Fundamental design approaches for
improvement of the fire safety in car parks


UGent: structural aspects
Prof. dr. ir. Lu...
Objectives of the project with
respect to structural aspects

• to develop advanced mechanical models for the structural
 ...
WP1: Determination of design parameters, scenarios
     and objectives

Determination of design parameters for
- large sca...
Column-slab connections
Slab types
Mushroom slabs (paddestoelvloeren)
Flat slabs (vlakke plaatvloeren)
Precast thin slabs ...
Parking structures in the city of Ghent

Kouter
Sint-Pietersplein
Vrijdagsmarkt
Zuid
Sint-Michiels




                   ...
General classification of loads according to
variation in time

     Permanent loads (G)
                 P[G] = 1        ...
WP4: Structural models

The objectives of this work package are to develop
- an appropriate methodology for the analysis a...
Task 4.1: Parametric analysis of structural
     members
Het brandeffect: thermo-mechanisch model DIANA
Temperatuur:
 - Th...
Task 4.2: Connections

Focus on
- study of moment resisting connections between structural elements
- analysis of the punc...
Punching




                          A : referentienazichtsdoorsnede
                          B : referentienazichtsgeb...
Controle aan de omtrek van de kolom

             β VEd                           u0 volgens type kolom
     vEd =        ...
Example
Gretzenbach 2004 (CH)
Fire of one parked car: 6 am
Collapse of roof slab: 7.30 am
          (7 fire workers killed...
Collapse is combination of mistakes during design
and excution
- thicknes of soil layer larger in reality than assumed in ...
Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research   14
Kolom-plaatverbindingen
Problemen bij brand
        Thermische uitzetting
      Afschuifbreuken kolommen !!




          ...
Kolom-plaatverbindingen
Problemen bij brand



 Uitwendige vervormingsverhindering




                                   ...
Test program

1.   Three full scale column – slab connections (Magnel Lab and
        Warringtonfire)
2.   Blast tests on ...
WP5: Reliable design calculation methods


WP8: Dissemination




                     Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Rese...
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UG_20090206_Taerwe

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Presentation of the contribution of the Department of Structural Engineering to the IWT SBO project on fire safety and explosion safety in car parks.

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UG_20090206_Taerwe

  1. 1. Fundamental design approaches for improvement of the fire safety in car parks UGent: structural aspects Prof. dr. ir. Luc Taerwe Ir. arch. Emmanuel Annerel Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research – Department of Structural Engineering
  2. 2. Objectives of the project with respect to structural aspects • to develop advanced mechanical models for the structural behaviour of car park structures taking into account non-linear behaviour due to indirect actions in the accidental situations of fire and explosion • to develop a particular analysis of the punching shear problem in case of fire and explosions Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 2
  3. 3. WP1: Determination of design parameters, scenarios and objectives Determination of design parameters for - large scale structural tests - numerical simulations of structural behaviour under fire and explosions This implies decisions on: - geometrical conditions, such as size, ceiling configurations, etc.; - performance conditions, such as fire scenarios and explosion scenarios. Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 3
  4. 4. Column-slab connections Slab types Mushroom slabs (paddestoelvloeren) Flat slabs (vlakke plaatvloeren) Precast thin slabs with lattice girders (breedplaatvloeren of predallen) Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 4
  5. 5. Parking structures in the city of Ghent Kouter Sint-Pietersplein Vrijdagsmarkt Zuid Sint-Michiels Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 5
  6. 6. General classification of loads according to variation in time Permanent loads (G) P[G] = 1 δG ≅ 0 Live loads (Q) 0 < P[Q] < 1 δQ↑ Accidental loads (A) e.g. fire and explosions P[A] ≅ 0 A↑ Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research
  7. 7. WP4: Structural models The objectives of this work package are to develop - an appropriate methodology for the analysis and design of underground car park structures in case of fire in combination with explosions. - the analysis of structural members of car park structures for fire in combination with explosions, with emphasis on slab / column behaviour and on punching resistance; - protection measures from a structural point of view. Note: The choice is made not to include the extrapolation of the results obtained for elements, towards robustness analysis of a whole building structure. Moreover, the initially foreseen WP on masonry walls is also not considered in the present two year project. Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 7
  8. 8. Task 4.1: Parametric analysis of structural members Het brandeffect: thermo-mechanisch model DIANA Temperatuur: - Thermische geleidbaarheid - Volumetrische specifieke warmtecapaciteit - Coefficiënt voor convectie en straling Mechanische acties: -Sterktedegradering staal/beton Vervormingen, bezwijkvorm -Effect van explosie? Implementeren als kortstondig optredende kracht Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 8
  9. 9. Task 4.2: Connections Focus on - study of moment resisting connections between structural elements - analysis of the punching resistance in case of fire and fire in combination with explosions. Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 9
  10. 10. Punching A : referentienazichtsdoorsnede B : referentienazichtsgebied Acont C : referentienazichtsomtrek u1 D : belast gebied rcont : straal van een andere nazichtsomtrek uout,ef : omtrek vanaf waar geen ponswapening meer nodig is Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research
  11. 11. Controle aan de omtrek van de kolom β VEd u0 volgens type kolom vEd = ≤ 0,5 ν fcd u0 d Bepaling uout,ef uout ,ef = β vEd /( vRd,c d) afstand uiteinde ponswapening tot uout Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research
  12. 12. Example Gretzenbach 2004 (CH) Fire of one parked car: 6 am Collapse of roof slab: 7.30 am (7 fire workers killed) Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 12
  13. 13. Collapse is combination of mistakes during design and excution - thicknes of soil layer larger in reality than assumed in design - top reinforcement at lower level than planned - top of columns partly in slab Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 13
  14. 14. Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 14
  15. 15. Kolom-plaatverbindingen Problemen bij brand Thermische uitzetting Afschuifbreuken kolommen !! Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 15
  16. 16. Kolom-plaatverbindingen Problemen bij brand Uitwendige vervormingsverhindering verschuiving van momentenlijn → toename steunpuntsmomenten Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 16
  17. 17. Test program 1. Three full scale column – slab connections (Magnel Lab and Warringtonfire) 2. Blast tests on selected connection configurations (KMS) Objectives: - Influence of reinforcement configurations on failure modes - Elaboration of mechanical model for punching resistance Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 17
  18. 18. WP5: Reliable design calculation methods WP8: Dissemination Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research 18

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