remainder was thrown in a ditch. The book was soon recovered, but not before it received some water damage to the front and back pages. Unfortunately, its cover was forever lost.
  24. 24. The Book of Kells remained in the monastery at Kells until 1541, when the Roman Catholic Church took it for protection. In 1661, it was returned to Ireland and given to Trinity College of Dublin by Archbishop Ussher. It has remained at the college since then and is the most important work that the university library contains.
  25. 25. Over the years, approximately 30 of its pages have been lost, the remaining 340 contains the four gospels, a list of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian cannons. But these are not the hallmarks of the book, as it is the artwork contained on the remaining leaves of calfskin pages that are its major achievement.
  26. 26. The book is resplendent with artwork, covering almost all the styles known at the time. It is estimated that this artwork took a team of illustrators thirty years to complete. All of it meticulously done by hand and in amazing intricacy and color. The most resplendent of the pages open the four chapters with illustrations of the saints along with individual pages that depict events in the life of Christ.
  27. 27. The detail in the Book of Kells is amazing, with no one symbol duplicated elsewhere in the book. In one spot there are over 158 lacings of a white ribbon contained in a square inch and nowhere can there be found an error by the artist, even after searching with a magnifying glass. It is no wonder that for many years, it was believed that only angels could only have written the Book of Kells.
  28. 28. Between the years 150 and 850 Rome Carolingian • Temples • Churches • Polytheism • Christianity • Stone Architecture using • Stone and Timber columns and arches using architecture using blend of Greek and Etruscan models Roman and Byzantine • Stone sculpture that is models veristic • Ivory, Wood and Metal • Painting on walls, statues sculpture that is abstract and buildings using the • Painting in manuscripts natural world as a model representing biblical and Christian themes
  29. 29. Class Status Rome Carolingian - Gothic • Emperor • Pope • Senate • Emperor • Patriarchs • King • Plebians • Nobleman • Local Lord • Peasant
  30. 30. Three Types of People in Medieval Society 1. Those who Fight 2. Those who Pray 3. Those who Work
  31. 31. Ottonian Art
  32. 32. Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim • Two pairs of lateral entrances Ottonian Art • Two pairs of crossing towers • Two pairs of stair turrets • Two apses • Two transepts • Supports in the nave are not traditional columns, but pairs of columns alternating with square piers • Divides nave into three separate units of three openings each • First and third units are related to the lateral entrances to the building • Nave is a hall that connects the two apses • Windows do not line up with arches below: 9 arches with 10 windows • Spacious undecorated interior
  33. 33. Bronze Column of Hildesheim •Spiral column akin to Column of Trajan; scenes from bottom to top, but in reverse spiral •Story of the life of Christ •Culminates in decorative capital
  34. 34. Bronze Door of Hildesheim • Suggestions of Roman monumentality: inspired by bronze doors of the Pantheon (now gone) or Palatine Chapel (no decoration) • Solid bronze, each scene molded separately • Scenes compare scenes of the fall of man with the saving of man • Rectangular scenes with few figures and a barren landscape, empty background • Emphasis of gesture, liveliness • Bony figures • Emphasis on extremities: hands, feet, head • Spiky foliage • Heads fully rounded and emerge from background • Scenes tell the story of the life of Christ and Adam and Eve
  35. 35. Saint Cyriakus Germany 961 - 973
  36. 36. Saint Cyriakus St. Michael’s Hildesheim
  37. 37. Santa Sabina, Rome 422-32
  38. 38. Clerestory Gallery Aisle and arcade Nave
  39. 39. After the death of Charlemagne, his kingdom was divided among his grandsons, only to disintegrate at the hands of Vikings and Magyars. A re- consolidation occurred, however, in the middle of the 10th century, thanks to a new line of German emperors known as the Ottonians. The Ottonian period saw a new wave of influence from the Greek East (Otto II married a Byzantine princess), which resulted in one of the first monumental sculptures of the crucified Christ, the Gero Crucifix. The face (heavily etched with pain), the bulging arc of the abdomen, and the tension in the tightly stretched arms all convey Christ's torment with unequalled expression.