IAFMH Workshop Barcelona, June 2011


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IAFMH Workshop Barcelona, June 2011

  1. 1. Desistance Focused Practice Dutch examples of promoting a crime-freelifeIAFMH Symposium 3.5| Barcelona | June 29, 2011, 14:30-15:45<br />Lecturer-researchers: <br />| Mechtild Höing |Ineke Heemskerk | Marie-José Geenen |<br />Moderator – professor of probation services and safety policy:<br />| Bas Vogelvang |<br />Centre for Public Safety & CriminalJustice | Breda School of Social Studies<br />Avans University of Applied Sciences<br />Den Bosch – The Netherlands<br />
  2. 2. Avans lectorate“probation services and safetypolicy”<br />Lectorates combine practice-driven research withboth professional development of universityteachers and curriculum improvement.<br />“Pracademics of appliedsciences”<br />In the Netherlands, > 480 lectorates are active in “expertise research networks”<br />The Avans lectorate “probation services and safetypolicy” is partlyfundedby the Dutch probationorganizations<br />1 professor, 10 teachers in research network, 15-20 projects, primarily in the Brabant region<br />Two research themes: Desistance Focused Practice and Innovation & Implemententation in JusticeOrganizations<br />
  3. 3. Programme<br />What is desistance from crime?<br />Bas Vogelvang<br />1. COSA – Circles of Support & Accountability<br />Mechtild Höing<br />2. De Sluis – Desistance focused re-integration of juvenileex-prisoners<br /><ul><li>Ineke Heemskerk</li></ul>3. The significance of professionals in the process of desistance from crime<br />Marie-José Geenen<br />Questions & answers, conclusions<br />Bas Vogelvang<br />
  4. 4. What is desistance from crime? <br />| Bas Vogelvang|<br />
  5. 5. Desistance: a process, notan outcome<br /><ul><li>Decision:
  6. 6. “A criminallifeis no longer becoming of me, I want a different kind of life”
  7. 7. Maruna (2004): It is not a crime-free gap in time (primary desistance) , but the movement (process) from the behaviorof non-offending to the assumption of a roleoridentityof a non-offenderorcrime-freeperson(secondary desistance).
  8. 8. Looking back, the desister re-writes his own history: “That was not the real me”
  9. 9. Maruna (2004): It is a complex processinvolvingnotonly the offenderhimself, butalso the (interactionswith) judicialinstitutions, the social context and material / social-economicalconditions.
  10. 10. Vogelvang (2009): “Desistance: stayingawayfromcriminalbehaviourforanextendedperiod of time, related to bothaninner convictionand activeinvestmentby the ex-offender in hissocial and material context in order to reachprosocial goals, and to anactual, continuousreinforcement of these effortsby the ex-offender’ssocial context.”
  11. 11. Elements of makinggood: redemption, forgivingandmutualrestoration</li></li></ul><li>Sonny Rollins’narrative<br /><ul><li>‘My thing is mypersonhood and trying to be a betterperson and fightingthatfightwithinmyself’</li></li></ul><li>Desistance research<br />Zig-zag process: relapse is to be expected<br />Both a criminal life and choosing for desistance are part of a gambling process:<br />“… leaving their present high risk and crime lifestyles is in itself a risk, and one they are ill equipped to take” (Boeck, Fleming & Kemshall 2007) <br />3 essential contributing factors (Weaver & McNeill 2007):<br />human capital<br />narrative identity <br />& motivations<br />social capital <br />& life transitions<br />
  12. 12. COSA:<br />circles of support and accountability<br />| Mechtild Höing|<br />
  13. 13. Re-integration of sex–offendersa major problemfor society, professionals and the offender<br />Communitycosts of recidivism are high<br />Climate of fear, partlydue to lack of unbiasedinformationaboutrecidivismrates<br />Versus long term risk of recidivism<br />Strong negativecommunityreactions to release of sexoffenders<br />Public notification, pedophilehunters, tabloid press<br />Stigmatisation and exclusion, leading to socialisolation and marginalization<br />Lack of social monitoring <br /> Reinforcment of key risk factors: socialisolation and emotionalloneliness<br />
  14. 14. The COSA Modelno more victims – no more secrets<br />Outercircle<br />Professionals<br />Inner circle<br />Core member<br />Volunteers<br />Both circles<br />Circle coördinator<br />
  15. 15. COSA as Desistance Focused Practice<br />Volunteersimprovesocialcapitalbyproviding:<br />surrogatesocialnetwork, transfer of skills<br /><ul><li>practical support
  16. 16. monitoring capacity</li></ul>Volunteersimprovehumancapitalby :<br />supporting professional treatment goals<br />holding the core-memberaccountable<br />modellingbehaviour / intimaterelationships<br />Volunteers support the development of a positiveidentity: <br /><ul><li>bygivingmoral support
  17. 17. focusingonstrengths
  18. 18. focusingonrehabilitation</li></li></ul><li>Core members: who can join a circle?<br /><ul><li>Inclusion criteria:
  19. 19. Adult sex offender who admits the offense
  20. 20. Medium/high risk of re-offending
  21. 21. Under a court supervision order (at least for 1 year)
  22. 22. High need for social support
  23. 23. Motivated to prevent new victims
  24. 24. Willing to share information with volunteers
  25. 25. Participating in treatment program
  26. 26. Exclusion criteria:
  27. 27. Reversion of inclusion criteria
  28. 28. Diagnosedpsychopath (e.g. high scores on PCL-R)
  29. 29. Complete denial of the offense
  30. 30. Learningdisabled</li></li></ul><li>Volunteers: whocanjoincircles? <br /><ul><li>selection & exclusioncriteria
  31. 31. maturity, diversity, nocriminal record, ex-victimsallowed
  32. 32. selection procedure
  33. 33. includesan intensive and confronting training
  34. 34. supervision
  35. 35. circledynamics, booster training, stayingvigilant and healthy
  36. 36. safetyregulations</li></li></ul><li>Quality management safeguarding model adherence<br /><ul><li>Code of Practice
  37. 37. Implementationguide
  38. 38. Communication Plan
  39. 39. Monitoring and evaluation tools
  40. 40. Audit
  41. 41. Research </li></li></ul><li>Effectiveness research<br /><ul><li>Wilson c.s 2005: Pilot Ontario, 4.5 year follow-up
  42. 42. 70 % reduction of sexualrecidivism
  43. 43. Wilson c.s. 2008: Canada-wide, 3 year follow-up
  44. 44. 47 Circles and 47 matchedcontrols, all high-risksexualoffenders
  45. 45. 83% reduction of sexualrecidivism.
  46. 46. 2.1% vs 12.8%
  47. 47. 72% reduction of violent / sexualrecidivism
  48. 48. 8.5% vs 31.9%
  49. 49. 71% reduction of overall recidivism
  50. 50. 10.6% vs 38.3%</li></li></ul><li>COSA in the Netherlands(Circles NL)<br />2009:<br />Partnership: Avans& Dutch Probration Services<br />FinancingbyMinistry of Justice (pilot)<br />Licence-agreementwith Circles UK<br />Project preparation<br />2010:<br />Pilot circles in 1st regional project<br />Processevaluation<br />Project proliferation: 2 extra regions<br />2011:<br />Sustainedfinancing (Ministry of Justice)<br />Project proliferation: 4 regionalprojects<br />2012:<br />Nationwide network of 10 regionalprojects<br />
  51. 51. 2010 – 2011: Circles TogetherforSafety<br />European Union Daphne IIIfunding<br />Partners: <br />Circles UK<br />Dutch Probation Organisation (Reclassering NL)<br />The European Organisation for Probation (CEP)<br />House of JusticeAntwerp (Justitiehuis Antwerpen, BelgianProbationOrganisation)<br />Tilburg University<br />Circles NL<br />+ 9 associate partner organisations<br />
  52. 52. Circles TogetherforSafety output:<br />(Further) development of monitoring and evaluationstandards (with Circles UK)<br />Study of Belgianinfrastructure and first COSA circles<br />Effect study (dynamic riskfactors)<br />Europeanhandbook<br />blueprint/roadmapfordissemination and implementation of COSA in otherEuropeancountries<br />Thanksforyourattention!<br />
  53. 53. Programme<br />What is desistance from crime?<br />Bas Vogelvang<br />1. COSA – Circles of Support & Accountability<br />Mechtild Höing<br />2. De Sluis – Desistance focused re-integration of juvenileex-prisoners<br /><ul><li>Ineke Heemskerk</li></ul>3. The significance of professionals in the process of desistance from crime<br />Marie-José Geenen<br />Questions & answers, conclusions<br />Bas Vogelvang<br />
  54. 54. “De Sluis” – Desistance focused re-integration<br />of juvenileex-prisoners<br />| Ineke Heemskerk |<br />
  55. 55. Overview<br />‘De Sluis’: the institution and clients<br />The request of ‘De Sluis’ to develop a methodforre-integration of juvenileex-prisoners<br />The method: <br />Desistance focused practice as core of the method<br />Clienttasks and socialworkers’roles<br />Communication model<br />21<br />
  56. 56. The institution: De Sluis - Tilburg<br />22<br />
  57. 57. The institution: De Sluis - Tilburg<br /><ul><li>Apartmentsfor 14 youngex-offenders (age 16-26), back fromprison
  58. 58. Backgrounds of clients: (mostly) unstablefamilybackgrounds, low SES, low education, jobless
  59. 59. Aims: reintegration and socialinclusion (a home, a job or a dailystructure, a supportingsocialnetwork)
  60. 60. Length of stay - 1,5 years, 24/7 guidance</li></li></ul><li>Starting point:<br />Manyjuvenileoffendersexperiencedifficultiesreintegratinginto society after a period of detention<br />Recidivismamongthisgroup in the Netherlands is high - around 70 % (WODC, 2010)<br />Request of ‘De Sluis’:<br />Help usdevelop a methodforreintegration and socialinclusion of juvenileex-prisoners<br />Request<br />
  61. 61. Orientationtowards desistance focused practice<br />Changingideasabout ‘effectiveinterventions’: <br />“Think (desistance) processfirst, interventionssecond” (McNeill 2009)<br />Reinforcing desistance requires a combination of: <br />Structured and wellselectedcognitive-behavioralinterventions - whatworks<br />Deliveredwithin a well-developedworkingalliancebetweensocialworker and client - whoworks? (Moors & Rovers, 2008)<br />Resultingmethodical focus:<br />Identifying and supporting the clients’ motivations and capacitiesforchange<br />Putting emphasisonstrengthening practical, cognitive and socialcompetencies<br />Empoweringclientsforrealizingtheirdesiredfuture<br />
  62. 62. Core of the method: “De Sluis”as desistance focused practice<br />Trainer/coach,using the competency model<br />improving practical, cognitive and socialcompetencies<br />human capital<br />client<br />tasks<br />Ally: using the rehabilitation model<br />Advocate: using the rehabilitation model<br />narrative identity <br />& motivations<br />social capital <br />& life transitions<br />building a ‘new<br />identity’ (includingnewnarratives)<br />strengthening the socialnetwork<br />(Weaver & McNeill, 2007; Vogelvang, 2009)<br />
  63. 63. A wide range of guidance is needed<br />Being a trainer / coach, ally and advocate requires :<br />Givingclearframeworks (rules, regulations, opportunities to developskills and competencies), providingfor a safe and structured base forfurtherdevelopment<br />Enforcingrules, correcting, holding the clientaccountable<br />Feed and support hopesfor a betterfuture, aimed at individualcompetence, social-inclusion and a crime-free-life<br />Establishingstructure<br />Control<br />Givingstrength / empowerment<br />
  64. 64. Communication model:9 modalities to tailor the dialogue to everysituation<br />
  65. 65. Programme<br />What is desistance from crime?<br />Bas Vogelvang<br />1. COSA – Circles of Support & Accountability<br />Mechtild Höing<br />2. De Sluis – Desistance focused re-integration of juvenileex-prisoners<br /><ul><li>Ineke Heemskerk</li></ul>3. The significance of professionals in the process of desistance from crime<br />Marie-José Geenen<br />Questions & answers, conclusions<br />Bas Vogelvang<br />
  66. 66. The significance of professionals in <br />the process of desistance from crime<br />| Marie-José Geenen|<br />
  67. 67. What is the significance of socialworkers in the process of desistance from crime, according to (ex-) juveniledelinquents? <br />Context: in desistance focused practice, howcan professionals improvetheirfunctioning as a trainer/coach, advocate and ally?<br />Research question<br />
  68. 68. Qualitative research: analysis of narrativesin different subgroups<br />in co-operationwithstudents<br />Interviews (50 – 90 minutes) <br />topiclist<br />digitallyrecorded<br />Analysis :<br />coding / tags of verbatim (word-by-word) transcripts<br />Conclusions and recommendations<br />Research design<br />
  69. 69. <ul><li>26 boys / young men, 15 girls / youngwomen in different stages of theircriminalcareer:
  70. 70. Rangingfrom ‘just’ started to heavilyinvolved in crime to desistingfor a couple of years.
  71. 71. 17 currently in juveniledetention, 12 formerlyincarcerated, somealsosupervisedafterre-entry, 12 neverimprisonedbutsupervisedby (youth) probation
  72. 72. Ages 16–25 (1:31) [M boys: 18,7 M girls: 21,7]
  73. 73. 67% born in (2ndor 3rdgeneration) immigrant families / ethnicminority
  74. 74. All poorlyeducated, somelearningdisabled
  75. 75. Background: troubled and oftendisrupted families
  76. 76. Alcohol-abuse, psychiatricproblems, debts, divorces.</li></ul>Respondents (N=41)<br />
  77. 77. …in relation to (former) delinquent behaviour<br />[during the research]<br />15: currentlyunderstrict 24/7 surveillance / detained<br />15: currentlyunder 24/7 surveillance but with freedom of movement<br /> 2: limitedcurrent contact withsocial professionals<br /> 9: contact in the past because of detentionorotherwise, currentlyno contact<br />Contact with professionals…<br />
  78. 78. Negativeexperienceswith professionals<br />Reliability:<br />“They are unreliable”. “Theÿdon’t keep theirpromises”<br />Power:<br />“They put pressureon me and abusetheir power”<br />Identity:<br />“Theydon’tseewho I reallyam, theyonly look at me as beingrisk-related” <br />Opportunity:<br />“Theydon’tteach me anynewskills” <br />
  79. 79. Identity<br /><ul><li>“They act normal”
  80. 80. Advocacy
  81. 81. “They do their best to arrangethingsfor me”
  82. 82. Opportunity:
  83. 83. “Theylearn me all kinds of practical and socialskills”</li></ul>Positiveexperienceswith professionals<br />
  84. 84. Desistance:<br />Zig-zag process: relapse is to be expected<br />Drifting in and out of offending(Weaver&McNeill, 2007)<br />It is not just the events and changes that matter; it is what these events and changes mean to the people involved. (McNeill, 2006)<br />The narratives show us:<br />Professionals canbe trainer/coach, advocate, ally… cangive a boost (‘someonewhobelieves in me…’)<br />Strictsupervisionimpedes / negativelyinfluences the desistance process<br />Interpretation: the professionals’ roles in desistance<br />
  85. 85. The juvenilesexpect and express a clearneedfor a (hybrid) professional who… (Trotter, 2010):<br /><ul><li>…is clear, open and honestabouthisrole
  86. 86. …functions as a role model
  87. 87. …works as a problem-solver
  88. 88. …builds up an open relationship , includingempathy, optimism, humour, self-disclosure</li></ul>A professional whocanbuild up and maintain a both practical and a personalworkingalliance<br />Interpretation: the professionals’ roles in desistance (2)<br />
  89. 89. Professionals and youngstersdiffer in ‘habitus’ (Bourdieu): howcan we help them to understandeachother?<br />How to build up a personalalliance in a ‘totalinstitution’ (Goffman), where professionals must balancebetweencaregiving/empowerment and control/repression? <br />Discussion<br />
  90. 90. Programme<br />What is desistance from crime?<br />Bas Vogelvang<br />1. COSA – Circles of Support & Accountability<br />Mechtild Höing<br />2. De Sluis – Desistance focused re-integration of juvenileex-prisoners<br /><ul><li>Ineke Heemskerk</li></ul>3. The significance of professionals in the process of desistance from crime<br />Marie-José Geenen<br />Questions & answers, conclusions<br />Bas Vogelvang<br />
  91. 91. Contact information<br />| Mechtild Hoing: ma.hoing@avans.nl (COSA)<br /> | Ineke Heemskerk: cj.heemskerk@avans.nl (De Sluis)<br />| Marie-José Geenen: mjm.geenen@avans.nl (Social professionals)<br />| Bas Vogelvang: bo.vogelvang@avans.nl (Lectorate)<br />| Center for Safety Policy & Criminal Justice <br />| Avans University of Applied Sciences <br />| P.O. Box 732 | 5201 AS 's-Hertogenbosch | The Netherlands<br /> <br />| www.expertisecentrum-veiligheid.nl | www.avans.nl <br />| www.cosanederland.nl | www.circles-uk.org.uk<br /> <br />