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1
Links between integration and
transnational mobility:
some quantitative insights from ITHACA
Laura Bartolini
ITHACA Fina...
• I & T: concepts and measures
• ITHACA focuses on TM rather than T
– Data scarcity and the purposes of the ITHACA Survey
...
• It encompasses economic, social,
cultural, political and institutional
dimensions: multi-faceted and multi-
dimensional
...
4
The
ITHACA Project
Aim of the study
To study the LINK between TM and the
integration condition of migrants and returnees...
5
The
ITHACA Survey
Detailed interview:
qualitative &
quantitative
evidence
Multi-sited, cross-
country fieldwork
Migrants...
• Entry criteria
– To be (economically) active in both localities (CoD / CoO)
– To be quite regular in terms of (physical)...
7
Integration at
destination
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
BIH
IND
MOR
PHI
UKR
Ret
CoO only
CoD only
Both
Elsewhere too
54% fema...
8
Means of T/ 1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 1 2-3 4+
BIH
IND
MOR
PHI
UKR
Ret
0 20 40 60 80 100
BIH
IND
MOR
PHI
UKR
Ret
Fam...
9
Means of T / 2
24
21
21
44
37
47
0 20 40 60 80 100
BIH
IND
MOR
PHI
UKR
Ret
33
46
36
14
0 20 40 60 80 100
AT
ES
IT
UK
Nev...
10
Means of T / 3
Civic
mobility
Membership and
participation in NGOs &
associations
(transnational
connotation)
 They convey different types of information
 Single multidimensional measure (index)
• Aggregation method
• Varies betwe...
TMI-1 TMI-2
Corr. Corr.
Demography,
education & family
Age (classes) ↘↗ ↗
Child ↗ ↗
Tertiary educated ↘↗
Educated also abr...
13
Sketchy results / 2
By origin By destination
Low TM
High TM
Link between TMI-1 and the country of origin and of destina...
14
Thank you
for your
attention!
Merci
Gracia
s
Shukran
Danke
laura.bartolini@eui.eu
завдяки
Salamat
धन्यवाद
Grazie Hvala
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Links between Integration and Transnational Mobility

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This presentation makes use of survey data collected in Italy, Spain, UK and Austria by the ITHACA project, to study he links between migrants’ integration and their transnational engagement.
ITHACA (Integration, Transnational Mobility and Human, Social and Economic Capital Transfers) is an EU funded project led by the European University Institute.

Published in: Economy & Finance
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Links between Integration and Transnational Mobility

  1. 1. 1 Links between integration and transnational mobility: some quantitative insights from ITHACA Laura Bartolini ITHACA Final Conference 21-22 October 2015 – Villa La Fonte, EUI
  2. 2. • I & T: concepts and measures • ITHACA focuses on TM rather than T – Data scarcity and the purposes of the ITHACA Survey – Fieldwork and sampling (strengths and weaknesses) • Some quantitative insights from the Survey – TM Index: a synthetic measure of TM – Correlations between I and TM Index 2 Outline of the presentation Overall purpose is to complement qualitative analyses
  3. 3. • It encompasses economic, social, cultural, political and institutional dimensions: multi-faceted and multi- dimensional • Multi-layered (from individuals to macro perspectives) • Capacity & desire to be ‘integrated’ / to integrate Challenges • Assessing (micro/macro) • Comparing across time & space • Measuring integration (aggregate level) – Administrative and Survey data – Zaragoza list and Eurostat extended list of indicators (EUI/MPC expertise on I) 3 On I & T concepts and measures • TN migrant links different contexts • Multi-faceted and multi-dimensional • Fascinating conceptual innovations (TN social spaces/ networks/ communities), new ways of understanding identity, belonging, participation, integration… • Capacity & desire to be TN Challenges • Overemployed  transnational practices • Concerns only a minority of migrants • How do you capture it? What data do we have/ need to measure this phenomenon? • How can we compare across time & space?
  4. 4. 4 The ITHACA Project Aim of the study To study the LINK between TM and the integration condition of migrants and returnees Transnational (economic) practices Physical Mobility Mobility through transfers Civic / virtual mobility Transnationalmobility Means Investments
  5. 5. 5 The ITHACA Survey Detailed interview: qualitative & quantitative evidence Multi-sited, cross- country fieldwork Migrants in EU and returnees
  6. 6. • Entry criteria – To be (economically) active in both localities (CoD / CoO) – To be quite regular in terms of (physical) TM • Challenges – Long and dispersed fieldwork over 9 countries – Difficult to find migrants with the desired characteristics – In some cases, difficult to find success stories / willingness to share • Final sample 6 Fieldwork and challenges
  7. 7. 7 Integration at destination 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% BIH IND MOR PHI UKR Ret CoO only CoD only Both Elsewhere too 54% females 16% under 30 yrs 59% between 31-50 yrs 74% urban place of birth 29% post-graduate education 39% graduate education 61% married / cohabiting 57% has children 324 interviews 0 20 40 60 80 100 Before First at destination Current Entrepreneur High Medium Unskilled Not Emp. * Occupation Place of education 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 BIH IND UKR Ret IND MOR PHI UKR Ret IND MO PHI UKR Ret BIH IND PHI UKR Ret AT ES IT UK Length of stay
  8. 8. 8 Means of T/ 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 1 2-3 4+ BIH IND MOR PHI UKR Ret 0 20 40 60 80 100 BIH IND MOR PHI UKR Ret Family Property & Bus. Finding Job Settling Bureaucracy Activism/Health How many times have you travelled between CoD and CoO over the past 2 years? (%) Why? Family & Future Physical mobility
  9. 9. 9 Means of T / 2 24 21 21 44 37 47 0 20 40 60 80 100 BIH IND MOR PHI UKR Ret 33 46 36 14 0 20 40 60 80 100 AT ES IT UK Never Sometimes Regularly Mobility through transfers Do you send remittances? (%) 50 21 24 4 1 24 9 0 10 20 30 40 50 Subsistence Education Investment Debt repayment Mortgage Family events Donations Why? (%)
  10. 10. 10 Means of T / 3 Civic mobility Membership and participation in NGOs & associations (transnational connotation)
  11. 11.  They convey different types of information  Single multidimensional measure (index) • Aggregation method • Varies between 1 (low TM) and 4 (high TM) 11 A multidimensional measure of TM Means of transnationalism Transnational mobility index Physical mobility Mobility through transfers Civic Mobility Demography, education, family +/- +/- +/- +/- Socio-cultural integration +/- +/- +/- +/- Structural Integration +/- +/- +/- +/- Transnational economic activities +/- +/- +/- +/- Low correlation between the 3 dimensions TMI-1 TMI-2 Physical mobility + Mob. through transfers TMI-1 + Civic mobility
  12. 12. TMI-1 TMI-2 Corr. Corr. Demography, education & family Age (classes) ↘↗ ↗ Child ↗ ↗ Tertiary educated ↘↗ Educated also abroad ↘ Child in CoD ↗ Child in CoO ↗ Dependent in CoO ↗ ↗ Social and structural integration in CoD Dual citizenship ↘↗ Prevalent status - permanent ↗ Self-employed ↗ Prof. / Trade U. member in CoD ↗ Income prevalently in CoD ↗ ↗ Investment in CoD (business) ↗ Intention to settle in COO ↗ ↘↗ TN economic activities Investment in CoO ↗ ↗ Employ others in CoO ↘↗ ↘↗ Travels for taking care of property/bus. ↗ ↗ 12 Sketchy results / 1 Link between TMI and selected I & T variables • TM migrants are working- age adults with some family dependents in another country • Self employment • Legal status • Investment at origin • No stable association with sex, cultural integration, structural integration in the L mkt (purposive sample, self selection)
  13. 13. 13 Sketchy results / 2 By origin By destination Low TM High TM Link between TMI-1 and the country of origin and of destination
  14. 14. 14 Thank you for your attention! Merci Gracia s Shukran Danke laura.bartolini@eui.eu завдяки Salamat धन्यवाद Grazie Hvala

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