The Scientific Method Science  is  a  methodical   approach  to learning about the world around us .
Steps of the   scientific method <ul><li>S TATE THE PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>C ONDUCT RESEARCH   </li></ul><ul><li>H YPOT...
State the Problem <ul><li>The  P roblem  is a scientific question to be solved.  It is normally found by: </li></ul><ul><u...
Collect Information <ul><li>Collecting information  is done by  researching   your own experiences, knowledgeable sources,...
Hypothesize <ul><li>A  hypothesis  is an  idea  about the solution to a problem, based on knowledge and research –  an  ed...
Experiment <ul><li>“ TESTING ”  the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Know your  “ variables ” </li></ul><ul><li>Independent  (...
Experiment <ul><li>Do’s of Experimentation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do  have only  one independent variable  during an exper...
Make observations of the experiment   <ul><li>Collect data  </li></ul><ul><li>Organize data- charts; graphs; tables; etc <...
Evaluate and Conclude <ul><li>In this step you create a  s ummary  of the results and a  statement of  how the results rel...
Conclusion <ul><li>When writing a conclusion make sure to include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements on how t...
Theory vs. Law <ul><li>Theory - an  explanation  of things or events based on many observations and investigations </li></...
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Scientific method conc

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Scientific method conc

  1. 1. The Scientific Method Science is a methodical approach to learning about the world around us .
  2. 2. Steps of the scientific method <ul><li>S TATE THE PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>C ONDUCT RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>H YPOTHESIS </li></ul><ul><li>E XPERIMENT </li></ul><ul><li>M AKE OBSERVATIONS & RECORD </li></ul><ul><li>E XPRESS CONCLUSIONS </li></ul>The Scientific method is a SCHEME for doing science
  3. 3. State the Problem <ul><li>The P roblem is a scientific question to be solved. It is normally found by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing- using your senses and prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcing- reviewing previous studies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: “ Why are fish dying in the lake?” </li></ul><ul><li>Stipulations: </li></ul><ul><li>Should be limited in it’s scope….. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We’re only researching the affects of salt . ” </li></ul><ul><li>Can be solved experimentally…… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Observe the affects as salt is added to water that is at boiling </li></ul><ul><li>temperatures – under controlled conditions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Collect Information <ul><li>Collecting information is done by researching your own experiences, knowledgeable sources, and data from exploratory experiments to help you understand the topic . </li></ul><ul><li>Do use many references from printed </li></ul><ul><li>sources— books, journals, magazines, and </li></ul><ul><li>newspapers—as well as electronic sources— </li></ul><ul><li>computer software and online services . </li></ul><ul><li>Do gather information from professionals—instructors, librarians, </li></ul><ul><li>and scientists, such as physicians and veterinarians . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hypothesize <ul><li>A hypothesis is an idea about the solution to a problem, based on knowledge and research – an educated guess . </li></ul><ul><li>“ If salt is added then it will cause the food to cook faster.” </li></ul><ul><li>Your experiment should be able to test the hypothesis . </li></ul><ul><li>Do use the information you collected in determining your hypothesis . </li></ul><ul><li>Do write down your hypothesis before beginning the project </li></ul><ul><li>experimentation. (Generally write the hypothesis in an “if… then statement). </li></ul><ul><li>“ If salt is added to boiling water then it will cause the food to cook faster” </li></ul><ul><li>Don't change your hypothesis even if experimentation does not </li></ul><ul><li>support it - that’s science! If time permits, repeat or redesign the </li></ul><ul><li>experiment to confirm your results. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Experiment <ul><li>“ TESTING ” the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Know your “ variables ” </li></ul><ul><li>Independent (manipulated) variable: is the variable you or the </li></ul><ul><li>scientist purposely manipulate ( change ). Ex . Adding salt </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent (responding) variable: is the variable that changes in </li></ul><ul><li>response to the independent variable Exp: water temp . </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled (constants) variables: are variables that are not changed . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex . Amount of water used, applying same amount of heat </li></ul><ul><li>Control Group: A group that is tested in which the independent variable is not applied. It is used as the standard by which the test results can be compared (Exp: Boiling the water without the salt added) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Experiment <ul><li>Do’s of Experimentation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do have only one independent variable during an experiment. All others must be controlled variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do repeat the experiment to verify your results, if possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do have a control group . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Make observations of the experiment <ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Organize data- charts; graphs; tables; etc </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the data </li></ul>
  9. 9. Evaluate and Conclude <ul><li>In this step you create a s ummary of the results and a statement of how the results relate to the hypothesis . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Conclusion <ul><li>When writing a conclusion make sure to include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements on how the results of the experiment related to your hypothesis (whether it was supported or refuted) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanations as to why the experimental results were achieved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other hypotheses that can be made based on the experimental results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any experimental flaws in your experiment </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Theory vs. Law <ul><li>Theory - an explanation of things or events based on many observations and investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Law - Statement about what happens in nature that seems to be true at all times. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exp: Law of Gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike theories…laws do NOT explain why. </li></ul></ul>

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