Mother and child comunity

1,877 views

Published on

1 Comment
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • A healthy nation depends on the health of Mother and child invest in the health of mother and child for a well developed and a healthy nation
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,877
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
63
Comments
1
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • بعد هذا الشريحه في فيديو و بعد الفيديو مدثر خليفه
  • FP; to ensure that individuals & couples have the information And services to plan timing, number & spacing of pregnancies.ANC: to prevent complications where possible and ensure that complications of pregnancy are detected early & treated appropriately.C/S d: to ensure that all birth attendants have the knowledge, skills & equipment to perform a clean & safe delivery and provide postpartum care to mother & baby.E o c: to ensure that essential care for high risk pregnancies & complications is made available to all women who need it.
  • بعدك عبد الباسط اقلب على الشريحه بتاعت الي بعدك قبل ما نتزل
  • يا عبد الباسط بعدك عماد ادم وفي صوره بعد كده اقلب على الشريحه بتاعت الي بعدك قبل ما نتزل
  • بعدك يا عماد في اروى عبد الوهاب اقلب على الشريحه بتاعت الي بعدك قبل ما نتزل
  • بعد كده في صوره خليها شويه و بعدين اشكري الناس و اقلبي على تقديم مياده اسحاق
  • بعدك يا مياده في شهلاء عابدين اقلب على الشريحه بتاعت الي بعدك قبل ما نتزل
  • يا شهلاء بعد كده في الصوره بتاعت الشكر خليها شويه و بعدين قدمي ريم عبد المحسن و اقلب على الشريحه بتاعت الي بعدك قبل ما نتزل
  • اخر شريحه ..... قدمي فردوس با بكر .........اقلب على الشريحه بتاعت الي بعدك قبل ما نتزل
  • يا ريم بعد كده في شكر خليه شوي و قدمي يوسف عبد الرحمن ....اقلب على الشريحه بتاعت الي بعدك قبل ما نتزل
  • يديك العافيه يا يوسف بعد كده في فيديو اقلب الشريحه و انزل
  • Mother and child comunity

    1. 1. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 5
    2. 2. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 6
    3. 3. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 7
    4. 4. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 8
    5. 5. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 9
    6. 6. FATIMA AWAD (taina) Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 10
    7. 7. What is Maternal, Ne wborn, and Child Health (MNCH) Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 11
    8. 8. (MNCH) refers to an effective and integrated continuum of care that delivers basic services to mothers and their infants at critical points , and to children in their first five years of life, with the goal of ensuring the health and survival. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 12
    9. 9. These include:1.better prenatal care, 2.having a skilled health assistant during birth, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 13
    10. 10. 3.access to emergency obstetrics and newborn care, 4.postnatal visits,and antibiotics to treat infections of mothers and newborns. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 14
    11. 11. 5.Adequate nutrition and education to improve health, and good hygiene practices are also key. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 15
    12. 12.  The lifetime risk of a women dying from pregnancy-related causes (maternal death) in the developing world is 1 per 76, compared with 1 per 8,000 in the industrialized world. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 16
    13. 13. Of all deaths worldwide among pregnant women, infants, and children under age 5, about 99 percent occur in developing countries. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 17
    14. 14. •In UK, Europe and USA and until the Second World War organized antenatal care was not available to all people. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 18
    15. 15. In sudan 90% of mothers deliver at home and attended to by midwives or sometimes by general practioners. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 19
    16. 16. •The maternity care services, are mainly at the level of the local community ever since the start of midwifery training in 1921. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 20
    17. 17. •The health system in this country is based on the primary health care approach since its inception more than 70 years ago. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 21
    18. 18. •Sudan is committed to the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978, and the adoption of primary health care policy. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 22
    19. 19. In september 2000,the primary health care changed into Millennium Development Goals,which has 8 goals have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015,MDG4 and MDG5(to reduce child death and improve maternal health). Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 23
    20. 20. In spite of all efforts at all levels of health care to improve the health of the mother and newborn ,still mortility rate is high. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 24
    21. 21. MODTHER KHALIFA Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 25
    22. 22. Maternal mortality • A maternal death is defined as "the death of a women while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 26
    23. 23. • To reduce maternal deaths globally we need to assure that effective services are provided for improving overall maternal health . Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 27
    24. 24. • Causes of maternal mortality • Women die as a result of complications during and following pregnancy and childbirth. • Most of these complications develop during pregnancy. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 28
    25. 25. • Other complications may exist before pregnancy but are worsened during pregnancy. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 29
    26. 26. 35 50 15 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 30
    27. 27. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 31
    28. 28. • In developing countries, conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth constitute the second leading causes (after HIV/AIDS) of death among women of reproductive age. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 32
    29. 29. • The state of maternal health mirrors the gap between the rich and the poor. • Only 1% of maternal deaths occur in high-income countries. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 33
    30. 30. • Also, maternal mortality is higher in rural areas and among poorer and less educated communities. • Of the 1000 women who die every day, 570 live in sub-Saharan Africa, 300 in South Asia and five in high-income countries. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 34
    31. 31. • Many of these deaths could be prevented if information on family planning and contraceptives were available and put into practice. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 35
    32. 32. • One target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 36
    33. 33. • So far, progress has been slow. Since 1990 the global maternal mortality ratio has declined by only 2.3% annually instead of the 5.5% needed to achieve MDG 5, aimed at improving maternal health. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 37
    34. 34. • The main obstacle to progress towards better health for mothers is the lack of skilled care. • This is aggravated by a global shortage of qualified health workers. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 38
    35. 35. Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth (IMPAC) • IMPAC - Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth is the package of guidelines and tools which is central to the Department's technical assistance activities to support countries in strategic and systematic ways to improve maternal, perinatal and newborn health . Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 39
    36. 36. • IMPAC offers a framework in which national policies, programs and action plans can be elaborated. • It targets health systems, health workers, as well as health promotion. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 40
    37. 37. • Health systems • On the health systems level, the approach aims at improving not only the access to, but also the quality of essential and emergency care • Health workers • To improve the skills and competencies of health care workers is the second strategy of the IMPAC approach Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 41
    38. 38. • Health Promotion • To better respond to women and newborn's health needs and to increase the utilization of available health services, programmes need to implement interventions to improve health in the home and to involve women, families and community actors, including other sectors, to identify key problems and solutions to reaching Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 42
    39. 39. MOHAMMED FARAG Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 43
    40. 40. Safe Motherhood • Is one of the important components of Reproductive Health. • Means ensuring that all women receive the care they need, to be safe and healthy throughout pregnancy and childbirth. • The ability of a mother to have Safe & Healthy pregnancy & Child Birth. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 44
    41. 41. •The Safe Motherhood Initiative is a worldwide effort that aims to increase attention to and reduce the devastating numbers of women that suffer death or serious illness every year. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 45
    42. 42. • Making motherhood safe for the world’s women calls for national governments, funding agencies, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to make maternal health an urgent health priority and to ensure that the necessary political and financial support is dedicated to this effort. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 46
    43. 43. •In order to reduce life-threatening risks and reduce mortality, good-quality maternal health services by trained health workers must be available and must be used. •Therefore, safe motherhood strategies must be comprehensive in nature; even when quality health services are available, other limiting factors can get in the way of women using these services, such as social, economic and cultural factors Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 47
    44. 44. Safe Motherhood includes antenatal care, delivery care (including skilled assistance for delivery with appropriate referral for women with obstetric complications) and postnatal care, including care of the baby and breastfeeding support. Sexually transmitted disease (STD)/ HIV/ AIDS prevention and management, family planning services. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 48
    45. 45. BASIC MATERNITY CARE postpartum care Clean/Safe Delivery FAMILY PLANING ANTINATAL CARE SAFE MOTHERHOOD PRIMARY HEALTH CARE EQUITY FOR WOMEN Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Health policy 49
    46. 46. Prenatal care is a type of preventative care with the goal of providing regular check-ups that allow doctors or midwives to treat and prevent potential health problems throughout the course of the pregnancy while promoting healthy lifestyles that benefit both mother and child. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 50
    47. 47. • During check-ups, women will receive medical information over maternal physiological changes in pregnancy, biological changes, and prenatal nutrition including prenatal vitamins. Recommendations on management and healthy lifestyle changes are also made during regular check-ups Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 51
    48. 48. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 52
    49. 49. Family planning allows individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births. It is achieved through use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of involuntary infertility. A woman’s ability to space and limit her pregnancies has a direct impact on her health and well-being as well as on the outcome of each pregnancy Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 53
    50. 50. Clean save delivary • • • • • • • Clean hand Clean surface Clean cord tie Clean blade Clean cord stumb Clean towel Clean water Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 54
    51. 51. Postpartum Care Since up to 50 per cent of maternal deaths occurs after delivery, a midwife or a trained and supervised TBA should visit all mothers as soon as possible within the first 24-48 hours after birth. The midwife or TBA should assess the mother's general condition and recovery after childbirth and identify any special needs. This attention is particularly important when the woman is alone as head of the family.. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 55
    52. 52. The postpartum visit provides an occasion for assessing and discussing issues of cleanliness, care of the newborn, breastfeeding and appropriate methods and timing of family planning . Health providers should support early and exclusive breastfeeding, and discuss proper nutrition with the mother. Iron folate tablets should be continued and Vitamin A and iodised oil/ salt should be provided when necessary. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 56
    53. 53. • During the postpartum visit, the health and well being of the newborn should also be assessed and its birth weight measured. • Newborns should be referred to the under-five clinic to start immunisations, growth monitoring and other well-child services. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 57
    54. 54. • Community Health Workers (CHW) and TBAs should be trained for appropriate referral of postpartum complications, such as haemorrhage, sepsis, perineal trauma, breastfeeding problems, and newborn complications, such as prematurity or failure to thrive, that may require additional surveillance Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 58
    55. 55. Abd albasit Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 59
    56. 56. Reproductive Health Learning Objectives • Learn to define Reproductive health • Understand the concept and importance of RH • Describe the components of RH package Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 60
    57. 57. Reproductive Health It is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to reproductive system and to its functions and processes. Reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being through preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 61
    58. 58. Concept of Reproductive Health It implies that • couples have the ability to reproduce and regulate their fertility • women are able to go through pregnancy and child birth safely • outcome of the pregnancy is successful in terms of maternal and infant survival and well-being and • couples are able to have sexual relations free of the fear of pregnancy and of contracting any disease Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 62
    59. 59. Every minute in the world 380 women become pregnant 190 of these did not plan or do not wish the pregnancy Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 63
    60. 60. Every minute in the world 110 women experience a pregnancyrelated complication 40 women have an unsafe abortion 1 woman dies from a pregnancy related issue Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 64
    61. 61. Reproductive Health Package Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 65
    62. 62. RH Package Offers-Following Services  Comprehensive family planning for and males; · Maternal health care including safe motherhood, and pre and post abortion care for complications; · Infant Health Care; · Management of reproductive health related problems of adolescents; Maternal, Newborn and Child Health females 66
    63. 63. Reproductive Health Package contd… Management of other reproductive health related problems of women; Prevention and management of RTIs/STIs and HIV/AIDS; Management of infertility; Detection of breast and cervical cancers; Management of reproductive health related issues of men. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 67
    64. 64. FAMILY PLANNING The adult lifetime risk of maternal death (the probability that a 15-year-old female will die eventually from a maternal cause: 1. 1 in 31 in sub-Saharan Africa, 2. 1 in 11 in Afghanistan, 3.1 in 4300 in developed regions. 4. In Belgium, the risk is 1: 10 900. IN WHO 2010. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 68
    65. 65. • Quality family planning services bring a wide range of benefits to women, their families and society. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 69
    66. 66. Benefit of family planning A. Preventing pregnancy-related health risks in women B. Reducing infant mortality C. Helping to prevent HIV/AIDS D. Reducing the need for unsafe abortion E. Empowering people F. Reducing adolescent pregnancies G. Slowing population growth Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 70
    67. 67. • Fertility control is achieved through the usage of contraceptive methods. This has been practiced by men and women for so many years. • Countries and communities differ very much in their knowledge, attitude and practice towards fertility control issue. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 71
    68. 68. The Ideal Contraceptive: • There is no one method that will suit everyone and individuals may use different methods of contraception at different stage of their lives. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 72
    69. 69. • The ideal contraceptive is characterized by: • Highly effective. • No side effects. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 73
    70. 70. • Independent sexual intercourse. • Rapidly reversible (fertility comes back quickly). • Cheap. • Widespread availability. • Acceptable to all cultures and religions. • Does not require administration by healthcare workers. • Easily distributed. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 74
    71. 71. • A-Hormonal Contraception 1-Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill (COC or the Pill). 2-Progestogen-only Contraception Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 75
    72. 72. • B-intrauterine Contraception • C-Barrier Methods of Contraception • D-Natural Family Planning Methods Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 76
    73. 73. • Emergency Contraception (EC) Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 77
    74. 74. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 78
    75. 75. 3mad adam Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 79
    76. 76. • Key facts • 7.6 million children under the age of five die every year,. • Over two-thirds of these early child deaths are due to conditions are • pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria and health problems during the first month of life. • Over one third of all child deaths due to malnutrition. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 80
    77. 77. • Over 70% of all child deaths occur in Africa and South-East Asia. Within countries, child mortality is higher in rural areas, and among poorer and less educated families. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 81
    78. 78. • Neonates • More than three million babies die every year in their first month of life ,a similar number are stillborn and 75% occur in the first week. • the mother can increase her child's chance of survival and good health by attending antenatal care consultations, being immunized against tetanus, and avoiding smoking and use of alcohol. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 82
    79. 79. • After birth, essential care of a newborn should include: 1. ensuring that the baby is breathing; 2. starting the newborn on exclusive breastfeeding right way; 3. keeping the baby warm,washing hands before touching the baby. 4. Sick babies must be taken immediately to a trained health care provider. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 83
    80. 80. Causes of Neonatal Deaths, Sudan, Source: World Health Statistics, 2006 Neonatal Tetanus Sepsis Asphyxia Diarrhoel Diseases Congenital anomalies Preterm Birth Others Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 84
    81. 81. • Children under five • Over two thirds of child deaths are due diseases that are preventable and treatable through simple affordable interventions such as immunization and attenuated nutrition . Strengthening health systems to provide such interventions to all children will save many young lives. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 85
    82. 82. Total Neonatal Deaths Pneumonia Diarrhoel Diseases Malaria Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Other Causes 86
    83. 83. FACTS OF BREASTFEEDING Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 87
    84. 84. • 1-WHO recommends • exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months(180 days) of life. At six months, other foods should complement breastfeeding for up to two years or more. • breastfeeding should begin within an hour of birth bottles should be avoided. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 88
    85. 85. • 2- diarrhoea and pneumonia are two primary causes of child mortality . Breast milk is readily available and affordable, which helps to ensure that infants get adequate sustenance. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 89
    86. 86. • 3-Health benefits for infants • Breast milk is the ideal food for newborns and infants. It gives infants all the nutrients they need for healthy development. It is safe and contains antibodies that help protect infants from common childhood illnesses . Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 90
    87. 87. • 4-Benefits for mothers • Breastfeeding also benefits mothers. It reduces risks of breast and ovarian cancer later in life, helps women return to their pre-pregnancy weight faster, and lowers rates of obesity. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 91
    88. 88. • 5-Long-term benefits for children • the immediate benefits for children, breastfeeding contributes to a lifetime of good health. have lower blood pressure and lower cholesterol, as well as lower rates of overweight, obesity and type-2 diabetes Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 92
    89. 89. • 6-Why not infant formula? • Infant formula does not contain the antibodies found in breast milk. Malnutrition can result from overdiluting formula to "stretch" supplies. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 93
    90. 90. INJURIES OF CHILDREN Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 94
    91. 91. • Injuries of children • Nearly 90% of injuries to children are the result of unintentional or "accidental" incidents. • Around 830 000 children die from such injuries every year, nearly 2300 each day. More than 1000 of these children could be saved if proven injury prevention measures were applied worldwide. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 95
    92. 92. • Causes of Injuries 1. Road traffic crashes 2. drowning 3. burns 4. falls 5. poisoning are leading to causes child death from injuries. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 96
    93. 93. Causes Around Road traffic crashes cause of death among children ages 10 to 19 Drowning Around the world 480 children die from drowning every day Burns Globally, 260 children die from burns every day. Falls 130 children die from falls every day. Poisoning 125 children die from poisoning daily. Poverty They are more likely to live in hazardous conditions residing in homes with open fires, unprotected Maternal, 97 windows,Newborn androofs and stairs, unsafe Child Health
    94. 94. • Prevention  public awareness about injury prevention and providing better childoriented emergency care. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 98
    95. 95. Arwa abd alwahab Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 99
    96. 96. The most common causes of neonatal deaths are preterm birth complications, newborn infections and birth asphyxia. They account for over 80% of all global neonatal deaths. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 100
    97. 97. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 101
    98. 98. Care of the preterm and/or lowbirth-weight newborn Preterm birth is the most common direct cause of newborn mortality. Preterm birth and being small for gestational age (SGA), which are the reasons for lowbirth-weight (LBW), are also important indirect causes of neonatal deaths. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 102
    99. 99. **LBW contributes to 60% to 80% of all neonatal deaths. **The global prevalence of LBW is 15.5%, which amounts to about 20 million LBW infants born each year, 96.5% of them in developing country Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 103
    100. 100. Countries can reduce their neonatal and infant mortality rates by improving the care for the mother during pregnancy and childbirth and of LBW infants. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 104
    101. 101. . Experience from developed and low- and middle-income countries has clearly shown that appropriate care of LBW infants, including : 1- feeding, 2- temperature maintenance, 3- hygienic cord and skin care, 4- and early detection, 5-treatment of infections, 6- complications including : respiratory distress syndrome can substantially reduce mortality Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 105
    102. 102. Interventions to improve care during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatatal period as well as feeding are likely to improve the immediate and longer-term health and well-being of the individual infant and have a significant impact on neonatal and infant mortality at a population level. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 106
    103. 103. Kangaroo mother care" is a method of care of preterm infants weighing less than 2 kg. It includes: 1- exclusive frequent of breastfeeding 2- skin-to-skin contact and support for the mother-infant diet, and has been shown to reduce mortality in hospital-based studies in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 107
    104. 104. Kangaroo mother care Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 108
    105. 105. Management of newborn illness and complications A newborn baby who is born preterm or has a potentially life-threatening problem is in an emergency situation requiring immediate diagnosis and management. Delay in identification of the problem or in providing the correct management may be fatal. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 109
    106. 106. Preterm and/or low birth weight infants need special care, including additional attention to breastfeeding and breastmilk feeding and to keeping them warm at home and in health facilities.. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 110
    107. 107. Those with preterm birth complications, including : respiratory problems, need appropriate treatment in hospitals Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 111
    108. 108. Appropriate care during labour and childbirth combined with neonatal resuscitation, when needed, can substantially reduce mortality due to birth asphyxia. Newborns with severe asphyxia need post-resuscitation care in hospitals. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 112
    109. 109. Early identification of newborn infections with prompt and appropriate antibiotic treatment will substantially reduce mortality due to newborn sepsis and pneumonia. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 113
    110. 110. Newborns with serious infections need intramuscular or intravenous antibiotics and supportive care in hospitals. Where hospital referral is not possible, intramuscular antibiotics delivered by skilled health-care providers will save lives. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 114
    111. 111. Other common newborn problems are jaundice, eye infections and diarrhoea, which may be managed at health facilities or hospitals depending on their severity. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 115
    112. 112. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) training materials and Essential Newborn Care Course aim to improve skills of health-care staff for managing newborn illness at first level health facilities. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 116
    113. 113. Care of the HIV-exposed or infected newborn A woman infected with HIV, however, can transmit the virus to her child during pregnancy, labour or delivery, or through breastfeeding. The dilemma has been to balance the risk of infants acquiring HIV infection through breastfeeding with the increased risk of death from causes other than HIV, in particular malnutrition and serious illnesses such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, due to not breastfeeding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 117
    114. 114. *An estimated 430 000 children were newly infected with HIV in 2008, over 90% of them through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). * Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV has been at the forefront of global HIV prevention efforts since 1998, following the success of the shortcourse zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine clinical trials in reducing transmission. . Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 118
    115. 115. *These trials offered the promise of a relatively simple, low-cost intervention that could substantially reduce the risk of HIV transmission from mother to baby. *Research and programme experience over the past ten years has demonstrated newer and more effective ways to prevent new pediatric HIV infections, particularly in high-burden, low-resource settings Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 119
    116. 116. In recent years which shows that giving antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to either the HIV-infected mother or HIV-exposed infant can significantly reduce risk of the transmitting HIV through breastfeeding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 120
    117. 117. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 121
    118. 118. Mayada ishag Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 122
    119. 119. Key facts Between 1990 and 2010, under-five mortality dropped by 35% worldwide. every day, nearly 21 000 children underfive die mostly from preventable causes. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 123
    120. 120. 99% of all under-five deaths occur in developing countries. Three-quarters of all child deaths are mainly due to preventable causes: • neonatal conditions, • pneumonia, • diarrhoea, • Malaria • measles. . Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 124
    121. 121. Distribution of mortality rates • Three-quarters of all under-five deaths are concentrated in just two regions of the world: 46% in the African region and 28% in South-east Asia. • . More than half of all these deaths were clustered in only 5 countries: China, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 125
    122. 122. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 126
    123. 123. Causes of mortality • Almost half of under-five deaths are due to infectious diseases. Pneumonia is the largest single cause of death in children less than five years of age, and is responsible for nearly 1.4 million deaths. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 127
    124. 124. • every year Malnutrition contributes to more than one-third of all under-five. Patterns of the distribution of causes of death vary widely between deaths region. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 128
    125. 125. • The lowest proportion of neonatal deaths occurred in the African Region. In the Americas, Europe and South-East Asia, a high proportion of under-five child deaths occurred during the neonatal period. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 129
    126. 126. Newborn health epidemiology • Key facts • Maternal, perinatal and newborn health and mortality are closely linked and the risk of dying from neonatal conditions can be lessened by improved access to skilled care at birth. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 130
    127. 127. • interventions provided during pregnancy and birth for the mothers and immediate post partum/postnatal period (within 48 hours). • Every day, about 8000 newborn babies die from preventable causes. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 131
    128. 128. Neonatal mortality • Deaths that occur among babies less than 28 days of life (neonatal period) account for about 40% of all under-five deaths. The risk of dying during the neonatal period is highest closest to birth and decreases over the subsequent days and weeks: up to 50% of neonatal deaths. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 132
    129. 129. • occur within the first 24 hours of life and about 75% during the first week of life. In 2010, an estimated 3.1 million babies died during their first month of life. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 133
    130. 130. Distribution –70% of all neonatal deaths were concentrated in just two regions of the world: the African Region and South-east Asia. More than half (53%) of all these deaths were clustered in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Pakistan,china ,ethiobia. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 134
    131. 131. Causes of neonatal mortality • Among the 3.1 million deaths that occurred among babies 0-28 days of life, about one third were due to infections (including pneumonia, sepsis, neonatal tetanus and diarrhea). • Preterm birth complications caused another one million deaths among newborn babies. Birth asphyxia was the third major cause of death in this early Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 135
    132. 132. Shahlaa abdeen Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 136
    133. 133. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 137
    134. 134. • Children need food of appropriate quantity and quality for optimal growth and development. If their nutritional intake is inadequate they will fail to gain weight or lose it and will subsequently fail to grow in height. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 138
    135. 135. 1-Element of major food(nutrient big) fat-carbohydrate- protein. 2-Nutrients minutes (micronutrients)vitamin-minerals. 3-Water and fiber. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 139
    136. 136. Division of the new food pyramid Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 140
    137. 137. Poor nutrition may begin with the child from the womb of the mother ,extend this effect during the first years of the life. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 141
    138. 138. The vitamin A of the most important micro nutrients needed by children of mucous membrane and membrane eye and skin and helps growth. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 142
    139. 139. Deficiency • the signs of Vit A deficiency are predominantly occular include: 1. night blindness 2. conjuctival xerosis 3. bitots spots 4. corneal xerosis 5. keratomalacia extraoccular manifestation include follicular hyper keratosis , anorexia and growth retardation. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 143
    140. 140. Factors Affecting Nutritional Status 1-Mother’s attributes 2-State of nutrition during pregnancy 4-Feeding pattern(Exclusive breast feeding for 6month) 5-Weaning & supplementation 6-Illness Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 144
    141. 141. Breast feeding (Exclusive breast feeding for 6month) nutritionally adequate and safe complementary feeding starting from the age of 6 months with continued breast feeding up to2years of age or beyond Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 145
    142. 142. Exclusive breast feeding for 6month) nutritionally adequate and safe complementary feeding starting from the age of 6 months with continued breast feeding up to2years of age or beyond Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 146
    143. 143. • Colostrum is the special milk that is secreted in the first 2-3 days after delivery. It is produced small amount about 40-50ml on the first day colostrum is rich in white cell and antibodies especially IGA and it contain large percentage of protein ,mineral, fat soluble vitamin (A-K-E) colostrum provide important immune protection to an infant. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 147
    144. 144. Weaning • Gradual change from an all-milk diet to a diet composed of a variety of foods(6 mos) • Early abrupt weaning – Marsamus – Infections – kwashiorkor • Late weaning – PEM Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 148
    145. 145. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 149
    146. 146. Supplementary Feeding Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 150
    147. 147. Supplementary Feeding Start at 6 months of age with small amount of food and increase quantity as the child gets older, while maintaining frequent breast feeding . Should be :. 1-rich in energy ,protein and micronutrient 2-not spicy or salty 3-easy for the child to eat and liked 4-locally available and affordable . Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 151
    148. 148. Indications of Good Nutrition 1-Body weight gain. 2-Behavioral development 3-Bowel movements 4-Sleeping habit 5-Developed motor coordination 6-Well-formed muscles Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 152
    149. 149. ORAL REHYDRATION SULIOTION • WHAT IS ORAL REHYDRATION SOLUTION??? Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 153
    150. 150. Oral rehydration salt Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 154
    151. 151. ORS program • First started in 1986-1987 • Implemented through MCH programs • ORS packet are supplied by central government Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 155
    152. 152. principle • Glucose when given orally enhances intestinal absorption of water and salt • Thus it can correct electrolyte and water deficit Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 156
    153. 153. AIM To correct the water and electrolyte deficit To prevent dehydration Reduce mortality Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 157
    154. 154. • Oral rehydration therapy, (also called ORT, oral rehydration salts or solutions (ORS), or oral electrolyte), is a simple, cheap, and effective treatment for diarrhea-related dehydration. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 158
    155. 155. • Oral rehydration therapy is widely considered to be the best method for combating the dehydration caused by diarrhea and/or vomiting. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 159
    156. 156. It consists of :. sodium chloride 3.5g Potassium chloride 1.5g Trisodium citrate 2.9g Glucose anhydrous 20.0g Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 160
    157. 157. IN WHAT CONDITION IT CAN BE GIVEN • 1- ALL AGE GROUP • 2- ALL AETIOLOGIES • 3- ALL COUNTRIES Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 161
    158. 158. How to administrate Rules Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 162
    159. 159. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 163
    160. 160. <2yers:- give 1-2 teaspoon every 2-3 minutes Older children :- offer frequent sips out of cup Adult:- drink as much as they can Give the estimated with in 4 hrs Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 164
    161. 161. If the child vomits • Wait for 10 minutes • Give a teaspoonful every 2-3 minute Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 165
    162. 162. cost free free free free Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 166
    163. 163. How to prepare it ? Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 167
    164. 164. If ORS packet are not available • Table salt (5gm) +sugar (20 gm) in 1L of drinking water • Administrate till the diarrhea stops • Earlier the treatment is instituted better is for the patient Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 168
    165. 165. Achievement and benefits Low cost treatment Treatment of the patient in their own homes Ingredients are inexpensive 0f readily available Mortality rate in the cholera has been reduced to 0.11% from 49.3% Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 169
    166. 166. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 170
    167. 167. Reem abd almuhsen Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 171
    168. 168. • Immunization, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent. • Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body's immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 172
    169. 169. • The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) was established in 1974 through a World Health organization resolution to build on the success of the global smallpox eradication programme, and to ensure that all children in all countries benefited from life-saving vaccines. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 173
    170. 170. • Immunization against vaccinepreventable diseases is essential to reaching MDG4 on reducing underfive mortality by two thirds • United Nations General Assembly Special Session goals by 2015: (i) Ensure full immunization of children under one year of age. (ii) Vitamin A Deficiency Elimination. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 174
    171. 171. • World Health organization (WHO) and goals by 2015: (i) Polio Eradication, (ii) Measles Mortality Reduction, (iii) Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE). • For example, in 2010 an estimated 109 million children under the age of one were vaccinated with three doses of diphtheriatetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 175
    172. 172. • Therefore, every death case or disability of preventable disease is unacceptable. • The EPI started in 1976 in Sudan and sience then smallpox has been eradicated. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 176
    173. 173. EPI schedule in Sudan AGE VACCINE At birth BCG + polio (zero dose ) 6 week DPT + hepatitis b + H influenza +polio+ ROTA DPT + hepatitis b + H influenza +polio+ ROTA 10 week 14 week DPT + hepatitis b + H influenza +polio 9 MONTH MEASELS Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 177
    174. 174. • BCG is a vaccine against tuberculosis . At best the vaccine is effective in preventing tuberculosis for duration of 15 years. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 178
    175. 175. • Polio vaccine are used through the world to compact poliomyelitis . It can be administrated orally or can be injected . The two vaccines have eliminate polio from most countries in worldwide and reduce the world incidence from an estimated 350000 cases in 1988 to 1.652 case in 2007. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 179
    176. 176. • Rota vaccine protects children from rotavirus which lead to sever diarrhea among infants and young children . Each year an estimate 453.000 child die from diarrheal disease caused by rotavirus. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 180
    177. 177. • Measles still remains a leading cause of death among young children Although there is no cure, a highly effective, safe vaccine is available , nowdays thier is another booster dose at 18 month of age . Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 181
    178. 178. • Maternal and neonatal tetanus deaths can be easily prevented by hygienic delivery and cord care practices, and/or by immunizing mothers with tetanus vaccine. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 182
    179. 179. • Child has painful muscle contraction from tetanus Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 183
    180. 180. • Heptities B vaccine helps to protect against heptities B , which is a very serious and fatel condition ,their is amonth interval between the first and second dose and after 6 monthes the thired dose. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 184
    181. 181. • This woman is suffering from liver cancer caused by hepatitis B Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 185
    182. 182. Progress of immunization in sudan • • • • • From 1980-2010 Diphtheria 587 ------------------ one case Polio 4151 -----------------------zero case Measles 50168 ---------------- 680 case Pertussis 28631 -------------- 209 case Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 186
    183. 183. • Despite the massive international efforts to eliminate and eradicate vaccine preventable. diseases they still known to be found due to :• 1.financial condition. • 2.difficulty in reaching all parts of sudan. • 3.poor education about the diseases and their complication. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 187
    184. 184. Ferdos babeker Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 188
    185. 185. Adolescence health Adolescence represents a stage of life characterized by significant biological, psychosocial, and cognitive development; a stage of transference from childhood to adulthood. 1 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 189
    186. 186. introduction • This category population aged 10 – 19 years- was thought to be the least one having health problems; this is because most of their problems are ignored even by themselves. • Globally, 1.4 millions deaths occur each year among adolescents due to road traffic accidents, complications during pregnancy and child 2 birth, suicide, violence, and HIV/ AIDS. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 190
    187. 187. •Towards the end of the last decade, the issue of adolescents’ health starts to attract the attention of the health programmers both in the developed and developing countries. •. Sudan’s national health policy doesn’t mention adolescents’ health specifically . 3 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 191
    188. 188. . •To keep space with the other countries, the government established the adolescent health unit to constitute with the child health the IMCI and Adolescent Health Programme . 4 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 192
    189. 189. •The program has in place :_ •a national level plan of action, • a budget for activities, and a national taskforce. • Besides, different institutions, NGOs have interest in adolescent health but are working in a fragmented and scattered manner. 5 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 193
    190. 190. On adolescent health concern with:~ 1The state of adolescent health 2HIV and young people 3Early pregnancy and childbirth 6 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 194
    191. 191. . 4Malnutrition 5Mental health 6Tobacco use 7Harmful drinking of alcohol 8Violence 9Injuries and road safety 7 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 195
    192. 192. Adolescent health epidemiology Mortality In last years. 2.6 million young people died (10-24 years) and most of these deaths were preventable. Ninetyseven percent of these deaths (2.56 million) occur in low and middle income. 8 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 196
    193. 193. mortality occurs in: •Almost two thirds of the 2.6 million deaths among young people were in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia, (1.67 million). •Pronounced rises in mortality rates were recorded from early adolescence (10–14 years) to young adulthood (20–24 years), but reasons varied by region and sex. 11 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 197
    194. 194. Cause of adolescent mortality_ 6% 15% 12% female death due to maternal condition death due to HIV and TB death due to traffic accident death due to violence death due to suicide 11% 14% 12 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 198
    195. 195. . Disability adjusted life years Its measure of over all disease burden expressed as the number of year lost due to ill health ,disability or early death 13 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 199
    196. 196. . Disability adjusted life years (DALY) •The total number of incident DALYs in those aged 10–24 years was about 236 million, representing 15.5% of total DALYs for all age groups. • Africa had the highest rate of DALYs for this age group, which was 2.5 times greater than in high-income countries. 14 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 200
    197. 197. . . •Worldwide, there is three main causes of DALY for 10– 24- old which is:_ Years 1 neuropsychiatric disorders (45%) 2unintentional injuries (12%) 3infectious and parasitic disease(10%) 15 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 201
    198. 198. •But here in Sudan the infectious and parasitic disease is more common cause of DALY between 10-24years 16 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 202
    199. 199. Risk factors The main risk factors for DALYs in the world is:_ •alcohol (7% of DALYs) •unsafe sex (4%) •iron deficiency (3%) •lack of contraception (2%) •illicit drug use (2%) 17 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 203
    200. 200. •But the major risk factor in Sudan is:_ iron deficiency, un safe water and hygiene 18 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 204
    201. 201. •. However, there are still substantial data gaps and uncertain particularly for causes of death and levels of adolescent and adult mortality in Africa and parts of Asia 19 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 205
    202. 202. Thanks 20 Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 206
    203. 203. Yosif abd alrahman Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 207
    204. 204. School health program: Definition of school health: all the activities and services provided in schools to enhance the health of the pupil and the staff in the educational field physically, psychologically and socially through programs and activities concerned with health through the health system Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 208
    205. 205. justification for the establishment of health promoting school •The children represent in most countries at least a quarter of the population. • Easy access to the school environment. •Teachers have influential educational role among students and schools. • Ability of transmission of health awareness from school to the family and society. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 209
    206. 206. •The school is the starting point for effective health promotion through: 1-prevention . 2-early detection 3-intervention whenever possible Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 210
    207. 207. Objectives: •1 Raise awareness of health education within the school community • 2Provision of curative services and health care in schools. •3Improve health of school environment. •4Building the capacity of workers in the field of school health. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 211
    208. 208. •5Contribute in building a healthy balanced diet. •6Motivation and capacity in confronting and combating epidemics and endemic diseases. •7Promote the mental health of students and workers in the education field. •8Activation of physical activity in schools for the health of the body Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 212
    209. 209. Health school can be achieved by: 1 Fresh water safe for drinking and use. 2Safe means of sanitation 3Protection from infectious diseases. 4protection from violence 5Protection from smoking and drugs. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 213
    210. 210. Specific component of school health include: 1school health services a initial medical examination on the new students b periodic check-ups (for fourth grade and seventh and second secondary) c activities of the health survey and to identify priority health problems d First aid procedures Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 214
    211. 211. e emergency care f early detection of health problems g vaccination programs against infectious diseases h care of pupils with special needs i Oral health care and dentistry j eye-care and vision consideration k care of ear, nose and throat Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 215
    212. 212. 2 /. school health education A / messages at the morning program B / Exhibitions C / wall newspapers D / Health lectures, video presentations E / the curriculum Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 216
    213. 213. 3 / Environmental Health School Is the environment of the school community to protect against direct injury or disease and promote health and provide preventive measures and positions against the known risk factors that can lead to diseases or health problems or disability in the future. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 217
    214. 214. • These include: 1- Furniture and study aids 2- A sufficient number of toilets 3- School canteens 4- Classes of health (the space 'lighting and ventilation) 5- Sporting field 6- Shady areas and places of worship 7- Sewage Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 218
    215. 215. 4 / Mental Health based on primary health care for detecting the emotional, psychological mental and educational problems. 5/ school feeding : Aimed at the administration's plan to cover some of the schools with a healthy school meal ,distribution of preventive doses of vitamin A .Ensure the safety of the food vendors outside schools and to provide safe and clean canteen services. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 219
    216. 216. 6/ physical health including holidays , rest between classes. Physical activities and this is done in coordination with the Department of Student Activity 7 / community involvement : Associations and councils of parents and teachers. Community participation in planning for school health programs Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 220
    217. 217. 8/ promoting the health of school staff by : Health insurance for workers in schools. Vaccination against diseases (meningitis). Services, safe motherhood and reproductive health. Tobacco Control (School of smoke-free) Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 221
    218. 218. *Basic constraints of the program: 1-Poor coordination 2-Training 3- Movements of the trainers 4- The school environment 5- Coverage of private schools 6- Inactivation of some components of school health 7-Lack of fund Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 222

    ×