01 final southern ar ttttt


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01 final southern ar ttttt

  1. 1. Art of South and Southeast Asia After 1200 AD<br />Ted Burt, Kim Nam, DabinChoi<br />
  2. 2. South & Southeast Asia<br />South Asia<br />Pakistan<br />India<br />Tibet<br />Nepal<br />Bhutan <br />Bangladesh<br />Southeast Asia<br />Cambodia<br />Myanmar<br />Thailand<br />Vietnam<br />Laos<br />Burma<br />Indonesia<br />Malaysia<br />
  3. 3. Buddhism<br />Pala dynasty ( c. 750 – 1199)<br />The principal Buddhist centers concentrated in the northeast region<br />Tantric (Mahayana) Buddhism <br />Visualized deities<br />Precise iconographic details<br />Theravada<br />Mahayana<br />Later collapsed in late 12th century<br />
  4. 4. Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara(12th century)<br />Distinguished from a Buddha<br />Princely garment<br />Presence of lotus flower<br />Crown of “parent” Buddha<br />Third eye<br />Wheel on his palm<br />Posture of royal ease<br />Formalized image<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Jainism<br />Mahavira ( c. 599-527 BCE)<br />Tirthankaras<br /> - Purification<br /> - Life of austerity<br />Private forms of artistic expression<br /><ul><li>Sacred text illustrations rather than building temples
  7. 7. Western Indian Jains (Gujarat); Illustrated manuscripts</li></li></ul><li>Kalpa Sutra (1375-1400)<br />Illustrated manuscripts the explicates the lives of the pathfinders<br />First Jain manuscript on paper (instead of palm leaf)<br />Depicts the birth of Mahavira<br />Use of Gouache producing vibrant, energetic color and sense of divinity<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Hinduism<br />Dominant religious tradition of India<br /><ul><li>Building programs -> rapid development of Hindu temples
  10. 10. Evolution of well-formulated regional styles (1000 CE.)
  11. 11. Monumental with complexity and grandeur of proportion
  12. 12. Kingdom of Vijayanagar ( c. 1336-1565)
  13. 13. Viewed themselves as defenders and preservers of Hindu faith and culture</li></li></ul><li>Art of India<br />
  14. 14. Temple at Madurai <br />(Outer Gopura of the <br />Minakshi-Sundareshvara Temple)<br />Fervent expression of Hinduism<br />Founded around the 13th century<br />Complex expanded through 17th century<br />Modern renovations <br />Dedicated to the goddess Minakshi<br />At the center of the City of Madurai and a central focus of Madurai life<br />There are now 11 Gopuras<br />Largest is over160 feet tall<br />
  15. 15. Gopuras’ Statues<br />(The gopura has roots in the vimana, the pyramidal tower characteristic of 7th century southern temple style)<br />Every square inch of the gopuras is covered in figures such as this one<br />(Thousands of statues )<br />Each is an individual god<br />The statues get smaller as the gopura rises and becomes smaller<br />Very similar design between different levels <br />Displays the world of the gods<br />
  16. 16. Golden Lotus Tank<br />Outer Gopura of the Minakshi-Sundareshvara Temple <br />Golden Lotus Tank<br />
  17. 17. Mughal Period 1526–1858<br />Islam first touched the South Asian subcontinent in the eight century.<br />In 1206, Turkish dynasties ruled portions of subcontinent from Delhi<br />Sultanates constructed forts, mausoleums, monuments, mosques<br />The Mughals came from Central Asia<br />Babur<br />The first Mughal emperor of India<br />Emphasized his Turkic heritage<br />Akbar<br />The third emperor who extended Mughal control over most of North India<br />Mughal Empire lasted until the last Mughal emperor was deposed and exiled to Burma by the British.<br />
  18. 18. Mughal Architecture<br />Mughal architects were heir to traditional Islamic buildings in India.<br />Forts housing government and court buildings<br />2 fundamental Islamic structures<br />Mosque and tomb<br />Construction based on arch and dome<br />Decorative and structural elements from other countries<br />Indian, Persian, Central Asian elements<br />Cenotaphs are tombs/monuments to someone whose remains are actually somewhere else.<br />
  19. 19. BulandDarvaza (The Lofty Gate)<br />
  20. 20. BulandDarvaza (The Lofty Gate)<br />Commissioned by Akbar, an ambitious patron of the time<br />At the mosque Jami Masjid<br />Inscription dated 1601 following Akbar’s successful return from the Deccan<br />Gateway is dignified in proportions but monumental in scale (rises 150 feet above road)<br />Gate built on a high plinth leading to a central courtyard<br />Islamic style architecture<br />
  21. 21. Review the Key terms<br />Minaret - Tall spires with a conical crown.<br />Iwan - A vaulted hall, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open. <br />Sahn - A courtyard found in traditional mosque, surrounded by an arcade. <br />Mihrab – A semi-circular niche in a wall which indicates the direction to qibla.<br />Mausoleum – An external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the burial chamber of a deceased person.<br />
  22. 22. Taj Mahal<br />Probably the most well known structure in India<br />Built between 1631 and 1648<br />Made of red sandstone & white marble<br />Commissioned as a mausoleum for the wife of Emperor Shah Jahan<br />Full of Muslim Influence<br />Minarets at each corner of platform<br />Reflecting pool and gardens cover an area of 1000 by 1900 feet<br />Divided into quadrants with trees and flowers<br />Geometrically patterned walkways<br />Perfect geometric symmetry and proportions.<br />
  23. 23. Minarets<br />Minarets<br />Mausoleum<br />Gardens<br />Gardens<br />Reflecting Pool<br />
  24. 24. Taj Mahal<br />Writings from the Quran are inlaid in black marble around the doors<br />Spandrels inlaid with jewels that form flowers and natural designs (those are the parts between the door arch and the box with the Quran writing)<br />4 octagonal chattris transition into the domes of minarets<br />Iwans and bulbous tops attribute to weightless appearance<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BnmrOLOQDA8&feature=related<br />
  25. 25. Who has the time to do that?<br />
  26. 26. Selimiye Mosque (Mosque of Selim)<br />In the city of Edrine, Turkey.<br />Ottoman mosque<br />Commissioned by Sultan Selim II<br />Islamic Architecture<br />Minarets<br />Main dome and Semi-domes<br />Pointy Arches<br />
  27. 27. Hagia Sophia<br /><ul><li>Byzantine period
  28. 28. Ordered by emperor Justinian.
  29. 29. Temple – Religious reason
  30. 30. In 1453, conversion into mosque
  31. 31. Islamic features
  32. 32. Minarets
  33. 33. Dome and arch entrance
  34. 34. Symmetry and balance</li></li></ul><li>Mughal Painting<br />Emperor Akbar – great promoter of the arts<br />Control over solidification of Mughal Empire and creation of Mughal art<br />Humane, dynamic, and just Mughal leader<br />Created an imperial atelier (workshop) for painters<br />Combination of Persian art and Indian art<br />Transformed Persian styles into more vigorous and naturalistic<br />
  35. 35. Technique- Indian painting on paper<br />Introduction of paper<br />Indian artists adapted painting techniques form Persia – produced jewel-toned works of surpassing beauty on paper<br />Fill outlines with thick washes of opaque unpopulated color.<br />
  36. 36. Painting in the Court of Akbar<br />Paintings depicted Akbar’s own life and accomplishments.<br />Akbarnama – Book of Akbar, the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar.<br />Illustrated manuscript of Hamzanama<br />Hamzanama – The legendary adventures of Hamza (Persian classic)<br />Hamza – The uncle of the prophet of the Islam<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Jahangir in Darbar<br /><ul><li>Gouache painting on paper
  39. 39. Gouache – Mud painting. Opaque, dries quickly and very amenable
  40. 40. Jahngir was the emperor of the Mughal empire.
  41. 41. Emperor in the center, holding an audience at court (Darbar)
  42. 42. Sense of loyalty to their emperor
  43. 43. Symmetrical format</li></li></ul><li>Virgin and Child Enthroned<br />
  44. 44. Duccio’s Virgin and Child in Majesty.<br />Audiences (Angels, Saints and Saints of Siena) are divided along central axis.<br />Symmetrical format – Composition was topped by pinnacles<br />Unrealistic size – Focus more on Symbolism<br />Predella was depicting the event sin the childhood of Jesus.<br />
  45. 45. Rajput Painting<br />Northern India was governed regionally by local Hindu princess – Rajput warrior clans.<br />Very artistic, supportive to painters.<br />Influences of Indian painting style.<br />More abstract and poetic than Mughal arts<br />Many arts were about myth and poetry.<br />Bhakti<br />The Hindu devotional movement.<br />Inspired poetic literature<br />GitaGovinda –poems about love between God and humans<br />
  46. 46. Luxury Arts – Panel from a Box<br />Metalwork in precious metals as well as carvings in crystal, agate, jade, and ivory are all characteristics of Indian art.<br />Because of the base value of their materials, many Indian pieces have been melted or reworked to be sold at a higher price.<br />Late 17th-18th century, Ivory with Gilded paper, 6 x 123/8 x 1/8 inches, Nayak Dynasty, Timil Nadu<br />http://www.vmfa.state.va.us/Collections/South_Asian_Art/Indian,_Tamil_Nadu,_possibly_Madurai_80_171.aspx<br />
  47. 47. Sarcophagus of JuniusBassus<br />Roman sculpture on Sarcophagus.<br />Columns are dividing the scenes.<br />Decorative and expressive<br />Roman sculpture<br />Imperial Christian period.<br />Religious Scenes<br />Old/New Testsments<br />
  48. 48. Ramayana Scene<br />Indonesia experienced Hindu revival (8th-9th century)<br />Early 14 century, Java (Indonesia)<br />Depicts Hindu epic the “Ramayana”<br />Javanese version of illustrative stone relief <br />Reduced modeling and increased rhythmic surface ornamentation<br />
  49. 49. Western Influence - Modern<br />British East India Company controlled India throughout the 17th and 18th centuries<br />British Government began to rule directly in the 19th century<br />Mercantile interests overwhelmed the native culture<br />British artists hired to do work in India <br />Mixing of cultures<br />
  50. 50. Sir Edwin Lutyens<br />The capital of India changed from Calcutta to New Delhi in 1931<br />This city had been founded shortly before 1911<br />Lutyens was appointed joint architect for New Delhi<br />Intentionally built with Western-style and Indian-style ornamentation <br />Develops the Delhi Order based on Roman Doric<br />Viceroy’s House<br />Draws models from Classical antiquity as well as modern models such as Washington D.C.<br />India Gate<br />
  51. 51. India Gate<br />Originally “All India War Memorial”<br />
  52. 52. Arch of Constantine<br />Barrel-vaulted arches<br />High pedestals.<br />Decorative sculptures/columns all over the place.<br />Depiction of Constantine’s victory in battle with Maxentius<br />Sculptures symbolize Constantine’s power and generosity.<br />
  53. 53. Arc de Triomphe<br />1806 – 1836<br />In France, Paris.<br />Honors those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars.<br />The names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. <br />Underneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I.<br />
  54. 54. Bharat Mata (Mother India)<br />Artist strives to reflect ethnic origins<br />Deliberately rejects oil painting and academic realism of Western art<br />Draws from format and technique of Mughal painting<br />Invents nationalistic icon drawing from Hindu symbols<br />Abanindranath Tagore, watercolor on paper, 1905, 26.7x15.3 cm<br />
  55. 55. Modern Indian Art<br />Gandhi Bhavan<br />
  56. 56. Gandhi Bhavan<br />Punjab University, Chandigarh, North India<br />1959-1961<br />Used for lectures and prayer<br />Designed by Indian Architect B. P. Mathur and Pierre Jeanneret<br />3-part pinwheel plan and abstract sculptural qualities reflect the International style<br />Robust combinations of angles are like Sanskrit letterform<br />Pools surrounding it are like Mughal tombs<br />
  57. 57. Dharma and the God<br />Striking new impression of Indian heroic figures<br />ManjitBawa<br />Silkscreen and oil painting artist<br />Juxtaposes illusionary models of figures and animals against flat backgrounds<br />1984, ManjitBawa, oil on canvas, 216x185.4 cm<br />
  58. 58. Art of Nepal & Tibet<br />
  59. 59. Tantric Influence<br />Tantric Buddhist art can be traced in the regions of Nepal and Tibet<br />Artistic expression of esoteric Buddhist ideals<br />Inlaid Devotional Sculpture<br />Statue of Maya<br />Tangka Painting<br />Buddhism caught on late in Tibet but is now the center of the religion<br />The “Achala”<br />
  60. 60. Maya, Mother of Buddha,Holding a Tree Branch<br />Buddha comes out of Maya’s side while she holds the legendary tree branch<br />Regal costume<br />Fluttering scarves, elaborate jewelry, and an impressive crown all inlaid with jewels, pearls, and a variety of semi-precious stones<br />Tree also inlaid with jewels<br />Figures rise from a pedestal shaped to suggest the blossoming lotus<br />Reference to Buddha’s purity<br />Buddha<br />18th century, 22 inches tall, Nepal,<br />Gilt bronze & inlaid precious stones<br />
  61. 61. Achala from Central Tibet<br />Achala, the Immovable is the deity in the center<br />Characteristic kneeling pose <br />Atop a lotus platform <br />Right hand wields a sword as his left makes the gesture of menace while holding a lasso<br />From a group of wrathful deities called krodhavighnantaka - enable practitioners to overcome obstacles<br />Geometic – Tantic Buddhism<br />Repeated representations of deities<br />19th Century, gouache on cotton, 291/2 x 225/8 inches, <br />
  62. 62. Theravada Buddhism<br />In Northern Burma (11th-13th century) , rulers raised religions monuments in the Pagan plain<br />Followed Theravada (Hinayana) Buddhism<br />Classic statement of Theravada ideals in bronze sculpture of Buddha<br />
  63. 63. Shwe-Dagon Stupa (Pagoda) <br />Golden Dragon<br />Terrace (Burma), 15 century<br />Established Rangoon by Mon rulers<br />Pagoda – E. Asian reliquary tower built with smaller, repeated stories<br />Lotus elements symbolizing Buddha’s purity<br />Center of Theravada devotion<br />Decoration in gliding & precious stones<br />
  64. 64. Buddha Calling the Earth to Witness <br />Thailand, Sukhothai kingdom<br />13-14 century<br />Bronze sculpture depicting Buddha<br />Iconography & stylistic features with a few elegant lines<br />Buddha’s cranial protuberance interpreted as a flame of divine knowledge<br />Eloquent hand gesture - Mudras<br />
  65. 65. Mudras- (sign)<br />Gesture of Pressing the Earth<br />The right hand pressing the earth to bear witness. <br />The position of the left hand symbolizes meditation.<br />Gesture of “touching the earth” or “calling the earth to witness”<br />
  66. 66. Vietnamese Ceramics from Hoi An Hoard<br />15th-16 century<br />Wide spread Vietnamese potters<br />Painted in underglaze cobalt blue<br />Embellished with overglaze enamels<br />Impressive variety of ceramic forms shipped out throughout Southeast Asian and Beyond<br />
  67. 67. Modern Vietnam Paintings<br />The influence of Vietnam War<br />Communism<br />Propaganda<br />
  68. 68. Picture Bibliography<br />http://www.travel247.tv/india/sri-meenakshi-sundareswarar-temple-madurai<br />http://www.destination360.com/europe/france/paris/arc-de-triomphe<br />http://jacobmetcalf.net/renderDiary.php?dir=india&file=india2<br />http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Taj_Mahal_in_March_2004.jpg<br />http://www.fotopedia.com/items/jmhullot-tcOXXf5Nm8g<br />http://www.asianart.com/exhibitions/svision/i22.html<br />http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Puerta_de_la_India_2.JPG<br />http://www.ascensiongateway.com/blog/spiritual/2006_10_01_spirit.html<br />http://www.vmfa.state.va.us/Collections/South_Asian_Art/Indian,_Tamil_Nadu,_possibly_Madurai_80_171.aspx<br />http://www.world-mysteries.com/gw_mgray4.htm<br />http://old-master-bawa.blogspot.com/<br />
  69. 69. Picture Bibliography<br />http://www.artnet.com/Images/magazine/reviews/stern/stern10-4-5.jpg<br />http://radhikaranjanmarxist.blogspot.com/2010/09/early-history-mahajanapadas.html<br />http://sacredsites.com/asia/burma_myanmar/rangoon.html<br />http://www.buddha-images.com/subduing-mara.asp<br />http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/history/mudras.htm<br />http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4149/5032874130_933f8d5f4c_z.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.flickr.com/photos/iprahin/5032874130/&usg=__VirWHl5HGArsU4XPJoa5jhTdtZs=&h=480&w=640&sz=229&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=5cKCXE3ni6glM:&tbnh=162&tbnw=215&prev=/images%3Fq%3DBuddha%2BCalling%2Bthe%2BEarth%2Bto%2BWitness%2Bclose%2Bup%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D815%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=156&ei=nTf9TK9D42lnQeR25XJCg&oei=nTf9TK9D42lnQeR25XJCg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=27&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:0&tx=131&ty=123<br />http://artdefinesus.wordpress.com/2010/11/27/did-etruscan-art-inspire-disney/<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/26612863@N00/2873457274/<br />http://khanhhoathuynga.wordpress.com/2009/05/22/hinh-ảnh-trục-vớt-cổ-vật-tau-dắm-cu-lao-cham-hoi-an-hoard/ <br />http://v-s-gopal.sulekha.com/blog/post/2009/11/magnificent-sculptures-in-ancient-prambanan-temple.htm<br />