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# Drafting

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### Drafting

1. 1. A floor plan is a diagram of a room or building as if seen from above. Drafting simply means “drawing”. The draftsman uses standard architectural symbols when drawing. These symbols are recognized by others in the housing profession. A bathroom vanity does not have to be labeled… if the right symbol has been used.
2. 2. Floor plans must accurately depict the sizes of real-world objects — buildings, furniture, appliances — in relation to each other. This requires scaling down the dimensions of all the objects by a common proportion, known as the floor plan's scale. Scales are used for drawing a large object on a smaller sheet of paper. Scales are usually specified as a ratio, like 1:4. The first number represents units of measurement on the floor plan and the second number represents the equivalent measurement in the real world. A scale commonly used on floor plans is 1": 48" or 1": 4'. This means that one inch on paper equals 48 inches or 4 feet in real life. This scale is also called the quarter-inch scale (¼" : 1 foot). Full scale Reduced to ¼ inch scale
3. 3. Look at your ruler. Do you understand that each little mark is 1/16th of an inch? Two marks over would be 2/16ths or 1/8th inch (reduce the fraction). ½ inch is the same as 2/4ths or 8/16ths. In drafting (drawing) a floor plan, we use a ruler if we are drawing “on the boards”. That means we are drawing without the aid of a computer (CAD is computer-aided-drafting). A good designer should be able to do both. Position your ruler carefully. Look directly down from “over the top” of the ruler for an accurate measurement; don’t look at it from an angle. Be precise!
4. 4. Each little 1/4th inch square is EQUAL to 1 foot, or 12 inches ------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------- 3” 6” 9” 12” It is usually possible to divide a little square into halves or into fourths using your eyes only…without a ruler. This is a piece of graph paper we will be using. It is divided into little squares, each measuring 1/4th inch on a side. This is quarter-inch graph paper. This graph paper is perfect for drawing objects or rooms to a scale of ¼”=1’
5. 5. Lay your ruler along a line on the graph paper. Draw a line that represents an 11 foot length. That’s the same as 11 squares. Be precise, beginning and ending exactly where you want to. Remember, each square represents 12 inches, and a line slightly too long is not 11’, but 11’ 3”. Keep your pencil lead sharp, or use a mechanical pencil. Line is too thick
6. 6. Walls are classified as either bearing or nonbearing. Bearing walls help carry the weight of the house, providing support to floors above and the roof. All walls start with “studs”, usually 2x4” or 2x6” pieces of lumber or metal to provide the “framework”. The centers of the studs are usually placed 16” apart. Insulation (C) may be placed between the studs (B). Drywall is attached over the framework on both sides of the wall (A,D). Drywall is also called gypsum board; a common trade name is Sheetrock. A wall is much thicker than a pencil mark. What’s inside? Drywall can be purchased in various thicknesses. The thicker it is, the more expensive it is and the more sound- proofing it provides.
7. 7. Taking into account the 4” stud width, the drywall thickness of 1/2-3/4 inches, and even the paint or wall covering thickness…we use a 6” thick wall when we draw on the boards. To draw a wall 14’ long, start by drawing a single line 14 squares long. Then place your ruler halfway between the adjacent square, and draw another line that length. To draw a corner, you have to plan ahead. If the room measures 12’ on the interior wall, the first line will be 12 squares long. The second line will be on the outside, and will be 13 squares long. Once you have the first wall drawn, you simple turn the corner and start drawing the adjacent wall. On this side of the wall is the interior of the room. First line Second line The exterior wall line extends 6” beyond the interior wall line, so it can turn a corner
8. 8. To draft a room, start by drawing just the interior walls. After those are completed, draw the outside of each wall. Draw a room that is 8’ x 11’. Be careful to end each line accurately; avoid this error. Position you ruler carefully and look straight down on it to measure. Avoid walls that are too thick or too thin.
9. 9. On a floor plan, you do not see how tall a window is (it’s height). You only see how wide it is. Let’s draw a 3’ window. Draw a section of a wall that is 11’ long. A couple of feet from the left end, draw a vertical line to illustrate one side of the window. Then 3’ over to the right, put in the other side of the window. Finish drawing the window symbol with a horizontal line right through the middle. (this is an architectural symbol that others within the housing profession can recognize. Now go back to your 8’ x 11’ room, and add a 4 1/2’ wide window somewhere near the middle of the back wall.
10. 10. There are several things to consider when deciding where to place the windows in a room. You must consider how the windows will appear on the exterior of the building. On the interior of the building you need to consider how the furniture can be arranged, the view from the windows, and the possible high cost of window treatments.
11. 11. Before we continue, we should discuss the difference between standard and custom sizes of interior fixtures such as windows, doors, cabinetry, etc. Manufacturers take a great deal of time and effort to set up their equipment for a specific size of fixture. It is more economical to set it up and make many pieces the same size, so they do that and call it standard sizing. In order to meet the many needs of consumers, but still use standard sizing, manufacturers offer their goods in increments of 3 inches. For example, you can purchase a standard height door in 18”, 21”, 24”, 27”, 30”, 33”, 36” etc. widths. Windows get even wider. When a manufacturer has to set up his equipment for a very special or specific size, such as a 31” wide door, he has to charge more money. This is called custom sizing.
12. 12. A standard swinging door into a bedroom is 30”. The front door of the house is often 36”. This makes it appear more dignified, and allows one doorway into the home that will accommodate the moving in of large furniture. Either door is drawn the same way. You show the doorway, the door itself, and the door swing. Standard 30” swinging door Door swings both directions; good between a kitchen and dining area or between kitchen and utility rooms Two standard swinging doors meet in the middle, filling a 5 foot wide doorway. The doorway opening for such a treatment is usually 4’, 5’, or 6’ wide.
13. 13. Pocket Door, usually 36” wide or wider Single Bifold Door 30-36” wide Double Bifold Door 5’-6’ wide
14. 14. Sliding doors, found on tubs patio doors, and closets 5’ or 6’ doorway openings You might find sliding doors on 4’ openings for shower areas, but tubs have a 5’ opening. You can draw doors on a floor plan with a ruler or with the use of an architectural template.
15. 15. There are 4 corners on each doorway, 2 on each side, and where the door is attached determines which direction it will swing. You will need to decide whether the door should swing in or out of the room. Think carefully about where you will place a door on a wall. Placing it in the middle of the wall uses a lot of wall space for the “swing”. Placing the door in the corner is usually a better use of space.
16. 16. These men all work in the same office. The fire alarms start sounding, and they rush toward the door. How should this door swing?... Toward them into the office, or out to the hallway? In any room where numerous people will be gathering, the door must swing out of the room to allow for easy evacuation. In a bedroom, where only several people will likely be gathered at one time, the door can swing into the room. In fact, swinging a bedroom door outward into the hall can be a safety violation.
17. 17. Width Depth Closets have two measurements… width and depth. A closet suitable for hanging clothes must be at least 36” wide and 2 ½ feet deep. The clothes in this closet will not brush the back wall or get caught in the front doors. It is not necessary to show the clothes rod and hangers unless it is a walk-in closet. You do need to add appropriate doors. Closets for storage other than clothing can be as small as 18” in width and 1 foot deep. This might be a small pantry or linen closet. You do not need to illustrate shelves. The Federal Housing Authority (FDA) regulates many housing decisions, including the requirement that each person needs 36” rod space for clothing.
18. 18. The closet to the right is wrong! It sticks out inside the room, and destroys the square or rectangular shape of the room. It makes furniture arrangement difficult. This is not good design! The closet to the left is added correctly. The shape of the room must be preserved, so the closet must go on the outside of the room.
19. 19. 12 ½’ 16’ Draw the room above to ¼” scale. The measurements given are interior wall measurements. Make the window 5’ wide. The door should be a standard 30” swinging door. The closet door opening should be 6’ wide, and has sliding doors.
20. 20. Think of rooms and closets as pieces of a jigsaw puzzle… What can you put in this space, in the next room? Perhaps it will be a closet to the adjacent room, or space to build in a shower/tub if the bathroom is next door. Each room stays rectangular in shape. This is a great closet arrangement between bedrooms; the clothes make a great soundproof barrier.
21. 21. 11 ½’ 15’ 6’ closet opening 5’ closet opening 13’ Draw the two rooms above to ¼” scale. Both are 11 ½’ wide; one is 15’ long and the other is 13’ long. Both rooms have one 4’ wide window. Both rooms have one 30” standard swinging door. Draw bifold doors on each of the closets.
22. 22. 3’ wide hallway length Rooms either open into other rooms, or into hallways. Hallways provide privacy. Hallways are not “wasted space”, but they aren’t living space either. For that reason, they need to be as short as possible. Hallways can turn corners, but you still count linear feet. A good goal is a 15’ hallway length for a 3 bedroom home. Since two people may meet and need to pass each other in a hallway, this traffic area is “major”. It needs to be 36” wide.
23. 23. 11 ½’ 15’ 6’ closet opening 5’ closet opening 13’ 6’ closet opening Linen closet 11 ½’ 36” doorwayEach of the 3 bedrooms have one 5’ window. Two bedrooms and a bath have standard 30” doors. The hallway is 36” wide. Bath
24. 24. In the bedroom to the right, the closet openings are 6’ wide, so the standard sized sliding doors fit perfectly (5 or 6’ is a standard set of closet doors). But what if the opening was too big? Do you have to purchase custom doors? In the bedroom to the left, the closet width is 6 ½’. Instead of purchasing custom sized doors, you could build a 6” wing wall. A wing wall is a very short wall, not longer than 1’. It has many uses, especially to adjust the size of room and closet door openings.The 6” wing wall has altered the original 6 ½’ closet opening. It is now just 6’, and standard doors will
25. 25. A hallway is a major traffic pattern, so requires a 36” width. Two people do not need to pass each other in a walk- in closet, so the traffic pattern can be narrower. Closets need a 30” walkway. This traffic pattern does not need to be labeled. 30” 30” 30” The clothes rod is drawn, centered in a 30” wide area. The rod length is variable. A few hanger markings completes the closet. A walk-in closet is simply drawn like a small room. It’s size depends on how many rods you want and where the traffic pattern will be.An 8’ square walk-in closet would be considered quite spacious.
26. 26. Building codes have a lot to say about actual building design and construction. Codes regulate depth of footings and foundations, building materials, ceiling heights, fireplace installation, ventilation, electrical wiring, plumbing, width of hallways, width of doors, direction of door swing, size and construction of stairways, maximum percentage of a wall that can be glass, exits, etc. When permits are required, inspections are also required. Work that does not meet code can be ordered ripped out. Building codes are usually regulated by each city or county. It is the architect’s, draftsman’s, designer’s, and contractor’s job to know the codes. DOING WORK WITHOUT A PERMIT IS NOT ONLY ILLEGAL, BUT MAY ALSO INVALIDATE YOUR HOMEOWNER'S INSURANCE.
27. 27. 1. Draft a floor plan, using ¼” scale. 2. Include a master bedroom on your floor plan, no smaller than 100 square feet (length x width) and no larger than 325 square feet. 3. Include two additional bedrooms on your floor plan. Neither should be smaller than 80 square feet or larger than 250 square feet. 4. Include two bathrooms on your plan, one exclusively for the master bedroom, and one opening off a hallway and accessible to both additional bedrooms and guests to the home. Neither bedroom can be smaller than 35 square feet or larger than 150 square feet. 5. All three bedrooms and the bath must open off of a single hallway, 36” wide and no longer than 15 linear feet. 6. All bedrooms must have a closet, regular or walk-in. Any additional closets on this plan are optional. Use closet doors of your choice. 7. Each bedroom must have at least one window, at least 30 inches wide. 8. The door into each bedroom must be a standard 30” swinging door. 9. Be able to explain how the rest of the house attaches to your plan. Name: _________________ Due: ______________________
28. 28. Linen closet Bath TEST Name: ___________________ 2. Draw bifold doors on the closet in bedroom A. 1. Each bedroom on this plan has a window. Draw the correct window symbol in each. A B C 3. Draw sliding doors on the closet in bedroom B. 4. Draw swinging doors that meet in the middle on the closet in bedroom C. 5. Draw a pocket door on the bathroom. 6. There is a wing wall on one of the bedroom closets. Circle it. 7-8. In bedroom A, draw vertical lines in the wall to show the area where you think the door would best be located. Add a swinging door, hinged to swing correctly. 9-10. Add a door in bedroom B that swings into the room correctly. Add a door in bedroom C that swings out of the room, against the linen closet. Work without a ruler or template. You may use a straight edge.