Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a crossdisciplinary area concerned with protecting the
safety, health and welfare of people engaged in
work or employment.
The goals of occupational safety and health
programs include to foster a safe and healthy work
environment and protect co-workers and many
others who might be affected by the workplace
Occupational safety and health can be
important for moral, legal, and financial
Moral obligations would involve the protection
of employee's lives and health.
Legal reasons for OSH practices relate to the
preventative, punitive and compensatory
effects of laws that protect worker's safety
• Since 1950, the International Labour
Organization (ILO) and the World Health
Organization (WHO) have shared a common
definition of occupational health.
Is promotion and maintenance of the
highest degree of physical, mental and
social well-being of workers in all
The main focus in occupational health
is on three different objectives:
• (i) the maintenance and promotion of
• (ii) the improvement of working environment
and work culture
• (iii) development of work organizations and
working cultures in a direction which supports
health and safety at work
Health and Safety
The term Health and Safety is generally
used to mean an employer should:
• Promote and maintain the mental, physical
and social well-being of employees
• Protect employees and others affected by
an organisation’s activities to harm from risk
• Establish a management framework to
implement policies and achieve continual
improvement in health and safety
HSG65 Safety Management
Management of Health & Safety
HS(G)65 Step 1 - Policy
Policy: Health and Safety aims and objectives of the
Organisation, and Management commitment
Sets the Organisation & Arrangements for identifying hazards,
assessing risks & preventing or controlling them.
Are staff aware, do they understand it?
Is it compatible with the overall company policy?
Is responsibility delegated to competent individuals?
Does it indicate to directors and managers how to assess risks and
Is it a working document?
Management of Health &
HSG65 Step 2 - Organising
Organisation – Clear roles and lines of
responsibility, Competence, Commitment and
control, Co-operation and Communication
• Competence - Needs to exist for recruitment, transfer &
• Commitment and Control - Directors and managers must
accept and demonstrate a commitment to the management
of Health and Safety.
• Consultation and Co-operation – consultation
demonstrates commitment which leads to co-operation
• Communication - Needs to flow in all directions.
Management of Health &
HSG65 Step 3 –
Planning & Implementing
Planning & Implementation – Identify hazards,
assessing risks and decide how risks can be
eliminated or controlled. Sets standards against
which performance can be measured
• Generate SMART objectives.
• Identify hazards, assess risks and establish priorities
according to risk.
• Set performance standards,
• Plans for non routine, new work and serious risks.
• Monitoring arrangements to ensure standards are met.
Management of Health &
HSG65 Step 5 – Reviewing &
Reviewing – Analysing data gathered through
monitoring to see whether performance is
Audit – Systematic critical examination of each
stage of an organisations management systems
Improvement will be obtained by continuous
reviewing and auditing of performance.
Safety Management Systems
HSEG 65, 2003: ‘Successful Health and
Safety Management Systems’. (HSE)
ILO-OSH, 2001: Guidelines on
Occupational Safety and Health
Management Systems. (ILO)
OHSAS 18001, 1999: Occupational Health
and Safety Management Systems (BSI)
The International Labour Organisation
Its main aims are to advance opportunities for workers
to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of
freedom, equity, security and human dignity.
Conventions, e.g. C155: Occupational Safety and
Health Convention, 1981
Recommendations, e.g. R164: Occupational Safety and
Health Recommendation, 1981.
The International Organisation for
ISO 9001:2000 – Quality Management
ISO 14001:2004 – Environmental
Safety Management Systems
for health & safety
on risk assessment
standards and take
with plans and
Costs of Accidents at Work
Iceberg Model of Accident Costs:
… Visible Costs
Civil claims, Fines,
Product loss, Property damage.
Loss of expertise/experience etc.
Hidden Costs of Accidents
Loss of reputation
Payments to injured
Payments non productive
ILO Worldwide estimate on workplace
accidents per year:
Total – 125,000,000
Fatal Safety - 334,870
Fatal Health - 992,445
Benefits of Good Health and
1) Increased levels of compliance
2) Improved production
3) Improved staff morale
4) Improved company reputation
5) Reduced accidents
6) Reduced ill health
7) Reduced damage to equipment
8) Reduced staff turnover
9) Reduced insurance premiums
10) Reduced fines and compensation claims
Different states take different approaches
to legislation, regulation, and
enforcement. Also economic incentives
for compliance to rules and general good
occupational safety and health practice
vary among nations
• . In the EU, for example, some member
states promote OSH by providing public
monies as subsidies, grants or financing,
while others have created tax system
incentives for OSH investments. A third
group of EU member states has
experimented with using workplace
accident insurance premium discounts
for companies or organisations with
strong OSH records
What does GM have to do with
• It ensures that no one is excluded,
marginalized or discriminated against
because of their sex in:
– Protection measures (e.g. GBV: Gender Based
– Services (e.g. education)
– Opportunities (e.g. loans and employment)
– Basic needs (food, water, sanitation, health,
• To prevent and relieve suffering of those
affected by a humanitarian context
• Protect the rights and freedoms of women,
girls, boys and men
• Promote equal opportunities and rights of all
free from any discrimination based on sex
and gender ascribed roles due to social
• Sudan, as a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural
country encompassing hundreds of
• ethnic and tribal divisions and languages, has
since its independence faced
• conflicts that have had implications for the
country’s social service institutions,
• including health.
• National health policies should, therefore,
create appropriate conditions and
• institutions for people irrespective of gender
or their regional, religious, racial,
• cultural or ethnic affiliation in order that they
are provided with the opportunity
• and ability to make decisions about their
health and lives. This could be
• achieved through the creation of mechanisms
whereby these groups become
• involved in the institutions assigned to
undertake policy analysis at various
• levels and due consideration is given to their
• The FMoH will ensure provision of genderfriendly health care at all levels of
• health care delivery and will also consider
gender analysis as an element in
• the development of strategic and operational
plans at all levels of government.
Guidelines a on occupational safety and health
management systems These guidelines
encourage continual improvement in
employee health and safety, acheived via:
constant process of policy, organization,
planning & implementation, evaluation, and
action for improvement, all supported by
constant auditing to determine the success of
Who needs orientation?
Depending on the workplace, it may be appropriate
to give occupational health and safety
• • • temporary employees
• • seasonal employees
• • fulltime employees returning from a leave of
• • outside contractors,
• • visitors to the workplace and others
Protection from Head Injuries
Hard hats can protect your workers from head
impact, penetration injuries, and electrical
injuries such as those caused by falling or
flying objects, fixed objects, or contact with
Protection from Foot and Leg Injuries
In addition to foot guards and safety shoes,
leggings (e.g., leather, aluminized rayon, or
Other appropriate material) can help prevent
injuries by protecting workers.
Protection from Hearing Loss
Exposure to high noise
levels can cause irreversible hearing loss or
impairment as well as physical and psychological
stress. Earplugs made from foam, waxed
cotton, or fiberglass wool are self-forming and
usually fit well. A professional should fit your
workers individually for molded or preformed
earplugs. Clean earplugs regularly, and replace
those you cannot clean.
workers must use appropriate respirators to
protect against adverse health effects caused by
breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts,
fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or
vapors. Respirators generally cover the nose
and mouth or the entire face or head and help
prevent illness and injury. A proper fit is
however, for respirators to be effective.
‘’Source or situation with a
potential for harm in terms of
injury or ill health, damage to
property, damage to the
workplace environment, or a
combination of these``
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS
Routes of entry - Inhalation, Ingestion, skin
absorption. (inhalation is the main route of entry)
Chemical agents can be classified into
1)Metals - Lead, Hg, Cd, Ni , Co etc.
2) Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Benzene,
3)Aliphatic Hydrocarbons - Methyl alcohol
4) Gases - *Simple asphyxiants : N2, CH4, CO2
* Chemical asphyxiants : CO, H2S, HCN
Irritant gases : Ammonia, SO2, Cl2,
Systemic poison : CS2
(Milkmen),Gonorrhea(Sexworkers-Genital organs get affected).
handlers),Hookworms, tapeworms (Agriworkers), etc.
Coccidiomycosis, Psittacoses, ornithosis,
disorders(MSDs),Cumulativetrauma-Disorders (CTDs) etc.
Ergonomics: ``Adjustment of Man & Machine``/
Application of human biological sciences with engineering
science to achieve optimum mutual adjustment of man & his
work, the benefit being measured in terms of human
Extreme range of
Lack of job satisfaction, insecurity, poor
interpersonal relations, work pressure,
Psychological & behavioral changes –
hostility, aggressiveness, anxiety, depression,
Psychosomatic disorders- Hypertension,
headache, body-ache, peptic ulcers, asthma,
diabetes, heart disorders, etc.
. Abu baker MohammadAlfatih
• Hazards have existed from which accidents
have come about from the earliest of times:
falls from elevated places, cuts from sharp
objects, impacts from falling trees and rocks,
fires, drowning, and similar primordial events.
Since the initiation, growth and benefits of
tools people have been exposed more and
more to increasingly
complex hazards in addition to the primordial
ones that still take place, all causing accidents
Possibilities of accidents have been increasing
not only in types but in magnitudes,
especially in industries
The medical field workers are in danger
they are exposed daily to deferent types of
harmful agents like biological , chemical and
• Infectious diseases can be caused by coming
• into contact with bacteria, viruses, funguses
or parasites when handling patients,
contaminated objects, body secretions, tissue
or fluids .
• Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human
• Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV
• Back injuries are the most frequent injury in
Heavy lifting and frequent bending
or twisting when moving objects or patients
increases the risk of back injury.
Repetitive Strain Injuries
• A repetitive strain injury (RSI) is an injury that
occurs over time as a result of repetitive,
forceful or awkward body movements
• Health care workers are at risk from violence
• when dealing with angry and stressed patients
• and their families
• Radiation is used in diagnostic procedures such
• as x-ray, fluoroscopy and angiography
• Workload Issues
Changes in work organization resulting from
restructuring, downsizing, and layoffs within
the healthcare industry are resulting in
decreased staffing levels, increased
workloads and time pressures, and longer
hours of work.
• Health problems of gold miners who works in
this field include decreased life expectancy;
increased frequency of cancer of the trachea,
bronchus, lung, stomach, and liver; increased
frequency of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB),
silicosis, and pleural diseases; increased
frequency of insect-borne diseases, such as
malaria and dengue fever; noise-induced
hearing loss; increased prevalence of certain
bacterial and viral diseases; and diseases of
the blood, skin, and musculoskeletal system.
• For centuries, mercury has been used to
chemically separate gold from ore, leading to
major public-health problems for miners and
communities around mining districts.
• There is no standard definition of casual work
but usually they are usually jobs that are
temporary, have irregular hours and are not
guaranteed to be ongoing.
• Poor work practices create hazards –
examples of unsafe work practices commonly
found in the workplace include:
• using machinery or tools without authority .
• operating at unsafe speeds or in violation of
safe work practices
• using defective tools or equipment or using
tools or equipment in unsafe ways
• using hands or body instead of tools or push
Roles and responsibilities of
Worker Health and Safety
Worker health and safety(WHS)
representative has the same responsibilities
and powers as a joint health and safety
1. identify hazards .
2. consulted about workplace testing .
3. make recommendations to the employer .
4. investigate work refusals and serious
Joint Health and Safety Committees
has four principal functions:
1. To identify potential hazards .
2. Evaluate potential hazards.
3. Recommend corrective action.
4. Follow up on these recommendations.
Joint Health and Safety Committees
In order to carry out the above they all must:
a) Hold meetings.
b) Carry out regular inspections of the entire
workplace at least once per month or year .
c) select someone to inspect the workplace.
d) Real or potential hazard , it must be reported
to the joint health and safety committee.
Joint Health and Safety Committees
e) Give special training for inspectors in
workplace health and safety.
1. Informing the WHC or JHSC of any workrelated accidents involving injury, death or
2. Providing JHSC with the results and
reports relating to health and safety in the
3. Provide a location for meetings . Also
choose the managerial members of
4. provide a written response to
recommendations within 21days .
5. Explained in the diagram :
A timetable for action
must be outlined and
provided to JHSC .
Reasons must be
given in writing.
Ministry of Labour Inspectors
1. Uphold and enforce the Occupational
Health and Safety Act.
2. inspect the workplace and investigate
potentially hazardous situations,
accidents and work refusals.
3. Issue orders, and may provide advice
where there are disputes .
Health care delivery is an important component
of the health system and the
National Health Policy envisages a number of
statements with the overall
objective of ensuring the provision of health
services which are accessible,
affordable, appropriate, efficient and effective.
Health care package
• The interim Constitution of Sudan states that
the “State shall promote public health,
establish, rehabilitate and develop basic
medical and diagnostic
• institutions and provide free primary health
care and emergency services for all citizens”.
• One inference from this Article is that
while the State is obliged to provide free
primary health care and emergency
services for all citizens, the private sector
also has a role, with the Government
creating and instituting mechanisms for
its effective regulation.
• The content of the primary health care
package includes as a minimum: the
promotion of child health (immunization
against vaccine-preventable diseases,
nutrition counselling and growth-monitoring
and implementation of the Integrated
Management of Childhood Illness package);
the promotion of school health; the
promotion of reproductive health (safe
motherhood, including safe pregnancy and
family planning); the control of endemic
• diseases (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS,
schistosomiasis, etc); the protection and
promotion of environmental health and
sanitation; and treatment of simple
diseases and injuries and mental health.
• The National Health Policy, therefore,
calls for rebuilding/repairing and
refurbishing the health infrastructure,
including the provision of necessary
equipment. While this intervention
should start at the level of hospitals and
health centres, for lower level primary
health care facilities, it will be based on
the following standards for health
• The basic health unit, headed by a medical
assistant, will be the smallest health facility to
deliver primary health care. Dressing stations
staffed by a nurse, and primary health care
units staffed by community health workers,
will be replaced gradually with basic health
Occupational and environmental
• The National Health Policy envisages
strengthening environmental health services
of which occupational health is a component.
The FMoH, in collaboration with the SMoH,
will identify potential risks to human health.
• In order to avert or mitigate these risks, which
are mostly beyond the domain of the
ministries of health, an interdisciplinary
committee on environmental health will be
established at all levels of government to
define comprehensive measures to protect
and promote a healthy environment, including
health at the workplace.
• The policy advocates for the coverage of
all workers, including those working in
the informal sector, in small and
medium-sized enterprises and in
agriculture by essential interventions and
the prevention of basic occupational
health services for primary prevention of
occupational and work-related diseases
• Accordingly, it urges health authorities at
all levels to take measures to establish
and strengthen core institutional
capacities and human resource
capabilities to deal with the special
health needs of working populations.
Reproductive and maternal health
• Reproductive and maternal health, as a
vital social and economic investment, is
an important component of the National
Health Policy. It envisages addressing
reproductive health issues across the lifecycle with priority to safe mother hood,
ensuring women’s right to survive
pregnancy and childbirth and to enjoy
1. Establish a health coordination committee/council at
national level to oversee the
implementation of the policies under the authority of the
Constitution of Sudan.
2. Government's role:
a) Defending and harnessing political commitment to ensure
that the vision of the National Health Policy is translated
into strategic and operational plans.
b) Making available resources equally to the stated targets
and creating conditions leading to the achievement of the
vision and mission.
Monitoring and evaluation
All of objectives of the National
Health Policy, (policy
statements),will be monitored.
Verifiable indicators and measurement
tools are needed to monitor progress at
Monitoring and evaluation
Summary: chain of command in Sudan
FMoH ( health policy unit )
Health care delivery for all workers
Monitoring and evaluation
Assist in :
replacement of an
Types of evaluation
1. Formative :at beginning of project , to
understand the basic idea about it .
2. Mid term : at half of project , review progress
and sufficiency of intervention and budget.
3. Final : support the process for review of
4. Ex.post: for learning purposes
S . Africa
most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction,
industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force