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  1. 1. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN… The designer works with the 4 tools or elements of design: line, form, color, and texture. But now they must follow the “RULES” about using those tools. The rules are called the principles of design. There are 5 principles of design: balance PROPORTION/SCALE rhythm harmony emphasis
  2. 2. Proportion: refers to the size relationships that can be found within an object or design. It includes the relationship of parts to each other and parts to the whole. Are the shades and the bases in the right proportion for the height of these floor lamps?
  3. 3. The Golden Mean, discovered by the ancient Greeks, is also known as the Golden Section, Golden Ratio and Divine Proportion. It is a ratio or proportion defined by the number Phi (Φ = 1.618033988749895...) 1: 1.618 1.618 1 The Golden Rectangle: not too long; not too skinny; most pleasing to the eye The golden mean divides any line or form at “just the right point”, somewhere between one-third and one-half the distance from one end. It is considered the most visually pleasing division.
  4. 4. The golden mean is the division of a line anyplace between one-half and onethird of its total length. The curtains to the right are tied back at the golden mean for this window. The Golden Mean 1/3 1/2 1/3 The draperies to the left each illustrate a way of using tie-backs at the golden mean… one higher and one lower.
  5. 5. The golden mean has many applications in interior design. An afghan has been thrown over the back and arm of this chair in a casual manner for accent. It covers far too much of the chair to be visually pleasing however. Like the bottom picture depicts, it would be more attractive if it was laying between the 1/3 and ½ point of the chair back. The focal point of the wall arrangement falls exactly at the golden mean… a place between one-half and one-third of the total furniture arrangement.
  6. 6. The designer wants to place this plant on a shelf. According to the golden mean, which placement is more pleasing to the eye?... Placing the plant slightly to the left of the center; between 1/3 and ½ of the distance from the end? OR Placing the plant directly in the center of the shelf? The asymmetry of the golden mean is usually more pleasing to the eye, so you would want to place the plant off-center.
  7. 7. According to the golden mean, which coffee table length is the most pleasing? A coffee table that is the same length as the sofa? A coffee table that is2/3 the length of the sofa? A coffee table that is half the length of the sofa?
  8. 8. Two-Thirds Rule… The even placement of 3 plants on this ladder is symmetrical… and boring. Where would you place 3 plants on this ladder, using the two-thirds rule? Related to the Golden Mean is the 'Two Thirds Rule' within art and design. It involves creating a place of emphasis or focus within the composition. The point of emphasis is found by dividing the painting into three parts vertically and then horizontally; where the dividing lines meet (there are four points) are supposedly aesthetically pleasing places to put the focus of the composition. It is not natural to have objects perfectly centered and symmetrical.
  9. 9. SCALE… related to proportion; refers to how the size of an object relates to human beings or other objects or spaces in a design. Which lamp is the best scale for this end table?
  10. 10. Which chair is the better scale for the sofa?
  11. 11. Evaluate the scale of the two chairs in this arrangement?
  12. 12. Because homes and furniture are built for humans, it is important to use the human figure in evaluating their scale. Rooms and furnishings should be designed or selected for the people who will use them. Although humans find miniatures intriguing and massive scale awesome, neither is a “comfortable” long-term response.
  13. 13. Proportion/scale assignment: Name:______________________ In the bedroom picture below, draw a framed picture above the headboard, paying particular attention to making that frame proportionately correct for the scale of other furnishings. This small table and flowers are in the foyer of a home. The client wants a framed picture above the table also. Draw in the frame, using the “rule of two-thirds” for placement guidelines. Show how you arrived at your placement, by showing the lines.
  14. 14. • Preparing individuals for life and work • Strengthening families • Empowering communities Created by Barbara L. Swarthout, Family & Consumer Sciences teacher at Elkhorn High School