What’s the hidden powerbehind the success ofWikipedia,craigslist, & Skype?
What FUNDAMENTAL CHOICE General Motorsput& Toyota vastly different paths?
What doeBay &General Electric have in common with the abolitionists and women’s rights movements?
How could winning aSupreme Court Casebe the biggest mistakeMGM could have made?
TODAYas we speakTHE WORLD IS CHANGINGpolitically,economically,environmentally,socially,GLOBALLY.
TODAYas we speakTHE WORLD IS CHANGINGpolitically: anarchy,economically: RBE (resource-based economies),environmentally: sustainabilitysocially: national revolutions,GLOBALLY: Earth 2.0, The Zeitgeist Movement. The Venus project. ANONYMOUS
TODAYWe’ll be sharing someunexpected answers,gripping stories,and a tapestry ofUnlikelyCONNECTIONS.
THE STARFISH AND THE SPIDERThe unstoppablepower ofleaderlessorganizations
STARFISHThe harder you ﬁght it,the stronger it gets
STARFISH AND SPIDERS SPIDER STARFISH • Hierarchical • Horizontal Structure • Clear leaders • Everyone has equal say • Departments • Can operate sporadically • Titles • Direct Communication • Communication is difﬁcult
CAN YOU SPOTThe Starﬁsh& The Spider? 5 CHALLENGES AHEAD
Look at the slide and decide which of the 2 pictures has a head(someone in charge) and which one is left without a leader.
It s a natural reaction, when attacked, toadopt a command-and- control mentality. But this strategy fails if you are ﬁghting a starﬁsh organisation.
When attacked, a decentralizedorganisation tends to become even MORE OPEN AND DECENTRALIZED
Spiders and starﬁsh aretwo completely different organisms
So, what characterizes a starﬁsh organisation?1. Circles (many small non-hierarchical groups)2. Catalyst(s)3. Ideology4. Preexisting network
1 Starﬁsh organisations consist of many small non- hierarchical groups (circles)
In the internet era it s much easierto form and join circles. But becauseparticipants aren t spending everymoment together, their bond isn tas strong .AIESEC circles form strong bondsdue to frequent face-to-facecontact.
2 Starﬁsh organisations are not run by CEOs; instead they can count on CATALYSTS
A catalyst knows that values (trust andunderstanding) are a stronger binding force than authority
A catalyst is any element or compound that initiates a reaction without fusing into that reaction A catalyst gets a decentralized organisation going and then cedescontrol to the members. In letting go of the leadership role, the catalyst transfers ownership and responsibility to the circle
A catalyst is any element or compoundthat initiates a reaction without fusing into that reactionAIESEC presidents and leaders are non-hierarchical catalysts
3 Ideology is the GLUE that holds decentralized organisations together.What is AIESEC’s ideology / vision?
Put people in an open system and theyautomatically want tocontribute
However, starﬁsh organisations spawned by the internet may haveless meaningful ideologies than ofﬂine equivalents.An Apache would do anything to savea fellow tribe member. Members of sayWikipedia aren t going to die for each other
How is Skype a Starﬁsh? • Free program • Enabled to talk to others using the program • Distributed compu<ng power using p2p
What about Craigslist? • Direct interac<on between users • Craigslist is only a plaCorm to use • No history between users, just come and go • Originally just an idea between Craig and friends
Apache (web soIware) • Engineers were unhappy with being ignored • Contributors developed code and patches • These were implemented based on which ones worked the best • No formal direc<on
Apache (Na6ve Americans) • Spiritual leaders called Nan’tans • Based on previous reputa<on • Nobody was obligated to follow
Alcoholics Anonymous • Formed from a previous church program using 6 steps • Forma<on of the circle group aided cohesion • Added and expanded to other situa<ons
P2P Technologies • Based on sharing • Everyone contributes • Adds to the value of the network with new members • Always under development
Wikipedia • The famous and well-‐ known Wikipedia • Anyone can contribute • Can be applied to almost anything hRp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/Wikipedia_Michelangelo.JPG
Major Principles 1 When aRacked, a decentralized organiza<on tends to become even more open and decentralized. 2 It’s easy to mistake starﬁsh for spiders 3 An open system doesn’t have central intelligence; the intelligence is spread throughout the system
Major Principles 4 Open systems can easily mutate. 5 The decentralized organiza<on sneaks up on you. 6 As industries become decentralized, overall proﬁts decrease. 7 When aRacked, centralized organiza<ons tend to become even more centralized