Maternal, Newborn and Child Health

1
2
3
By :Ismail

Introduction

Mohammed Abdullah
Occupational health
Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a crossdisciplinary area concerned with protecting the
safety,...
Occupational safety and health can be
important for moral, legal, and financial
reasons.
Moral obligations would involve t...
Definition
• Since 1950, the International Labour
Organization (ILO) and the World Health
Organization (WHO) have shared a...
The definition
Is promotion and maintenance of the
highest degree of physical, mental and
social well-being of workers in ...
The main focus in occupational health
is on three different objectives:
• (i) the maintenance and promotion of
workers
• (...
Management system
By:

Rayhan Abdelgalil
NEBOSH

Health and Safety
The term Health and Safety is generally
used to mean an employer should:
• Promote and maintain ...
NEBOSH

HSG65 Safety Management
Systems
Policy
Organisation

Auditing

Planning and
implementing
Measuring
performance
Rev...
NEBOSH

Management of Health & Safety
HS(G)65 Step 1 - Policy

Policy: Health and Safety aims and objectives of the
Organi...
NEBOSH

Management of Health &
Safety
HSG65 Step 2 - Organising

Organisation – Clear roles and lines of
responsibility, C...
NEBOSH

Management of Health &
Safety

HSG65 Step 3 –
Planning & Implementing
Planning & Implementation – Identify hazards...
NEBOSH

Management of Health &
Safety

HSG65 Step 4 Measuring Performanceto which
Measuring Performance – a means of deter...
NEBOSH

Management of Health &
Safety

HSG65 Step 5 – Reviewing &
Auditing
Reviewing – Analysing data gathered through

mo...
NEBOSH

Safety Management Systems
HSEG 65, 2003: ‘Successful Health and
Safety Management Systems’. (HSE)
ILO-OSH, 2001: G...
NEBOSH

The International Labour Organisation
Its main aims are to advance opportunities for workers
to obtain decent and ...
NEBOSH
The International Organisation for
Standards (ISO)
ISO 9001:2000 – Quality Management
Systems
ISO 14001:2004 – Envi...
NEBOSH

Safety Management Systems
ISO 9001
ISO 14001

P

Step 1
Establish standards
for health & safety
management based
o...
NEBOSH

Reasons for
Good Health & Safety Practice
Humanitarian/Moral
Legal
Cost
© TWI Gulf WLL 2008
NEBOSH

Costs of Accidents at Work
Iceberg Model of Accident Costs:
… Visible Costs
Liability insurance

Invisible Costs
Economic -

ACCIDENT ‘ICEBERG’’

DIRECTCOSTS

Civil claims, Fines,
Product loss, Property damage.

£1
INDIRECT COSTS
Medic...
NEBOSH

Hidden Costs of Accidents
Accident investigation

Loss of reputation

Payments to injured
person

Damage repair

P...
Multi-causational Theory
Immediate
Cause

Injury

Accident
Underlying
Causes
© ECITB.

HSE Training Plan 2007

Immediate
C...
NEBOSH

Worldwide Accidents
ILO Worldwide estimate on workplace
accidents per year:

Total – 125,000,000
Fatal Safety - 33...
NEBOSH

Benefits of Good Health and
Safety Practice
1) Increased levels of compliance
2) Improved production
3) Improved s...
Legislation
By :

Abdulrhman hayder
Different states take different approaches
to legislation, regulation, and
enforcement. Also economic incentives
for compl...
• . In the EU, for example, some member
states promote OSH by providing public
monies as subsidies, grants or financing,
w...
Gender mainstreaming and
equal opportunities
Definition
• It is a process that helps to ensure that
everyone – girls,boys, men and women – are
accounted for equally an...
Humanitarian and Emergency
Situations
•
•
•
•

Armed conflict
Disaster
Recovery
Reconstruction
What does GM have to do with
Humanitarian Work?
• It ensures that no one is excluded,
marginalized or discriminated agains...
• To prevent and relieve suffering of those
affected by a humanitarian context
• Protect the rights and freedoms of women,...
• Sudan, as a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural
country encompassing hundreds of
• ethnic and tribal divisions and languages, h...
• National health policies should, therefore,
create appropriate conditions and
• institutions for people irrespective of ...
• involved in the institutions assigned to
undertake policy analysis at various
• levels and due consideration is given to...
•Thank you
Occupational health and Safety
By:

Jody Gamal
Guidelines a on occupational safety and health
management systems These guidelines
encourage continual improvement in
empl...
Who needs orientation?
Depending on the workplace, it may be appropriate
to give occupational health and safety
orientatio...
Personal Protective
Protection from Head Injuries
Hard hats can protect your workers from head
impact, penetration injurie...
Protection from Foot and Leg Injuries
In addition to foot guards and safety shoes,
leggings (e.g., leather, aluminized ray...
Protection from Hearing Loss
Exposure to high noise
levels can cause irreversible hearing loss or
impairment as well as ph...
Respiratory Protection
workers must use appropriate respirators to
protect against adverse health effects caused by
breath...
Thank you
• By :

Occupational hazard
Tagreed
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARD:
Definition:
‘’Source or situation with a
potential for harm in terms of
injury or ill health, damage ...
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS

PHYSICAL HAZARD

ERGONOMIC HAZARD

CHEMICAL HAZARD

BIOLOGICAL HAZARD
PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Temperature - Heat / Cold
Illumination
Noise
Vibration
Radiation
Atmospheric pressure
PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Temperature - Heat / Cold
Illumination
Noise
Vibration
Radiation
Atmospheric pressure
PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Temperature - Heat / Cold
Illumination
Noise
Vibration
Radiation
Atmospheric pressure
Temperature - Heat / Cold
Illumination
Noise
Vibration
Radiation
Atmospheric pressure
PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Temperature - Heat / Cold
Illumination
Noise
Vibration
Radiation
Atmospheric pressure
DISEASES DUE TO PHYSICAL
AGENTS
Heat - Heat hyperpyrexia, Heat Exhaustion
Heat Syncope, Heat Cramps, burns, Prickly heat
C...
CHEMICAL HAZARDS
Routes of entry - Inhalation, Ingestion, skin
absorption. (inhalation is the main route of entry)
Chemica...
Biological Hazards
Bacteria-Tetanus,Tuberculosis,
Anthrax,
Brucellosis
(Milkmen),Gonorrhea(Sexworkers-Genital organs get a...
Biological Hazards
Virus - Hepatitis, AIDS
Biological Hazards
Protozoal&Parasitic-Malaria,Hydatid(Dog
handlers),Hookworms, tapeworms (Agriworkers), etc.
Biological Hazards
Fungi-(Agri-workers)-Tinea-infections,
Coccidiomycosis, Psittacoses, ornithosis,
etc.
MECHANICAL HAZARDS
InjuriesFalls,cuts,abrasions,concussions,contusions,et
c.
Ergonomic DisordersMusculo-skeletal
disorders...
Risk factor
Static posture
Repetitive
movement

Forceful exertion

Extreme range of
motion
PSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDS
•
•

•

v
Lack of job satisfaction, insecurity, poor
interpersonal relations, work pressure,
ambiguit...
Thank you
By
Dr.

Common workplace
hazard groups
. Abu baker MohammadAlfatih
introduction
• Hazards have existed from which accidents
have come about from the earliest of times:
falls from elevated p...
Since the initiation, growth and benefits of
tools people have been exposed more and
more to increasingly
complex hazards ...
MEDICAL FIELD
The medical field workers are in danger
because
they are exposed daily to deferent types of
harmful agents l...
Infectious Diseases
• Infectious diseases can be caused by coming
• into contact with bacteria, viruses, funguses
or paras...
Back injuries
• Back injuries are the most frequent injury in
hospitals.
Heavy lifting and frequent bending
or twisting wh...
Violence
• Health care workers are at risk from violence
• when dealing with angry and stressed patients
• and their famil...
• Workload Issues
Changes in work organization resulting from
restructuring, downsizing, and layoffs within
the healthcare...
Gold mining
• Health problems of gold miners who works in
this field include decreased life expectancy;
increased frequenc...
cont
MERCURY
• For centuries, mercury has been used to
chemically separate gold from ore, leading to
major public-health p...
Casual workers
• There is no standard definition of casual work
but usually they are usually jobs that are
temporary, have...
• Poor work practices create hazards –
examples of unsafe work practices commonly
found in the workplace include:
• using ...
Roles and responsibilities of
occupational health
Shiraz
Worker Health and Safety
Representatives
Worker health and safety(WHS)
representative has the same responsibilities
and po...
Joint Health and Safety Committees
JHSC
has four principal functions:
1. To identify potential hazards .
2. Evaluate poten...
Joint Health and Safety Committees
In order to carry out the above they all must:
a) Hold meetings.
b) Carry out regular i...
Joint Health and Safety Committees
JHSC
e) Give special training for inspectors in
workplace health and safety.
Employer responsibilities
1. Informing the WHC or JHSC of any workrelated accidents involving injury, death or
occupationa...
Employer responsibilities:
2. Providing JHSC with the results and
reports relating to health and safety in the
workplace.
...
Employer responsibilities:
4. provide a written response to
recommendations within 21days .
5. Explained in the diagram :
...
Ministry of Labour Inspectors
MLI
Responsible for:
1. Uphold and enforce the Occupational
Health and Safety Act.
2. inspec...
Health care delivery
By:

Musaab jafar
Health care delivery is an important component
of the health system and the
National Health Policy envisages a number of
s...
Health care package
• The interim Constitution of Sudan states that
the “State shall promote public health,
establish, reh...
• One inference from this Article is that
while the State is obliged to provide free
primary health care and emergency
ser...
• The content of the primary health care
package includes as a minimum: the
promotion of child health (immunization
agains...
• diseases (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS,
schistosomiasis, etc); the protection and
promotion of environmental health a...
• The National Health Policy, therefore,
calls for rebuilding/repairing and
refurbishing the health infrastructure,
includ...
• The basic health unit, headed by a medical
assistant, will be the smallest health facility to
deliver primary health car...
Occupational and environmental
health
• The National Health Policy envisages
strengthening environmental health services
o...
• In order to avert or mitigate these risks, which
are mostly beyond the domain of the
ministries of health, an interdisci...
• The policy advocates for the coverage of
all workers, including those working in
the informal sector, in small and
mediu...
• Accordingly, it urges health authorities at
all levels to take measures to establish
and strengthen core institutional
c...
Reproductive and maternal health
• Reproductive and maternal health, as a
vital social and economic investment, is
an impo...
Monitoring and evaluation
Aya Ahmed
Altigani
Policy implementation
• Steps:
1. Establish a health coordination committee/council at
national level to oversee the

impl...
Monitoring and evaluation
All of objectives of the National
Health Policy, (policy
statements),will be monitored.
Verifi...
Monitoring and evaluation
Summary: chain of command in Sudan
FMoH ( health policy unit )

SMoH
counties

localities

Healt...
Monitoring and evaluation
Summery:

FMoH
,SMoH

Make health
report

Assist in :
terminate ,
maintain or
replacement of an
...
Types of evaluation
1. Formative :at beginning of project , to
understand the basic idea about it .
2. Mid term : at half ...
Labor force
Country

Industry

Agriculture

Government

Service

commerce

Sudan

7%

80%

13%

-------------------

7%

C...
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
Occupational health  communti
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Occupational health communti

  1. 1. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. By :Ismail Introduction Mohammed Abdullah
  5. 5. Occupational health Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a crossdisciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work environment and protect co-workers and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment.
  6. 6. Occupational safety and health can be important for moral, legal, and financial reasons. Moral obligations would involve the protection of employee's lives and health. Legal reasons for OSH practices relate to the preventative, punitive and compensatory effects of laws that protect worker's safety and health.
  7. 7. Definition • Since 1950, the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have shared a common definition of occupational health.
  8. 8. The definition Is promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations.
  9. 9. The main focus in occupational health is on three different objectives: • (i) the maintenance and promotion of workers • (ii) the improvement of working environment and work culture • (iii) development of work organizations and working cultures in a direction which supports health and safety at work
  10. 10. Management system By: Rayhan Abdelgalil
  11. 11. NEBOSH Health and Safety The term Health and Safety is generally used to mean an employer should: • Promote and maintain the mental, physical and social well-being of employees • Protect employees and others affected by an organisation’s activities to harm from risk • Establish a management framework to implement policies and achieve continual improvement in health and safety
  12. 12. NEBOSH HSG65 Safety Management Systems Policy Organisation Auditing Planning and implementing Measuring performance Reviewing performance Develo p
  13. 13. NEBOSH Management of Health & Safety HS(G)65 Step 1 - Policy Policy: Health and Safety aims and objectives of the Organisation, and Management commitment Sets the Organisation & Arrangements for identifying hazards, assessing risks & preventing or controlling them. Are staff aware, do they understand it? Is it compatible with the overall company policy? Is responsibility delegated to competent individuals? Does it indicate to directors and managers how to assess risks and allocate resources? Is it a working document?
  14. 14. NEBOSH Management of Health & Safety HSG65 Step 2 - Organising Organisation – Clear roles and lines of responsibility, Competence, Commitment and control, Co-operation and Communication • Competence - Needs to exist for recruitment, transfer & training. • Commitment and Control - Directors and managers must accept and demonstrate a commitment to the management of Health and Safety. • Consultation and Co-operation – consultation demonstrates commitment which leads to co-operation • Communication - Needs to flow in all directions.
  15. 15. NEBOSH Management of Health & Safety HSG65 Step 3 – Planning & Implementing Planning & Implementation – Identify hazards, assessing risks and decide how risks can be eliminated or controlled. Sets standards against which performance can be measured • Generate SMART objectives. • Identify hazards, assess risks and establish priorities according to risk. • Set performance standards, • Plans for non routine, new work and serious risks. • Monitoring arrangements to ensure standards are met.
  16. 16. NEBOSH Management of Health & Safety HSG65 Step 4 Measuring Performanceto which Measuring Performance – a means of determining extent health and safety policy and objectives are being implemented and should be both reactive and proactive. • Monitoring needs to be both proactive and reactive. • Directors and managers may not be aware of what is happening. • Monitoring systems should be introduced in each department. © TWI Gulf WLL 2008
  17. 17. NEBOSH Management of Health & Safety HSG65 Step 5 – Reviewing & Auditing Reviewing – Analysing data gathered through monitoring to see whether performance is adequate Audit – Systematic critical examination of each stage of an organisations management systems and procedures. Improvement will be obtained by continuous reviewing and auditing of performance.
  18. 18. NEBOSH Safety Management Systems HSEG 65, 2003: ‘Successful Health and Safety Management Systems’. (HSE) ILO-OSH, 2001: Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems. (ILO) OHSAS 18001, 1999: Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (BSI)
  19. 19. NEBOSH The International Labour Organisation Its main aims are to advance opportunities for workers to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. Conventions, e.g. C155: Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 Recommendations, e.g. R164: Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation, 1981.
  20. 20. NEBOSH The International Organisation for Standards (ISO) ISO 9001:2000 – Quality Management Systems ISO 14001:2004 – Environmental Management Systems Labour Standards Product Standards International Standards
  21. 21. NEBOSH Safety Management Systems ISO 9001 ISO 14001 P Step 1 Establish standards for health & safety management based on risk assessment and legal requirements Plan Do Check Act Step 4 Review against objectives and standards and take appropriate action A Step 2 D Implement plans to achieve objectives and standards Step 3 Measure progress with plans and compliance with standards C
  22. 22. NEBOSH Reasons for Good Health & Safety Practice Humanitarian/Moral Legal Cost © TWI Gulf WLL 2008
  23. 23. NEBOSH Costs of Accidents at Work Iceberg Model of Accident Costs: … Visible Costs Liability insurance Invisible Costs
  24. 24. Economic - ACCIDENT ‘ICEBERG’’ DIRECTCOSTS Civil claims, Fines, Product loss, Property damage. £1 INDIRECT COSTS Medical treatment Legal Costs Overtime/replacement staff Investigation Costs Production Delays Loss of expertise/experience etc.
  25. 25. NEBOSH Hidden Costs of Accidents Accident investigation Loss of reputation Payments to injured person Damage repair Payments non productive time Compensation Replacement labour Training Business interruption Replacement plant Legal fees Insurance
  26. 26. Multi-causational Theory Immediate Cause Injury Accident Underlying Causes © ECITB. HSE Training Plan 2007 Immediate Cause 48
  27. 27. NEBOSH Worldwide Accidents ILO Worldwide estimate on workplace accidents per year: Total – 125,000,000 Fatal Safety - 334,870 Fatal Health - 992,445
  28. 28. NEBOSH Benefits of Good Health and Safety Practice 1) Increased levels of compliance 2) Improved production 3) Improved staff morale 4) Improved company reputation 5) Reduced accidents 6) Reduced ill health 7) Reduced damage to equipment 8) Reduced staff turnover 9) Reduced insurance premiums 10) Reduced fines and compensation claims
  29. 29. Legislation By : Abdulrhman hayder
  30. 30. Different states take different approaches to legislation, regulation, and enforcement. Also economic incentives for compliance to rules and general good occupational safety and health practice vary among nations
  31. 31. • . In the EU, for example, some member states promote OSH by providing public monies as subsidies, grants or financing, while others have created tax system incentives for OSH investments. A third group of EU member states has experimented with using workplace accident insurance premium discounts for companies or organisations with strong OSH records
  32. 32. Gender mainstreaming and equal opportunities
  33. 33. Definition • It is a process that helps to ensure that everyone – girls,boys, men and women – are accounted for equally and equitably in all aspects concerning their lives
  34. 34. Humanitarian and Emergency Situations • • • • Armed conflict Disaster Recovery Reconstruction
  35. 35. What does GM have to do with Humanitarian Work? • It ensures that no one is excluded, marginalized or discriminated against because of their sex in: – Protection measures (e.g. GBV: Gender Based Violence) – Services (e.g. education) – Opportunities (e.g. loans and employment) – Basic needs (food, water, sanitation, health, shelter, justice)
  36. 36. • To prevent and relieve suffering of those affected by a humanitarian context • Protect the rights and freedoms of women, girls, boys and men • Promote equal opportunities and rights of all free from any discrimination based on sex and gender ascribed roles due to social norms
  37. 37. • Sudan, as a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural country encompassing hundreds of • ethnic and tribal divisions and languages, has since its independence faced • conflicts that have had implications for the country’s social service institutions, • including health.
  38. 38. • National health policies should, therefore, create appropriate conditions and • institutions for people irrespective of gender or their regional, religious, racial, • cultural or ethnic affiliation in order that they are provided with the opportunity • and ability to make decisions about their health and lives. This could be • achieved through the creation of mechanisms whereby these groups become
  39. 39. • involved in the institutions assigned to undertake policy analysis at various • levels and due consideration is given to their input. • The FMoH will ensure provision of genderfriendly health care at all levels of • health care delivery and will also consider gender analysis as an element in • the development of strategic and operational plans at all levels of government.
  40. 40. •Thank you
  41. 41. Occupational health and Safety By: Jody Gamal
  42. 42. Guidelines a on occupational safety and health management systems These guidelines encourage continual improvement in employee health and safety, acheived via: constant process of policy, organization, planning & implementation, evaluation, and action for improvement, all supported by constant auditing to determine the success of OSH actions
  43. 43. Who needs orientation? Depending on the workplace, it may be appropriate to give occupational health and safety orientation to: • • • temporary employees • • seasonal employees • • fulltime employees returning from a leave of absence • • outside contractors, • • visitors to the workplace and others
  44. 44. Personal Protective Protection from Head Injuries Hard hats can protect your workers from head impact, penetration injuries, and electrical injuries such as those caused by falling or flying objects, fixed objects, or contact with electrical conductors
  45. 45. Protection from Foot and Leg Injuries In addition to foot guards and safety shoes, leggings (e.g., leather, aluminized rayon, or Other appropriate material) can help prevent injuries by protecting workers.
  46. 46. Protection from Hearing Loss Exposure to high noise levels can cause irreversible hearing loss or impairment as well as physical and psychological stress. Earplugs made from foam, waxed cotton, or fiberglass wool are self-forming and usually fit well. A professional should fit your workers individually for molded or preformed earplugs. Clean earplugs regularly, and replace those you cannot clean.
  47. 47. Respiratory Protection workers must use appropriate respirators to protect against adverse health effects caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors. Respirators generally cover the nose and mouth or the entire face or head and help prevent illness and injury. A proper fit is essential, however, for respirators to be effective.
  48. 48. Thank you
  49. 49. • By : Occupational hazard Tagreed
  50. 50. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARD: Definition: ‘’Source or situation with a potential for harm in terms of injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to the workplace environment, or a combination of these``
  51. 51. TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS PHYSICAL HAZARD ERGONOMIC HAZARD CHEMICAL HAZARD BIOLOGICAL HAZARD
  52. 52. PHYSICAL HAZARDS Temperature - Heat / Cold Illumination Noise Vibration Radiation Atmospheric pressure
  53. 53. PHYSICAL HAZARDS Temperature - Heat / Cold Illumination Noise Vibration Radiation Atmospheric pressure
  54. 54. PHYSICAL HAZARDS Temperature - Heat / Cold Illumination Noise Vibration Radiation Atmospheric pressure
  55. 55. Temperature - Heat / Cold Illumination Noise Vibration Radiation Atmospheric pressure
  56. 56. PHYSICAL HAZARDS Temperature - Heat / Cold Illumination Noise Vibration Radiation Atmospheric pressure
  57. 57. DISEASES DUE TO PHYSICAL AGENTS Heat - Heat hyperpyrexia, Heat Exhaustion Heat Syncope, Heat Cramps, burns, Prickly heat Cold - Frost bite, Light – Occupational Cataract, Atmospheric-pressure-Caisson disease,air embolism, explosion. Noise - Occupational deafness, Radiation -Cancer,Leukemia,aplastic anemia, Pancytopenia Electricity - Burns, Shocks,
  58. 58. CHEMICAL HAZARDS Routes of entry - Inhalation, Ingestion, skin absorption. (inhalation is the main route of entry) Chemical agents can be classified into 1)Metals - Lead, Hg, Cd, Ni , Co etc. 2) Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Benzene, Toluene,phenol etc. 3)Aliphatic Hydrocarbons - Methyl alcohol 4) Gases - *Simple asphyxiants : N2, CH4, CO2 * Chemical asphyxiants : CO, H2S, HCN * Irritant gases : Ammonia, SO2, Cl2, * Systemic poison : CS2
  59. 59. Biological Hazards Bacteria-Tetanus,Tuberculosis, Anthrax, Brucellosis (Milkmen),Gonorrhea(Sexworkers-Genital organs get affected).
  60. 60. Biological Hazards Virus - Hepatitis, AIDS
  61. 61. Biological Hazards Protozoal&Parasitic-Malaria,Hydatid(Dog handlers),Hookworms, tapeworms (Agriworkers), etc.
  62. 62. Biological Hazards Fungi-(Agri-workers)-Tinea-infections, Coccidiomycosis, Psittacoses, ornithosis, etc.
  63. 63. MECHANICAL HAZARDS InjuriesFalls,cuts,abrasions,concussions,contusions,et c. Ergonomic DisordersMusculo-skeletal disorders(MSDs),Cumulativetrauma-Disorders (CTDs) etc. Ergonomics: ``Adjustment of Man & Machine``/ Application of human biological sciences with engineering science to achieve optimum mutual adjustment of man & his work, the benefit being measured in terms of human efficiency .
  64. 64. Risk factor Static posture Repetitive movement Forceful exertion Extreme range of motion
  65. 65. PSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDS • • • v Lack of job satisfaction, insecurity, poor interpersonal relations, work pressure, ambiguity, etc. v Psychological & behavioral changes – hostility, aggressiveness, anxiety, depression, alcoholism, drug addiction, sickness absenteeism. v Psychosomatic disorders- Hypertension, headache, body-ache, peptic ulcers, asthma, diabetes, heart disorders, etc.
  66. 66. Thank you
  67. 67. By Dr. Common workplace hazard groups . Abu baker MohammadAlfatih
  68. 68. introduction • Hazards have existed from which accidents have come about from the earliest of times: falls from elevated places, cuts from sharp objects, impacts from falling trees and rocks, fires, drowning, and similar primordial events.
  69. 69. Since the initiation, growth and benefits of tools people have been exposed more and more to increasingly complex hazards in addition to the primordial ones that still take place, all causing accidents and injuries. Possibilities of accidents have been increasing not only in types but in magnitudes, especially in industries
  70. 70. MEDICAL FIELD The medical field workers are in danger because they are exposed daily to deferent types of harmful agents like biological , chemical and physical agents.
  71. 71. Infectious Diseases • Infectious diseases can be caused by coming • into contact with bacteria, viruses, funguses or parasites when handling patients, contaminated objects, body secretions, tissue or fluids . • Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human • Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV
  72. 72. Back injuries • Back injuries are the most frequent injury in hospitals. Heavy lifting and frequent bending or twisting when moving objects or patients increases the risk of back injury. Repetitive Strain Injuries • A repetitive strain injury (RSI) is an injury that occurs over time as a result of repetitive, forceful or awkward body movements
  73. 73. Violence • Health care workers are at risk from violence • when dealing with angry and stressed patients • and their families Radiation • Radiation is used in diagnostic procedures such • as x-ray, fluoroscopy and angiography
  74. 74. • Workload Issues Changes in work organization resulting from restructuring, downsizing, and layoffs within the healthcare industry are resulting in decreased staffing levels, increased workloads and time pressures, and longer hours of work.
  75. 75. Gold mining • Health problems of gold miners who works in this field include decreased life expectancy; increased frequency of cancer of the trachea, bronchus, lung, stomach, and liver; increased frequency of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), silicosis, and pleural diseases; increased frequency of insect-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever; noise-induced hearing loss; increased prevalence of certain bacterial and viral diseases; and diseases of the blood, skin, and musculoskeletal system.
  76. 76. cont MERCURY • For centuries, mercury has been used to chemically separate gold from ore, leading to major public-health problems for miners and communities around mining districts.
  77. 77. Casual workers • There is no standard definition of casual work but usually they are usually jobs that are temporary, have irregular hours and are not guaranteed to be ongoing. For example: 1.factories workers 2.carpenters 3.blacksmith 4.drivers
  78. 78. • Poor work practices create hazards – examples of unsafe work practices commonly found in the workplace include: • using machinery or tools without authority . • operating at unsafe speeds or in violation of safe work practices • using defective tools or equipment or using tools or equipment in unsafe ways • using hands or body instead of tools or push sticks
  79. 79. Roles and responsibilities of occupational health Shiraz
  80. 80. Worker Health and Safety Representatives Worker health and safety(WHS) representative has the same responsibilities and powers as a joint health and safety committee. Including: 1. identify hazards . 2. consulted about workplace testing . 3. make recommendations to the employer . 4. investigate work refusals and serious accidents.
  81. 81. Joint Health and Safety Committees JHSC has four principal functions: 1. To identify potential hazards . 2. Evaluate potential hazards. 3. Recommend corrective action. 4. Follow up on these recommendations.
  82. 82. Joint Health and Safety Committees In order to carry out the above they all must: a) Hold meetings. b) Carry out regular inspections of the entire workplace at least once per month or year . c) select someone to inspect the workplace. d) Real or potential hazard , it must be reported to the joint health and safety committee.
  83. 83. Joint Health and Safety Committees JHSC e) Give special training for inspectors in workplace health and safety.
  84. 84. Employer responsibilities 1. Informing the WHC or JHSC of any workrelated accidents involving injury, death or occupational illness.
  85. 85. Employer responsibilities: 2. Providing JHSC with the results and reports relating to health and safety in the workplace. 3. Provide a location for meetings . Also choose the managerial members of JHSC.
  86. 86. Employer responsibilities: 4. provide a written response to recommendations within 21days . 5. Explained in the diagram : Accepted A timetable for action must be outlined and provided to JHSC . Refused Reasons must be given in writing. Recommendations
  87. 87. Ministry of Labour Inspectors MLI Responsible for: 1. Uphold and enforce the Occupational Health and Safety Act. 2. inspect the workplace and investigate potentially hazardous situations, accidents and work refusals. 3. Issue orders, and may provide advice where there are disputes .
  88. 88. Health care delivery By: Musaab jafar
  89. 89. Health care delivery is an important component of the health system and the National Health Policy envisages a number of statements with the overall objective of ensuring the provision of health services which are accessible, affordable, appropriate, efficient and effective.
  90. 90. Health care package • The interim Constitution of Sudan states that the “State shall promote public health, establish, rehabilitate and develop basic medical and diagnostic • institutions and provide free primary health care and emergency services for all citizens”.
  91. 91. • One inference from this Article is that while the State is obliged to provide free primary health care and emergency services for all citizens, the private sector also has a role, with the Government creating and instituting mechanisms for its effective regulation.
  92. 92. • The content of the primary health care package includes as a minimum: the promotion of child health (immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases, nutrition counselling and growth-monitoring and implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness package); the promotion of school health; the promotion of reproductive health (safe motherhood, including safe pregnancy and family planning); the control of endemic
  93. 93. • diseases (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, schistosomiasis, etc); the protection and promotion of environmental health and sanitation; and treatment of simple diseases and injuries and mental health.
  94. 94. • The National Health Policy, therefore, calls for rebuilding/repairing and refurbishing the health infrastructure, including the provision of necessary equipment. While this intervention should start at the level of hospitals and health centres, for lower level primary health care facilities, it will be based on the following standards for health facilities.
  95. 95. • The basic health unit, headed by a medical assistant, will be the smallest health facility to deliver primary health care. Dressing stations staffed by a nurse, and primary health care units staffed by community health workers, will be replaced gradually with basic health units
  96. 96. Occupational and environmental health • The National Health Policy envisages strengthening environmental health services of which occupational health is a component. The FMoH, in collaboration with the SMoH, will identify potential risks to human health.
  97. 97. • In order to avert or mitigate these risks, which are mostly beyond the domain of the ministries of health, an interdisciplinary committee on environmental health will be established at all levels of government to define comprehensive measures to protect and promote a healthy environment, including health at the workplace.
  98. 98. • The policy advocates for the coverage of all workers, including those working in the informal sector, in small and medium-sized enterprises and in agriculture by essential interventions and the prevention of basic occupational health services for primary prevention of occupational and work-related diseases and injuries.
  99. 99. • Accordingly, it urges health authorities at all levels to take measures to establish and strengthen core institutional capacities and human resource capabilities to deal with the special health needs of working populations.
  100. 100. Reproductive and maternal health • Reproductive and maternal health, as a vital social and economic investment, is an important component of the National Health Policy. It envisages addressing reproductive health issues across the lifecycle with priority to safe mother hood, ensuring women’s right to survive pregnancy and childbirth and to enjoy family life.
  101. 101. Monitoring and evaluation Aya Ahmed Altigani
  102. 102. Policy implementation • Steps: 1. Establish a health coordination committee/council at national level to oversee the implementation of the policies under the authority of the Constitution of Sudan. 2. Government's role: a) Defending and harnessing political commitment to ensure that the vision of the National Health Policy is translated into strategic and operational plans. b) Making available resources equally to the stated targets and creating conditions leading to the achievement of the vision and mission.
  103. 103. Monitoring and evaluation All of objectives of the National Health Policy, (policy statements),will be monitored. Verifiable indicators and measurement tools are needed to monitor progress at all levels.
  104. 104. Monitoring and evaluation Summary: chain of command in Sudan FMoH ( health policy unit ) SMoH counties localities Health care delivery for all workers
  105. 105. Monitoring and evaluation Summery: FMoH ,SMoH Make health report Assist in : terminate , maintain or replacement of an objective Install mechanisms to monitor objectives Evidence for assisting outcome of objectives Provide resources Select indicators
  106. 106. Types of evaluation 1. Formative :at beginning of project , to understand the basic idea about it . 2. Mid term : at half of project , review progress and sufficiency of intervention and budget. 3. Final : support the process for review of plans. 4. Ex.post: for learning purposes
  107. 107. Labor force Country Industry Agriculture Government Service commerce Sudan 7% 80% 13% ------------------- 7% China 22% 49% ------------------- 29% ------------------- Brazil 14% 20% ------------------- 66% ------------------- S . Africa 25% 30%, ------------------- 45% ------------------- Yemen most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/lab_lab_for_by_occ-labor-force-byoccupation

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