Human Development II Chapter
13-Developing Guidance Skills
Learning Objective: Analyze healthy and
appropriate ways to guide children. Compare
and contrast direct vs. indirect guidance.
FCS Standard: Child Development
What’s the point of guidance?
Direct and indirect actions
used by an adult to help children develop
appropriate behavior patterns.
Goals of Guidance
children’s self-esteem and produce
a desired change in behavior.
Help the child learn self-control
Promote prosocial behaviors among children
acts of kindness that benefit others.
What do you need to do to
effectively guide children?
suggestions rather than commands.
Encourage and show interest in the
Interact often and ask open-ended
Model prosocial behaviors.
Guidelines for developing guidance
Ask yourself if you have any biases or
stereotypes? This influences how you treat
Talk with other teachers.
Pay attention to your kids and don’t spend a lot
of time talking to other adults.
Get at their level-literally.
Don’t interrupt an activity, unless you can
increase knowledge or safety.
Let kids do for themselves as much as
One Form of Guidance-Direct
involves nonverbal and verbal
attention to your non-verbals.
communicate, especially for infants.
They should reinforce your verbals.
More on Direct Guidance
your vocab. to fit the age
in a relaxed voice.
loud voices for emergencies.
them what to do, not what not to do.
choices with care
choices when you want to them to
make a choice and let them follow through.
Give direction when needed.
More Direct Guidance Skills
Children will only become independent if given the
opportunity. They might surprise you! Let them
help each other.
independence and cooperation.
Remain calm, and don’t give in.
Children will test limits more when there is
Be consistent with behavior and among children.
Still More On Direct Guidance
time for change.
gives them an adjustment period.
need to learn to recognize, understand,
and express their feelings.
Best when discussed with 1 child or a small
Role model how children should react to
others who are upset.
Don’t overreact to mistakes.
Even More On Direct Guidance
To make sure children are not excluded
When children are impolite
Arguments over property
Another Form of Guidance-Indirect
Guidance: involves outside
factors that influence behavior.
up of the center-open areas to move, low
shelving units, low bathroom facilities, low coat
Placing yourself where you can observe easily
Label shelves or units with a picture of what
belongs in that area.
Techniques For Effective Guidance
Reinforcement: Molding children’s
behavior through rewarding positive behavior.
Using Consequences: a result that follows an
action or behavior. 2 Types
1. Natural: experiences that follow naturally as a
result of a behavior
2. Artificial: (logical consequences) those that are
deliberately set up by an adult to show what will
happen if a limit is not followed. Should relate to
More Techniques for Effective
A reminder of the limit. Only warn once.
State the misbehavior and then the consequence.
Use a firm voice.
Out: A guidance technique that involves
moving a child away from others for a short
period of time.
Used when child needs to calm down, not for
More effective for 4-5 year-olds. Example of an
More Effective Techniques
Tells the child how you feel
about his or her behavior.
place blame on the child, but helps
the child understand how others view his or
Should include the child’s behavior, your
feelings about the behavior, the effects of
be age appropriate
Give it immediately
Establish eye contact
Do not overuse it
Ineffective praise or empty praise is more
damaging than helpful. It is repetitive and
not genuine. Can lead to children basing
their feelings of self-worth on adults’
opinions of them.
More Effective Techniques
Placing thoughts for consideration
into children’s minds.
Often leads to action
Make it positive and use it often
Used to stop unacceptable action or start
Can be used to prepare for transition
Differs from suggestion because a response is
Can be verbal or non-verbal
May need to be repeated often
Yes, Even More Techniques
divert or turn attention in a
be done through distraction
Helps the child express themselves in a
more positive way.
The substitute must be appealing.
when ever you speak or move
you are modeling behavior
both verbal and non-verbal
More Guidance Techniques
involves giving children your full
attention. Get at their level.
Active Listening: first listen, then respond by
repeating what they said.
Doesn’t necessarily solve the problem.
avoiding acknowledging an
Not used when the behavior is harmful
You can tell them what you are ignoring and the
behavior you desire.
Helps children believe in themselves.
Prompting a Positive Self-Concept
the qualities a child
believes he or she possesses.
of the beliefs, feelings, and
perceptions a child has of him or herself.
Mirrored in their behavior.
How you treat a child can promote or
undermine a child’s self-concept.
The most subtle behavior can impact a