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  1. 1. Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed
  2. 2. Globalisation• Definition: – An economic phenomenon? – A social phenomenon? – A cultural phenomenon?• The movement towards the expansion of economic and social ties between countries through the spread of corporate institutions and the capitalist philosophy that leads to the shrinking of the world in economic terms. Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed
  3. 3. Globalisation could involve all these things! Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed
  4. 4. Integration of Economies • The increasing reliance of economies on each other • The opportunities to be able to buy and sell in any country in the world • The opportunities for labour and capital to locate anywhere in the world • The growth of globalStock Markets are now accessible markets in financefrom anywhere in the world!Copyright: edrod, stock.xchng Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed
  5. 5. Integration of Economies• Made possible by: – Technology – Communication networks – Internet access – Growth of economic cooperation – trading blocs (EU, NAFTA, etc.) – Collapse of ‘communism’ – Movement to free trade Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed
  6. 6. Trade versus Aid?• Benefits of Trade: – Increased choice – Greater potential for growth – Increase international economies of scale – Greater employment Trade has led to massive increases in wealth opportunities for many countries. Copyright: budgetstock, stock.xchng Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed
  7. 7. Trade versus Aid?• Disadvantages of trade: – Increase in gap between the rich and the poor – Dominance of global trade by the rich, northern hemisphere countries – Lack of opportunities for the poor to be able to have access to How far does trade help children like markets these? – Exploitation of Copyright: clesio, stock.xchng workers and growers Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed
  8. 8. Corporate Expansion • Multi-national or trans-national corporations (MNCs or TNCs) – businesses with a headquarters in one country but with businessNo matter where you go in the world, certain operations in abusinesses will always have a presence.Copyright: mkeky, stock.xchng number of others. Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed
  9. 9. Corporate Expansion • Characteristics: – Expanding revenue – Lowering costs – Sourcing raw materials – Controlling key supplies – Control of processing – Global economiesControlling supplies may be one reason of scalefor global expansion.Copyright: rsvstks, stock.xchng Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed
  10. 10. Corporate Domination• Key Issues: – Damage to the environment? – Exploitation of labour? – Monopoly power – Economic degradation – Non-renewable resources – Damage to cultures Shell and Nike’s activities have come under severe criticism in some quarters. Copyright: Homsel, stock.xchng Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed
  11. 11. Other Issues: • Accountability of Global businesses? • Increased gap between rich and poor fuels potential terrorist reaction • Ethical responsibility of business?There are plenty of people who believe thatglobalisation is a negative development,protests at the G8 summits, pollution, poverty • Efforts to removeand concern over GM crops are just some ofthe issues. trade barriersCopyright: stock.xchng Copyright 2007 – Biz/ed