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Child abuse and neglect pediatric and child right

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Child abuse and neglect pediatric and child right

  1. 1. Family Structure and Function Emad Adam Mohamed
  2. 2. • Family is dynamic system of interaction among biologically socially or legally related to individuals families have unique power to interfere with health and development.
  3. 3. • FAMILY FUNCTIONS • The functions that families carry out in support of their children as providing for physical needs, emotional support, education, and socialization
  4. 4. • Most cases of child abuse involve the failure of family to provide a safe environment for the child. • Overprotective parents may limit friendships and other growth experiences or excessive health care, as may occur in the vulnerable child syndrome.
  5. 5. • Child neglect is an extreme form of understimulation, that may create intense pressure on children related to problems such as anxiety disorders.
  6. 6. • Important Roles Families Play in Supporting Children • 1-Physical needs • -safty • -food • -health and health care • -house/shelter
  7. 7. • • • • • 2-Emotional -communication -affect -stimulation -guidance/ discipline
  8. 8. • • • • • 3-Education socialization -values -relation ships -community -formal schooling
  9. 9. FAMILY STRUCTURE The traditional family consists of a married mother and father and their biologic children. half of children live in the traditional nuclear family. Today children may live with single parents , grandparents, and Adoption. Different family structures create different types of family stresses
  10. 10. • FAMILY DYSFUNCTION • Due to failure of Roles that Supporting Children(physical needs, emotional support, education, and socialization).
  11. 11. •Thanks
  12. 12. Understanding child abuse and neglect Mohammed abd almonaem
  13. 13. Child abuse is more than bruises or broken bones. While physical abuse is shocking due to the scars it leaves, not all child abuse is as obvious. Ignoring children’s needs, putting them in unsupervised, dangerous situations, or making a child feel worthless or stupid are also child abuse. Regardless of the type of child abuse, the result is serious emotional harm.
  14. 14. Myths and facts about child abuse and neglect
  15. 15. MYTH #1: It's only abuse if it's violent.
  16. 16. Fact: Physical abuse is just one type of child abuse. Neglect and emotional abuse can be just as damaging, and since they are more subtle, others are less likely to intervene.
  17. 17. MYTH #2: Only bad people abuse their children.
  18. 18. Fact: While it's easy to say that only "bad people" abuse their children, it's not always so black and white. Not all abusers are intentionally harming their children. Many have been victims of abuse themselves, and don’t know any other way to parent. Others may be struggling with mental health issues or a substance abuse problem.
  19. 19. MYTH #3: Child abuse doesn't happen in “good” families.
  20. 20. Fact: Child abuse doesn't only happen in poor families or bad neighborhoods. It crosses all racial, economic, and cultural lines. Sometimes, families who seem to have it all from the outside are hiding a different story behind closed doors.
  21. 21. MYTH #4: Most child abusers are strangers.
  22. 22. Fact: While abuse by strangers does happen, most abusers are family members or others close to the family.
  23. 23. MYTH #5: Abused children always grow up to be abusers.
  24. 24. Fact: It is true that abused children are more likely to repeat the cycle as adults, unconsciously repeating what they experienced as children. On the other hand, many adult survivors of child abuse have a strong motivation to protect their children against what they went through and become excellent parents.
  25. 25. Fathia fareed ibrahim
  26. 26. There are several types of child abuse, but the core element that ties them together is the emotional effect on the child.
  27. 27. physical abuse emotion al abuse Child abuse falls into one or more of four categories sexual abuse neglect
  28. 28. 1/ Physical abuse Many physically abusive parents insist that their actions are simply forms of ways to make children learn to behave, But there is a big difference between using physical punishment to discipline and physical abuse. The point of disciplining children is to teach them right from wrong, not to make them live in fear.
  29. 29. 1/ Physical abuse Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. It may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates symptoms of, or induces illness in a child.
  30. 30. 2/ Emotional Abuse Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional ill treatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent effects on the child’s emotional development, and may involve:
  31. 31. 1/Conveying to a child that s/he is worthless, unloved, inadequate. 2/Calling names and making negative comparisons to others. 3/Telling a child he or she is “no good," "worthless," "bad," or "a mistake. 4/Frequent yelling, threatening, or bullying.Ignoring or rejecting a child as punishment, giving him or her the silent treatment. 5/Limited physical contact with the child—no hugs,
  32. 32. 5/Limited physical contact with the child—no hugs, kisses, or other signs of affection. 6/Exposing the child to violence or the abuse of others, whether it be the abuse of a parent, a sibling, or even a ppet. These will Causing a child to feel frightened or in danger
  33. 33. 3/Neglect defined as the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health and development. -child's basic needs could be ( adequate food, clothing, hygiene, or supervision). Child neglect is not always easy to spot.
  34. 34. Sometimes, a parent might become physically or mentally unable to care for a child, such as with a serious injury, untreated depression, or anxiety. Other times, alcohol or drug abuse may seriously complicate the problem Older children might not show outward signs of neglect, becoming used to presenting a competent face to the outside world, and even taking on the role of the parent. But at the end of the day, neglected children are not getting their physical and emotional needs met.
  35. 35. fardia tariq
  36. 36. DEF Any action related to sex that harms achild or involvement of child in sexual activity that they cannot understand for which they are developmentally unprepared and cannot give consent to and that violates social taboos
  37. 37. Sexual abuse involve manipulation and coercion And is typically a physically non violent assault . Sexual abuse is apparent family friend stranger sibling touching child inappropriately fo touch there own pleasure having the child pornography and taping child performing a sex act.
  38. 38. Signs of sexual abuse Physical sign of sexual abuse: • difficulty walking or sitting stained or bloody underwear • genital or rectal pain .itchy, swelling redness or discharge • bruises or other injury in the genital or rectal area
  39. 39. Signs of sexual abuse behavioralemotional sign of sexual abuse difficulty eating or sleeping soiling or wetting themselves even after being potty trained acting younger than their age
  40. 40. Signs of sexual abuse Excessive crying and sadness Refusing to play with other children and adult Talking about acting out sexual act. Older than normal for the child's age
  41. 41. Diagnosis and investigation History Physical examination Labrotary evaluation(screaning for gonorrhea syphilis human immunodeficicy virus clamydia trachomatis trichomnas vaginalis
  42. 42. Risk factors of child abuse and neglect Fatima awad
  43. 43. Risk factors for child abuse and neglect:While child abuse and neglect occurs in all types of families — even in those that look happy from the outside — children are at a much greater risk in certain situations.
  44. 44. Domestic violence:- Domestic violence is fearful to children and emotionally abusive, Even if the mother does her best to protect her children and keeps them from being physically abused, the situation is still extremely damaging.
  45. 45. Alcohol and drug abuse:Living with an alcoholic or addict is very difficult for children and can easily lead to abuse and neglect. Parents who are drunk or high are unable to care for their children, make good parenting decisions, and control often-dangerous impulses. Substance abuse also commonly leads to physical abuse or serious illness.
  46. 46. Untreated mental illness:- Parents who suffering from depression, an anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, or another mental illness have trouble taking care of themselves, much less their children. A mentally ill or traumatized parent may be distant and withdrawn from his or her children, or quick to anger without understanding why. Treatment for the caregiver means better care for the children.
  47. 47. Lack of parenting skills:- Some caregivers never learned the skills necessary for good parenting. Teen parents, for example, might have unrealistic expectations about how much care babies and small children need. Or parents who were themselves victims of child abuse may only know how to raise their children the way they were raised. In such cases, parenting classes, therapy, and caregiver support groups are great resources for learning better parenting skills.
  48. 48. Stress and lack of support:- Parenting can be a very time-intensive, difficult job, especially if you’re raising children without support from family, friends, or the community or financial difficulties. Caring for a child with a disability, special needs, or difficult behaviors is also a challenge. It’s important to get the support you need, so you are emotionally and physically able to support your child.
  49. 49. Warning signs of child abuse and neglect Fardous babeker
  50. 50. • The earlier child abuse is caught, the better the chance of recovery and appropriate treatment for the child. Child abuse is not always obvious. By learning some of the common warning signs of child abuse and neglect, you can catch the problem as early as possible and get both the child and the abuser the help that they need.
  51. 51. • Of course, just because you see a warning sign doesn’t automatically mean a child is being abused. It’s important to dig deeper, looking for a pattern of abusive behavior and warning signs, if you notice something off.
  52. 52. Warning signs of emotional abuse in children • Excessively withdrawn, fearful, or anxious about doing something wrong. • Shows extremes in behavior (extremely compliant or extremely demanding; extremely passive or extremely aggressive). • Doesn’t seem to be attached to the parent or caregiver. • Acts either inappropriately adult (taking care of other children) or inappropriately infantile (rocking, thumb-sucking, throwing tantrums).
  53. 53. Warning signs of physical abuse in children • Frequent injuries or unexplained bruises, welts, or cuts. • Is always watchful and “on alert,” as if waiting for something bad to happen. • Injuries appear to have a pattern such as marks from a hand or belt. • Shies away from touch, flinches at sudden movements, or seems afraid to go home. • Wears inappropriate clothing to cover up injuries, such as long-sleeved shirts on hot days.
  54. 54. Warning signs of neglect in children • Clothes are ill-fitting, filthy, or inappropriate for the weather. • Hygiene is consistently bad (unbathed, matted and unwashed hair, noticeable body odor). • Untreated illnesses and physical injuries. • Is frequently unsupervised or left alone or allowed to play in unsafe situations and environments. • Is frequently late or missing from school.
  55. 55. Warning signs of sexual abuse in children • Trouble walking or sitting. • Displays knowledge or interest in sexual acts inappropriate to his or her age, or even seductive behavior. • Makes strong efforts to avoid a specific person, without an obvious reason. • Doesn’t want to change clothes in front of others or participate in physical activities. • An STD or pregnancy, especially under the age of 14. • Runs away from home.
  56. 56. Child abuse and reactive attachment disorder • Severe abuse early in life can lead to reactive attachment disorder. Children with this disorder are so disrupted that they have extreme difficulty establishing normal relationships and attaining normal developmental milestones. They need special treatment and support
  57. 57. EFFECTS OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT Mohammed isma3eel
  58. 58. Immediate effects of child abuse The immediate effects of child abuse can be extremely serious, especially in infants, where some of the serious injuries and fatalities result from shaking during the first 12 months of life. In both infants and older children, the effects of child abuse vary according to the types of abuse or neglect and can be identified by the following signs.
  59. 59. Physical effects of child abuse 1. Unexplained burns, cuts, bruises, or welts in the shape of an object 2. Bite marks 3. Anti-social behavior 4. Problems in school 5. Fear of adults
  60. 60. Emotional effects of child abuse 1. Apathy 2. Depression 3. Hostility or stress 4. Lack of concentration 5. Eating disorders
  61. 61. Sexual effects of child abuse 1. Inappropriate interest or knowledge of sexual acts 2. Nightmares and bed wetting 3. Drastic changes in appetite 4. Overcompliance or excessive aggression 5. Fear of a particular person or family member
  62. 62. Neglect 1. Unsuitable clothing for weather 2. Appearance is dirty or unbathed 3. Extreme hunger 4. Apparent lack of supervision
  63. 63. Long-Term Abuse and Neglect These effects range in consequence from minor physical injuries low self-esteem, attention disorders, and poor peer relations to severe brain damage, violent behavior, and death
  64. 64. Statistics underscore the alarming effects of child abuse over time: 36.7% of all women in prison and 14.4% of all men in prison in the United States were abused as children. Children who have been sexually abused are 2.5 times more likely to abuse alcohol and 3.8 times more likely to become addicted to drugs. One third of abused and neglected children will later abuse their own children, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse.
  65. 65. Effects on Child Development Brain/cognitive development Attachment Academic achievement
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  67. 67. Miada adlan
  68. 68. Def as: any sexual act that is perpetrated against some one will sexual violence type are: 1. rape(completed sex act) 2. An attempted nonconsensual sex act 3. Abusive sexual contact 4. Non contact sexual abuse (threatened sexual violence. Exhibitionism. Verbal sexual harassment)
  69. 69. Symptoms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Anxiety depression post sexual abuse Trauma Sleep disturbance
  70. 70. Risk factor 1. Parents lack understanding of child need 2. Substance abuse and mental health issue(depression) 3. Family social 4. Parents stress 5. Poor parents child relationship 6. Community violence
  71. 71. Prevention 1. Take through history of child involved with violence as aggress or victim by stander non violent problem solver 2. Educate child and parents about way of reduce risk factor 3. Provide follow up support for the changes and their parents make to help prevent violence
  72. 72. 4. Engage in community out reach activity designed community norms about violence by community and pediatricians can help children develop the habits need to protect themselves from violence
  73. 73. Divorce AND Separation mohammed bassam daqaq
  74. 74. Child feeling They experience conflicts of loyalty guilty angry Abandoned powerless take care” of their parents helpless worry that they will be “kicked out” Grieve
  75. 75. <2 years May sense parents’ stress and feel changes in daily routine 6 to 8 Lack mental ability to understand what is happening include anger, grief, and a deep yearning for the departed parent tantrums Will be confused, angry, sad, and fearful Too young to understand what is happening 2 to 5 May feel responsible for taking care of parents Fantasy play will reveal fears and desires of family reunited Children identify with both parents
  76. 76. 9 to 12 13 to 18 18 to 25 Have ability to see two points of view More developed socially and emotionally- peers are primary orientation Accelerated independence growing up faster Need to talk about their feelings and acknowledge anger May identify “good guy”/”bad guy”; focused on what’s “right and fair” Puberty makes it difficult to be separated from same-sex parent Lack of consistency in discipline and control is unsettling anger and frustration through delinquency, substance abuse, sexual promiscuity Early departure from family to avoid conflict Involvement with alcohol, drugs or inappropriate sexual behavior to “escape” pain Loss of “Home”
  77. 77. Compassionate listening Maintaining relationships A stable environment level of conflict
  78. 78. PEDIATRICIAN PSYCHOLOGIST HOW CAN HELP SOCIAL WORKER POLICE Monitor the health of the child Monitor the situation bodily Give tips and treatments
  79. 79. Pediatrician Psychologist How can help Social worker police Give tips for parents and the child Assess and handle the mental state of the child Physical examination case Monitor the habits of the child
  80. 80. Pediatrician Psychologist How can help Social worker police family *Family environment scale (cohesion, communication) *Perceptions of parents (positivity and negativity) *Parental conflict
  81. 81. Pediatrician Psychologist How can help Social worker police Follow the situation on the ground In the home and neighborhood, school or seedbed way and dealing with people and vice versa Reporting Specialist for children and psychological Give tips for parents and parents residing with him
  82. 82. Pediatrician Psychologist How can help Social worker police If you do not respond to instruction or exposure of the child beating or physical abuse or sexual harassment in the USA if the child is an adult and is malicious acts or exposure to drugs or other acts of sabotage
  83. 83. Pediatrician Psychologist How can help Social worker police If you do not respond to instruction or exposure of the child beating or physical abuse or sexual harassment in the USA if the child is an adult and is malicious acts or exposure to drugs or other acts of sabotage
  84. 84. poor outcomes for children of separation 1 • Inter-parental conflict 2 • Poverty 3 • Parents’ psychological wellbeing 4 • Relationship with nonresident parent 5 • Parenting style
  85. 85. shahlaa abdeen
  86. 86. Right to Health Right to Food Right to Education Right to life Right to protection
  87. 87. Right to Health Every child has the right to health care, clean water, nutritious food and a safe environment so they can be as healthy as possible.
  88. 88. Health Medical resources are very limited and are drained still further by the country’s internal conflicts. In Darfur, for example, a large majority of hospitals are currently under reconstruction.
  89. 89. Health There is a desperate lack of medical supplies and facilities, and existing facilities are illequipped to deal with the vast numbers of children, principally newborns who are suffering serious illnesses often caused by malnutrition and dehydration.
  90. 90. Right to Food The conflicts which have ravaged Sudan over decades, combined with harsh climatic conditions such as floods and droughts, have led to severe food shortages. Unable to rely wholly on their own crops, the Sudanese people are still largely dependent on food aid.
  91. 91. Right to Food safe drinking water is limited in Sudan. According to UNICEF statistics, 40% of the population has no access to safe drinking water.
  92. 92. Food problems Children are particularly at risk from food shortages, and the rate of infant mortality is especially high as 30% of babies are underweight at birth.
  93. 93. Right to Education Almost half of Sudan’s children are not in school. Although education in Sudan is in theory compulsory, the reality is quite different. Children fail to attend or finish school usually due to poverty, instability and lack of security.
  94. 94. Right to Education Girls, in particular, face many obstacles preventing them access to education, including child marriage in some areas and a lack of community awareness about the importance of educating girls.
  95. 95. Education problems In order to reduce school dropout rates, the Ministry of Education and the World Food Programme have joined forces to provide lunches to all pupils. Parents are now more willing to send their children to school, knowing that they will be fed.
  96. 96. Right to life The right to life is a moral principle based on the belief that a human being has the right to live and, in particular, should not to be unjustly killed by another human being. The concept of a right to life is central to debates on the issues of abortion, self defense and the morality of war.
  97. 97. Right to protection UNICEF uses the term ‘child protection’ to refer to preventing and responding to violence, exploitation and abuse against children – including commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking, child labour and harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation/cutting and child marriage.
  98. 98. Child marriage In Sudan, 12.4% of girls are forced to marry before the age of 15. Marriage is governed by a Sharia-based law introduced in 1991.
  99. 99. Child marriage The practice of child marriages is very harmful to young girls and their health. At such a young age, girls’ bodies are not fully developed and are therefore not equipped for pregnancy or labour.
  100. 100. Female Genital Mutilations Sudan ranks second for the number of female genital mutilations in Africa. 90% of female Sudanese have their genitals mutilated before they reach the age of ten.
  101. 101. Female Genital Mutilations Sudan practises the most severe form of FGM: infibulation, which involves the complete removal of the clitoris and the cutting away and stitching of the labia.
  102. 102. Female Genital Mutilations The practice of FGM is extremely painful as it is performed without anaesthetic, is a risk to health and to life, and represents a terrible violation of the girls’ rights. It runs risks for the girls’ health and their lives as they can easily develop infections.
  103. 103. Main problems faced by children in Sudan:
  104. 104. Poverty Sudan is one of the world’s poorest countries. 40% of its population live below the poverty line and the majority of Sudanese are destitute and living in terrible conditions.
  105. 105. Poverty A harsh climate and a lack of natural resources are primarily responsible for the prevailing poverty, but political instability and internal conflict have aggravated the situation. Denying them even their basic needs, extreme poverty is robbing Sudanese children of their childhoods.
  106. 106. Child soldiers Sudan, like South Sudan, has recruited many children to its armed forces. According to UNICEF, there are about 6,000 child soldiers in Darfur alone.
  107. 107. Child soldiers Official reports show that the youngest soldiers are only 11 years of age and that girl soldiers are often the victims of sexual abuse against which they receive no protection.
  108. 108. Child soldiers In Sudan, two long civil wars have left millions dead, internally displaced persons and refugees.
  109. 109. Child soldiers For the children of Sudan, the primary victims of the conflict, there have been drastic consequences for their education, health and wellbeing.
  110. 110. Displaced and refugee children Sudan has the largest number of internally displaced people in the world. In the face of violence because of the conflict, many families are forced to flee their homes to escape a gloomy fate.
  111. 111. Displaced and refugee children The journey to camps can be long and perilous and many fail to make the journey alive.
  112. 112. Displaced and refugee children Once having reached the camps, food, health and physical security are still not assured. Armed groups are known to target civilian areas to amplify the effects of their attacks and living conditions within the camps are poor.
  113. 113. Displaced and refugee children Humanitarian organisations concerned to help the refugees are not always able assist as they are at times unable to reach the camps.

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