Ap art -chinese_and_korean[1]


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Ap art -chinese_and_korean[1]

  1. 1. Chinese and Korean Art After 1279<br />By Zach Small, Ashley Emery, and Jen Dalecki<br />
  2. 2. Chinese Dynasties After 1279<br />-Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)<br />-Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)<br />-Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)<br />-Modern Period (1911-Present Day)<br />
  3. 3. Yuan Dynasty<br /><ul><li>Beginning
  4. 4. Yuan dynasty preceded by the Song dynasty
  5. 5. Song dynasty brought China intro a period of increased introspection, cultivating Chinese traditions as opposed to absorbing foreign influences
  6. 6. Drew clear distinction between own people, who they characterized as gentle, erudite, and sophisticated, and “barbarians” living outside of China’s borders
  7. 7. Asserted identity through poetry, calligraphy, and landscape painting
  8. 8. Landscape painting reflected moral order unlike society under Tang dynasty</li></li></ul><li>Yuan Dynasty<br />Mongol Invasion<br />Mongols, led by Jenghiz Khan and his ancestors, amassed empire <br />Empire stretched as far as central Europe, central Asia, present-day Iraq, and northern China<br />Led by Kublai Khan, Mongols added southern China to their empire <br />Kublai Khan pronounced himself emperor of China and founder of Yuan Dynasty (Yuan = origin)<br />Established the capital in Dadu (now Beijing), shifting central focus of empire away from cultural centers of southern China<br />
  9. 9. Imperial vs. Literati Taste<br />Imperial court served as a patron of the arts, commissioning professional artists and artisans to construct building and gardens as well as create murals, paintings, and decorative arts<br />Literati saw painting as a vehicle of self expression; painted for each other as opposed to for public display<br />Created a status as artists that they felt was superior to professional painters; felt that professional artists were tainted by money and trying to please others rather than themselves<br />Further developed characteristics of literati painting:<br />Illustrated an “appreciation of antiquity”—revival of the past<br />Rough, unassuming brushwork over gentle, refined movement<br />Minimal use of color<br />Use of landscape to convey a personal meaning<br />
  10. 10. Hand Scrolls, Hanging Scrolls, and Album Leaves<br />Literati favored hand scrolls, hanging scrolls, or album leaves because made it easy to share with others<br />
  11. 11. Hand scrolls were paintings in a horizontal format, stretching several feet long<br />Often hand scrolls contained a single continuous, yet they were not displayed all at once; typically, only a foot or two was unrolled at a time<br />Hanging scrolls were viewed as a whole, unrolled and put up on a wall <br />Albums composed of a set of paintings of identical size mounted in a book; typically paintings within an album were related in subject<br />Paintings typically accompanied by colophons, or inscriptions related to the work (e.g. poems, comments, etc.) <br />
  12. 12. Zhao Mengfu<br />Zhao Mengfu was a descendant of the imperial line of Song, who chose to serve the Yuan government and was made a high official<br />Known as a poet, calligrapher, and painter—especially known for paintings of horses and landscapes<br />Landscapes are considered to be done in a style that focuses more on a literal laying of ground; not organized in a foreground, middle ground, and background, rather layers middle grounds at various heights to creative depth <br />Artwork pervaded with characteristics of literati painting<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains<br />Hand scroll created in 1296<br />Painted with ink and color pigments on paper<br />Subject matter: Qiao and Hua Mountains of Jinan<br />Painted for a friend whose ancestors came from Jinan; painting intended to depict landscape of Jinan<br />Not painted in naturalism common in the era, rather in the archaic manner of Tang dynasty<br />Color used sparingly<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Fascination With Nature<br />Painted by XieChufang<br />Hand scroll created in 1321<br />Subject matter: animals and insects feeding off one another<br />Beauty and brightness of the natural world cover up the confusion and disorder caused by the fight for survival<br />Representative of dilemma facing many Chinese of the period: whether to work for the Mongols or remain loyal to the fallen imperial dynasty<br />Plant/insect subject matter as well as vibrant colors date back to Song dynasty marks the revivalism of earlier styles of Chinese painters<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Ni Zan<br />Rich man who was the owner of a large estate<br />Pride and aloofness from daily affairs got him into trouble with authorities<br />Notoriously clean; washed himself several times a day and ordered servants to wash trees in his garden<br />Later in life, he is said to have given away all of his possessions and lived as a hermit in a boat<br />Lifestyle served as a model for literati; lived an “ideal” lifestyle<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. The Rongxi Studio<br />Hanging scroll created in 1372<br />Ink on paper; free of color<br />Depicts lake region in Ni’s home district; includes mountains, rocks, tree, and a pavilion<br />Minimum detail included in artwork<br />Created using a dry brush technique in which the brush is not fully loaded with ink but rather about to run out <br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />
  23. 23. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br /><ul><li>Replacing the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, it is known as one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history
  24. 24. Expansion:
  25. 25. Military naval and standing army
  26. 26. Trade under Zheng He expanded
  27. 27. Reconstruction:
  28. 28. Grand Canal and Great Wall
  29. 29. Emperor Hongwu strived to rebuild self-sufficient agricultural communities
  30. 30. Allows for trading class to thrive and become eligible scholars
  31. 31. Establishment:
  32. 32. Forbidden City in the center of Bejing
  33. 33. The Columbian Exchange
  34. 34. Due to natural calamity (Little Ice Age) and poor economy, rebel leader Li Zicheng could challenge the Ming authority</li></li></ul><li>Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />Shen Zhou<br /><ul><li>Born wealthy in the Jiangsu providence
  35. 35. Renounced official service to take care of ill mother and become a retired artist
  36. 36. Composer of poems, usually dealing with natural undertones and thought
  37. 37. Style is informal, relaxed, and straightforward
  38. 38. Reflects his own personality
  39. 39. Share similar style to the Yuan Dynasty, but with more individual thought
  40. 40. Artists of the Ming Dynasty could live solely off of profits for art
  41. 41. Literati paintings with a mood and verse in mind
  42. 42. “Delicate Shen”</li></li></ul><li>Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />
  43. 43. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />Poet on a Mountaintop<br /><ul><li>Comes from the Wu School of art
  44. 44. Expresses a calm mood directly after the transition from the Yuan to Ming Dynasty
  45. 45. Monochrome painting in vogue
  46. 46. Poet has climbed mountains and now dominates the landscape
  47. 47. Reflects Ming philosophy: the mind, not the physical world, was the basis of reality
  48. 48. Synthesizes poetry, calligraphy, and painting</li></ul>Ming Dynasty. Handscroll.<br />c. 1500 Ink and color on paper<br />
  49. 49. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />
  50. 50. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />Hundreds of Birds Admiring the Peacocks<br /><ul><li>By Yin Hong
  51. 51. Birds and flower genre of the Song academy
  52. 52. Extremely symbolic:
  53. 53. Homage of birds to peacocks is the homage of court officials to the emperor
  54. 54. Ming characteristics: Large format and multiplication of detail
  55. 55. Very restricted landscape view in contrast with the lofty, unrestricted view from the prior painting</li></ul>Ming dynasty. Hanging scroll <br />late 15th- early 16th century<br />Ink and color on silk<br />
  56. 56. Comparison to Western Art<br /><ul><li>Procession of birds similar to procession of people in the AraPacis
  57. 57. Birds common omen/symbol of Rome
  58. 58. Narrative style of relief similar to literati influences of the Ming Dynasty
  59. 59. Limited background
  60. 60. more focus on the vibrant activity in the foreground</li></li></ul><li>Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />
  61. 61. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />Spring Dawn in Han Palace<br /><ul><li>By Qui Ying
  62. 62. Ming dynasty. Long handscroll on silk
  63. 63. A major professional painter
  64. 64. Painted long scrolls for satisfied patrons’
  65. 65. Studies in Tang painting
  66. 66. Main concentration is on the figures, leaving the background very minimal
  67. 67. Figures contain much action
  68. 68. Depicts women working in the palace</li></li></ul><li>Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />
  69. 69. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />Flask<br /><ul><li>Artist unknown
  70. 70. Ming Blue and White Wares
  71. 71. Subtle shape, refined yet vigorous decoration of dragons writhing above the sea, and the flawless glazing embody high achievement of Ming artisans
  72. 72. Dragons reminiscent of Chinese folklore
  73. 73. Wares extremely prolific under the Xuande Emperor (1426-35)</li></ul>Ming Dynasty. Procelain. 1426-35. painted with underglaze cobalt blue<br />
  74. 74. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />
  75. 75. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644<br />The Forbidden City<br /><ul><li>Work of Mongols
  76. 76. Walled city of Chang’an laid out on a rectangular grid, with evenly spaced streets that ran north-south and east-west with the imperial palace on the north end
  77. 77. Must enter through the impressive Meridian Gate or the Gate of Supreme Harmony
  78. 78. Rigid city structure reflects Chinese belief in harmony of the universe and emphasis on the emperor as the Son of Heaven</li></ul>Ming Dynasty. Bejing<br />
  79. 79. Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br />
  80. 80. Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br /><ul><li>Armies of the Manchu people to the northeast of China marched into Beijing
  81. 81. Beijing becomes the capital
  82. 82. Second time in history in which China had been ruled by foreigners
  83. 83. The first time was during the Yuan Dynasty when the Mongols controlled China
  84. 84. The Manchus had adopted many Chinese customs and institutions before their conquest and respected Chinese tradition throughout their control
  85. 85. The major trends of the late Ming dynasty continued into the Manchu, or Qing Dynasty, making China prosperous but complacent
  86. 86. They adopted the form of government used by the Ming Dynasty
  87. 87. The reigns of the first three emperors were peaceful
  88. 88. Emperor Kangxi : 1662-1722 CE
  89. 89. Emperor Yongzheng: 1722-1736 CE
  90. 90. Emperor Qianglong: 1736-1796 CE
  91. 91. Dramatic increase in population
  92. 92. Low taxes, commerce and international trade grew allowed for a revival of arts and learning</li></li></ul><li>Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br />Rule of Qianglong<br /><ul><li>Under Qianglong, China expanded to largest ever
  93. 93. Uprisings:
  94. 94. 1774 CE in Shantung
  95. 95. In 1775 CE led by the secret society known as the Society of the White Lotus
  96. 96. In 1813 CE, during the reign of Qianglong's successor, led by the secret society known as the Society of Heaven's Law
  97. 97. Chinese are impoverished</li></ul>Contact with Western World<br /><ul><li>Great Britain traded opium for silk and tea with China
  98. 98. Chinese became addicted to opium
  99. 99. Land that had previously been used for agriculture was used to produce opium
  100. 100. When opium was outlawed, the Opium Wars erupted in 1842 CE with Britain
  101. 101. At the conclusion, China virtually became a British colony</li></li></ul><li>Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br />Orthodox Painting<br /><ul><li>Literati painting was established as the dominant or orthodox tradition
  102. 102. Based upon Don Quichang’s recommendation to base their approach on past masters and paint in the manner of Song and Yuan artists
  103. 103. It was “orthodox” in the Confucian sense of continuing traditional modes
  104. 104. Qing emperors of 17th and 18th centuries were painters and collected literati painting
  105. 105. Their taste was inspired by Wang Hui
  106. 106. Literati painting became an academic style of the court and was no longer art for reclusive scholars</li></li></ul><li>Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br />Wang Hui (1632-1717)<br /><ul><li>Represents “orthodox” painting
  107. 107. Most well-known of the Four Wangs: Wang Shimin (1592-1680), Wang Jian (1598-1677), and Wang Yuangi (1642-1715)
  108. 108. Wang Shimin and Wang Jian were his teachers
  109. 109. His fame became known in Beijing
  110. 110. From 1691-98 he was commissioned to supervise the production of a series of hand scrolls marking the Kangxi emperor’s tour of the South
  111. 111. Returned to private life
  112. 112. Painted landscapes</li></li></ul><li>Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br />Wang Hui (1632-1717)<br /><ul><li>Painted A Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines in 1693
  113. 113. Hanging scroll
  114. 114. Exemplifies basic elements of Chinese landscape painting: mountains, rivers, waterfalls, trees, temples, pavilions, houses
  115. 115. Features an inscription inspired by lines from a Tang-dynasty poem as well as the works of Dong Yuan and Juran
  116. 116. Painting shows the scene from afar
  117. 117. No individual identity of elements
  118. 118. This goal started in the Song Dynasty</li></li></ul><li>Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br />
  119. 119. Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br /><ul><li>Artist unknown
  120. 120. Example of orthodox painting
  121. 121. Guan Yu was a warrior of the late Han dynasty renowned for his bravery and loyalty was later venerated as a saint in the Daoist pantheon
  122. 122. Served as a virtual patron saint of the Manchus in the Qing dynasty
  123. 123. Guan is shown descending from the heavens with two attendants
  124. 124. Features religious images used in the "water and land" ritual, which is a Buddhist ceremony conducted for the salvation of "all the souls on land and sea“
  125. 125. It is distinguished by its high level of craftsmanship, intricate detail, and lavish use of precious mineral pigments. </li></li></ul><li>Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br />
  126. 126. Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br /><ul><li>Augustus of Primaporta, restored, and Emperor Guan
  127. 127. Both make use of bright colors
  128. 128. Both depict heroic emperors meant to be idealized
  129. 129. Both idealize military prowess of the subjects
  130. 130. Both use drapery to create an imposing figure
  131. 131. Both are associated with divinity and religious significance to cement their power
  132. 132. Augustus is depicted with Cupid, who is Venus’ son
  133. 133. Reference to the claim that the Augustus is a descendant of Venus through her human son Aeneas
  134. 134. Both are intricately detailed </li></li></ul><li>Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br />Individualist Painting<br /><ul><li>Individualists adapted Don Qichang’s idea of painting as an expression of personal emotions
  135. 135. The beginning of the Qing rule was dangerous for those loyal to the Ming
  136. 136. Some committed suicide or fled to masteries or the countryside
  137. 137. Painters expressed anger or disobedience in their art
  138. 138. Individualist art often had political significance</li></li></ul><li>Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br /><ul><li>Painting of courtiers, officials, and professional artists
  139. 139. Zhu Da, later known as BadaShanren, and Zhu Ruoji, later known as Shitao, were descendants of the Ming royal house
  140. 140. Zhu Da became a Buddhist monk, feigning deafness and madness to escape persecution after the fall of the Ming dynasty
  141. 141. Frustration and vulnerability are evident in his art
  142. 142. He created a deeply personal expressionist style that reflects his ambivalence about his life in hiding and his failure to acknowledge his identity as a Ming prince</li></li></ul><li>Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br />Shitao (1642-1707)<br /><ul><li>Chinese painter and theoretician who was one of the most famous of the Individualist painters in the early Qing period
  143. 143. Descended from the first Ming emperor
  144. 144. Fled to Buddhist temples and became an Buddhist monk
  145. 145. He trained himself to paint and then moved to Yangzhou around 1695, where he renounced his status as a Buddhist monk and supported himself through his painting
  146. 146. Excelled in landscape painting, bird-and-flower painting, and figure painting
  147. 147. Sought to expand from past knowledge and creations
  148. 148. Wrote Huaya Lu, or Comments on Painting,in which he speaks of a “style of no style”
  149. 149. Landscape</li></ul>Monk sits in a small hut, looking out to tumultuous mountains<br />Rocks and vegetation (dots) seem alive<br />
  150. 150. Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br />
  151. 151. Qing Dynasty 1644-1911<br /><ul><li>Yangzhou became a prosperous commercial center during the Qing dynasty due to the salt monopoly centered thereTwo groups of artists emerged:
  152. 152. Yuan Jiang
  153. 153. Worked in the courtly tradition, producing large-scale, richly detailed works in mineral pigments on silk
  154. 154. Exemplify Yangzhou taste for ostentatious display.
  155. 155. "Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou“]
  156. 156. Inspired by individualistic works of Shitao.
  157. 157. Specialize in figural subjects or flower and bird images that appealed to more people and were commercially viable than landscape painting</li></li></ul><li>Modern Period (1911- Present Day) <br />Qing dynasty overthrown in 1911 ending 2,000 of imperial rule<br />New ideas from Japan and the West filtered in, calling for political and cultural reforms<br />First decades of 20th century, Chinese artists traveled to Japan and Europe to study Western art; returned to China hoping to introduce new ideas and techniques<br />Communist government in 1949 decreased artistic freedom; arts were pressed into service of the state and its vision of social order<br />After 1979, cultural attitudes began to relax and Chinese painters pursued own paths<br />
  158. 158. Wu Guanzhong<br />Chinese painter who emerged in 1980s as “father of modern Chinese art”<br />Combining French training with Chinese background, developed a semiabstract style<br />Took preliminary sketches of landscape, then developed sketches into free interpretations <br />
  159. 159. Pine Spirit<br />Created in 1984<br />Ink on paper<br />Depicts a scene in the Huang Mountains in China<br />Technique of sweeping brushstrokes, dots, and lines shows minimal concern for naturalistic shape and link to Abstract Expressionism<br />
  160. 160.
  161. 161.
  162. 162. Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910<br />
  163. 163. Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910<br /><ul><li>Founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye after the overthrow of the Goryeo Kingdom
  164. 164. Capital is located in modern day Seoul and titled the land Korea
  165. 165. The last royal/imperial dynasty in Korea; employed Confucian philosophy and borrowed much of Chinese culture
  166. 166. Early 17th century: the Qing dynasty and Japan attack and devastate Korea and the Joseon Dynasty
  167. 167. Qing dominance creates isolationist policy and the land becomes “Hermit Kingdom”
  168. 168. 18th century: faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure, and rebellions the Joseon Dynasty declined rapidly
  169. 169. 1895: Treaty of Shimonoseki shows Joseon Dynasty independence from the Qing Dynasty after the Japanese win First Sino-Japanese War
  170. 170. 1910: Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty adds all of Korea and the Joseon Dynasty to the Japanese Empire</li></li></ul><li>Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910<br />JeongSeon<br /><ul><li>Pen name Gyeomjae meaning “humble study”
  171. 171. Not wealthy, but discovered by an aristocratic neighbor who noticed his talent and gave him an official government position
  172. 172. Although influenced by the Ming Wu School of art, he was one of the first Korea painters to truly depart from traditional Chinese style
  173. 173. Painted the world around him and painted daily until old age
  174. 174. His paintings are known as the Southern School of art, but in his lifetime he was unique with brush wrinkles of bold strokes in paralells</li></li></ul><li>Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910<br />
  175. 175. Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910<br />Panoramic View of the Diamond Mountains (Geumgang-san)<br /><ul><li>18th century: true Korean style emerged inspired by the silhaki, or “practical learning” movement
  176. 176. Emphasized study of things in Korean plus Chinese classics
  177. 177. Jeong chose Korean mountains rather than Chinese themes like the artists before him
  178. 178. Energetic spirit and the intensely personal style, with crystalline mountains, distant clouds of delicate ink wash, and individualistic brushwork
  179. 179. Craggy peaks show brilliance and boldness of the Korean landscape</li></ul>Late Joseon Period. Hanging scroll. 1734. Ink and colors on paper<br />
  180. 180. Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910<br />
  181. 181. Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910<br />Horizontal Wine Bottle With Decoration of a Bird Carrying a Newly Caught Fish<br /><ul><li>Artist unknown
  182. 182. Example of Bucheong stoneware
  183. 183. Decoration relies on the use of white slip that makes the humble stoneware resemble more expensive white porcelain
  184. 184. Embellished with fluid, calligraphic brushwork painted in iron-brown slip
  185. 185. Most have floral decoration, rarely is it pictoral</li></ul>Joseon. Light gray stoneware with decoration painted in iron-brown slip on a white slip ground. 16th century<br />
  186. 186. Modern Korea 1910-Present<br />Modern Korea<br /><ul><li>“The Hermit Kingdom”
  187. 187. Joseon Dynasty maintains a policy of isolationism
  188. 188. Close its borders to all except China until 1876
  189. 189. 1910 Japan annexes Korea and ends the Joseon dynasty, but extends Korea’s isolation
  190. 190. Isolation continues through hardships of World War II (1939-1945) and Korean War (1950-1953)
  191. 191. Artistic and cultural progression decreases
  192. 192. Modern influences reach Korea indirectly, through China and Japan
  193. 193. Starting in the 1920’s and 1930’s, Korean artists experiment with Western artistic styles
  194. 194. Economic and culture progress in South Korea starting in the 1980’s
  195. 195. Most paint in the manner of Cezanne or Gauguin, but some in abstract, nonrepresentational styles</li></ul> <br />
  196. 196. Modern Korea 1910-Present<br />GimHwangi<br /><ul><li>One of 20th century Korea’s most influential painters
  197. 197. Influenced by Constructivism and geometric abstraction
  198. 198. After the Korean War, he investigates Westernism
  199. 199. Travels to Paris in 1956 and New York from 1964-1974</li></ul> <br />
  200. 200. Modern Korea 1910-Present<br />5-IV-71<br /><ul><li>Two circular radiating patterns of small blue, black, and gray dots
  201. 201. Heavily influenced by Western style
  202. 202. Title is the date of creation
  203. 203. Resembles Asia’s tradition of monochrome ink painting
  204. 204. Suggests a transcendence with a Daoist or Buddhist feeling
  205. 205. Started the precedent of combining traditional and Western styles, inspiring other Korean-born artists</li></ul> <br />
  206. 206. Modern Korea 1910-Present<br />Nam June Paik (1932-2006)<br /><ul><li>Video artist
  207. 207. Electronic Superhighway: Continental U.S.
  208. 208. Created for Holly Solomon Gallery in New York in 1995
  209. 209. Combination of live, recorded, computer-generated images shown on video monitors that he makes into a sculptural design
  210. 210. Features a map of Continental U.S. outlined in neon and backed by video monitors, flashing colors and moving with sound
  211. 211. Monitors show images that demonstrate each state’s culture and history</li></li></ul><li>Modern Korea 1910-Present<br />
  212. 212. Bibliography<br /><ul><li>Spencer Art. N.p., 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.spencerart.ku.edu/exhibitions/ reviving_gathering.shtml>.
  213. 213. Academon. N.p., 2009. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.academon.com/ Descriptive-Essay-Minimalism-in-Ni-Zan's-The-Rongxi-Studio/114129>.
  214. 214. Musuem of Modern Art. Musuem of Modern Art, 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.moma.org/ collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O:AD:E:4675&page_number=2&template_id=1&sort_order=1>.
  215. 215. Danto, Arthur. Artchive. N.p., 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.artchive.com/artchive/F/ frankenthaler/frankenthaler_mtns.jpg.html>.
  216. 216. Whitfield, R. Musuem of British Art. N.p., 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.britishmuseum.org/ explore/highlights/highlight_objects/asia/x/xie_chufang,_fascination_of_na.aspx>.
  217. 217. Ming Blue and White. Koh-Antique, 2008. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.koh-antique.com/bandw/ bandw.html>.
  218. 218. Ah-young, Chung. "Jeon Song's Paintings Brought to Life." Korea Times. Korea Times, 2009. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <>.
  219. 219. Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Ed. Sarah Toubourg. New York, New York: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.
  220. 220. Metmusuem. Metropolitan Musuem, 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ works-of-art/2001.442>.
  221. 221. Ji, Dae. Instructional. Instructional, 2008. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://instructional1.calstatela.edu/bevans/Art101/Art101B-10-China/WebPage-Full.00071.html>.
  222. 222. "Shitao." Shitao Online. Artcyclopedia, 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.artcyclopedia.com/ artists/shitao.html>.</li>