The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is a range that spans ten states of India namely, Jammu & Kashmir, HimachalPradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura as well as the hill regions of two states - Assam and West Bengal. The region is responsible for providing water to a large part of the Indian subcontinent and contains varied flora and fauna. The IHR physiographically, starting from thefoothills of south (Siwaliks), this mountain range extends up to Tibetan plateau on the north (Trans-Himalaya).Three major geographical entities, the Himadri (greater Himalaya), Himanchal (lesser Himalaya) and the Siwaliks(outer Himalaya) extending almost uninterrupted throughout its length, are separated by major geological faultlines. Mighty but older streams like the Indus, Sutlej, Kali, Kosi and Brahmaputra have cut through steep gorges toescape into the Great Plains and have established their antecedence. The Karakoram ranges are the northern-mostranges of India. To the south of the Karakoram range lie the Zangskar ranges. Parallel to the Zangskar ranges lie thePir Panjal ranges. These three mountain ranges lie parallel to each other in the north-western part of India, most ofits area lying in the state of Jammu and Kashmir GeographyOverall, the Himalayan mountain system is the worlds highest, and is home to the worlds highest peaks, the Eight-thousanders. To comprehend the enormous scale of this mountain range, consider that Aconcagua, in the Andes, at6,962 metres (22,841 ft), is the highest peak outside Asia, whereas the Himalayan system includes over 100mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,622 ft). There are 14 Himalayan peaks with elevation over 8,000 metres(26,000 ft). The five highest peaks in the Himalaya are: Everest, 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) K2, 8,611 metres (28,251 ft) Kangchenjunga, 8,586 metres (28,169 ft) Lhotse, 8,516 metres (27,940 ft) Makalu, 8,462 metres (27,762 ft)The main Himalayan range runs west to east, from the Indus river valley to the Brahmaputra river valley, forming anarc 2,400 km (1,500 mi) long, which varies in width from 400 km (250 mi) in the western Kashmir-Xinjiang regionto 150 km (93 mi) in the eastern Tibet-Arunachal Pradesh region. The range consists of three coextensive sub-ranges, with the northernmost, and highest, known as the Great or Inner Himalayas. In Hindu mythologyIn Hindu mythology, Himavat is the God of snow, a personification of the Himalayas, which are also known asHimavat Mountains. He is the ruler of Himalaya Kingdom, which finds mention the epic Mahabharata. He is fatherof daughter, Ganga (Ganges), Saraswati who became rivers and Parvati, who married Shiva  EcologyThe Himalayan range at Yumesongdong in Sikkim, in the Yumthang River valleyThe flora and fauna of the Himalayas vary with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils. The climate ranges from tropicalat the base of the mountains to permanent ice and snow at the highest elevations. The amount of yearly rainfallincreases from west to east along the southern front of the range. This diversity of climate, altitude, rainfall and soilconditions supports a variety of distinct plant and animal communities. For example the extremes of high altitude(low atmospheric pressure) combined with extreme cold allow extremophile organisms to survive.The unique floral and faunal wealth of the Himalayas is undergoing structural and compositional changes due toclimate change. The increase in temperature may shift various species to higher elevations. The oak forest is being
invaded by pine forests in the Garhwal Himalayan region. There are reports of early flowering and fruiting in sometree species, especially rhododendron, apple and Myrica esculenta. The medicinal properties of some importantspecies may be affected by changing climate.[7The Himalayan range at Yumesongdong in Sikkim, in the YumthangRiver valleyThe flora and fauna of the Himalayas vary with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils. The climate rangesfrom tropical at the base of the mountains to permanent ice and snow at the highest elevations. The amount of yearlyrainfall increases from west to east along the southern front of the range. This diversity of climate, altitude, rainfalland soil conditions supports a variety of distinct plant and animal communities. For example the extremes of highaltitude (low atmospheric pressure) combined with extreme cold allow extremophile organisms to survive.Theunique floral and faunal wealth of the Himalayas is undergoing structural and compositional changes due to climatechange. The increase in temperature may shift various The Himalayan range at Yumesongdong in Sikkim, in theYumthang River valleyThe flora and fauna of the Himalayas vary with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils. TheGeologyThe Himalayas are among the youngest mountain ranges on the planet and consist mostly of uplifted sedimentaryand metamorphic rock. According to the modern theory of plate tectonics, their formation is a result of a continentalcollision or orogeny along the convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Thisis referred to as a fold mountain.The collision began in the Upper Cretaceous period about 70 million years ago, when the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate, moving at about 15 cm per year, collided with the Eurasian Plate. About 50 million years ago, thisfast moving Indo-Australian plate had completely closed the Tethys Ocean, the existence of which has beendetermined by sedimentary rocks settled on the ocean floor, and the volcanoes that fringed its edges. Since thesesediments were light, they crumpled into mountain ranges rather than sinking to the floor. The Indo-Australian platecontinues to be driven horizontally below the Tibetan plateau, which forces the plateau to move upwards. TheArakan Yoma highlands in Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal were also formedas a result of this collision.Lakes The Himalaya region is dotted with hundreds of lakes. Most lakes are found at altitudes of less than 5,000 m,with the size of the lakes diminishing with altitude. Pangong Tso, which is spread across the border between Indiaand China, and Yamdrok Tso, located in central Tibet, are amongst the largest with surface areas of 700 km², and638 km², respectively. Other notable lakes include Gurudogmar lake in North Sikkim, Tsongmo lake, near the Indo-China border in Sikkim, and Tilicho lake in Nepal in the Annapurna massif.The mountain lakes are known to geographers as tarns if they are caused by glacial activity. Tarns are found mostlyin the upper reaches of the Himalaya, above 5,500 metreS Religion Several places in the Himalaya are of religioussignificance in Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Bueveral places in the Himalaya are of religious significance inHinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism. In Hinduism, the Himalaya have also been personified as the godHimavat, the father of Shivas consort, Parvati. A notable example of a religious site is Paro Taktsang, wherePadmasambhava is said to have founded Buddhism in Bhutan.A number of Tibetan Buddhist sites are situated inthe Himalaya, including the residence of the Dalai Lama. There were over 6,000 monasteries in Tibet. TheTibetan Muslims had their own mosques in Lhasa and Shigatse.Jammu and Kashmir are really three regions: the foothill plains of Jammu; the lakes and blue valleys of Kashmirrising to alpine passes, the high altitude plains and starkly beautiful mountains of Ladakh, which lies beyond thosepasses. Its enough to move one to poetry. Srinagar is Kashmirs summer capital and Jammu, the winter capital.Among the most attractive part that this Indian state has is the adventure oppurtunities that can be seggragated intotrekking, mountaineering and Trans Himalayan Jeep Safari.What can make a mountaineering expedition, an adventure one could never forget? If its done on the glaciers thatare still craving to be explored. The Himalayan range offers some of the most rigorous mountaineering challengesone can ever come across. The glaciers of Ladakh and Kashmir regions can test ones survival to the fittest and mosttesting of them all is the Siachen glacier, known as the largest glacier outside the Polar Regions.
Himachal Pradesh is the land of snow, lofty peaks, cascading streams, alpine meadows & lush fruit-laden valleys.Many parts of the Himachal state have a distinctly Austrian look with conifer-clad mountains, chalet-like huts withoverhanging balconies and serene blue valleys watered by snow-fed streams. Shimla the capital of HimachalPradesh, is still very much a Raj township in appearance and atmosphere.Himachal also store numerous wonderful hill stations, which are particularly cool in summers. Shimla, Dalhousie,Kullu, Manali and Kufri are a few of the hill Stations in Himachal Pradesh which offer breathtaking scenery andcountless options of adventure sports. Dharamshala, where the Dalai Lama lives, is another important centre on thetourist map. Read More About Himachal PradeshUttaranchal :Lying in the north of the vast and bountiful expanse of India and cradled in the awesome beauty and calm serenity ofthe stately Himalayas, Uttaranchal - the "Devbhumi" that has attracted tourists and pilgrims from world over sincetime immemorial. Comprising of eight hill districts and an area and population that equals the state of HimachalPardesh, Uttaranchal is an expression of divinity, austerity, meditation, penance and attainment.Uttaranchal is a paradise for adventure sports. The sheer variety ranging from Mountaineering, Trekking, Skiing,Skating, Water Sports to Aero Sports like Hang Gliding, Paragliding make Uttaranchal one of the most attractivedestinations for adventure sports not only in India but the world over.A former kingdom , Sikkim is now the 22nd State of India. It is rooted to the Himalayan Massif like a scale on theneck of a Dragon. One of the smallest states of India, it is bounded by Nepal to the west and Bhutan to the east; bythe Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and northeast and by West Bengal to the south.Shrouded in heavy mist, the guardian deity Kangchenjunga both protects and terrifies the inhabitants of the magicalkingdom of Sikkim. An awe-inspiring mass of rock clothed in dazzling white snow, this Himalayan giant in theworld’s third highest peak at 8,590m (28,199ft). The name itself means ’house of five treasures’ represented by itsfive soaring summits Read More About SikkimThe North Eastern States - Seven Sisters :The reason has so much to see, so much to experience and so much to write about that it would take volumes. Theregion of northeastern India will wet the appetite of the traveller, the tourist, the anthropologist, the observer. It isimpossible to describe the nuances that make this area unique, challenging and interesting. Get to any one place andthe result will be that you will return for more.The seven sisters comprise of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Mizoram.While the seven sisters are unique in their own way, the major Himalayan destination over here is ArunachalPradesh. The state provides abundant scope for angling, boating, rafting, trekking and hiking. Besides, there are anumber of wild life sanctuaries and national parks where rare animals, birds and plants will fascinate the visitor.