Scientific Method


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Scientific Method

  1. 1. The Scientific Method Science is a methodical approach to learning about the world around us .
  2. 2. Steps of the scientific method <ul><li>S TATE THE PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>C ONDUCT RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>H YPOTHESIS </li></ul><ul><li>E XPERIMENT </li></ul><ul><li>M AKE OBSERVATIONS & RECORD </li></ul><ul><li>E XPRESS CONCLUSIONS </li></ul>The Scientific method is a SCHEME for doing science
  3. 3. Steps of the Scientific Method <ul><li>Identify the p roblem , question , or a unique observation . </li></ul><ul><li>R esearch the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a question and from there create a h ypothesis & make a prediction . </li></ul><ul><li>Test the hypothesis – e xperiment . </li></ul><ul><li>O bserve and record your results – analysis . </li></ul><ul><li>Arrive at a c onclusion or make a general rule – inductive or deductive. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Problem <ul><li>The P roblem is a scientific question to be solved. It is normally based on a problem that is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed- using your senses and prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researched- reviewing previous studies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Why do recipes tell you to add salt to boiling water ?” </li></ul><ul><li>Can be answered in a statement….. (usually an “if…then” statement is used) </li></ul><ul><li>“ If salt causes water to boil at a higher temperature, then it will cook </li></ul><ul><li>the food faster .” </li></ul><ul><li>Should be limited in it’s scope….. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We’re only researching the affects of salt . ” </li></ul><ul><li>Can be solved experimentally…… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Observe the affects as salt is added to water that is at boiling </li></ul><ul><li>temperatures – under controlled conditions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research <ul><li>Research is the process of collecting information from your own experiences, knowledgeable sources, and data from exploratory experiments to help you understand the topic . </li></ul><ul><li>Do use many references from printed </li></ul><ul><li>sources— books, journals, magazines, and </li></ul><ul><li>newspapers—as well as electronic sources— </li></ul><ul><li>computer software and online services . </li></ul><ul><li>Do gather information from professionals—instructors, librarians, </li></ul><ul><li>and scientists, such as physicians and veterinarians . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hypothesis <ul><li>A hypothesis is an idea about the solution to a problem, based on knowledge and research – an educated guess . </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think salt changes how the water affects the food. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Experimenting will be designed to test the hypothesis . </li></ul><ul><li>Do state facts from past experiences or observations on which </li></ul><ul><li>you base your hypothesis . </li></ul><ul><li>Do write down your hypothesis before beginning the project </li></ul><ul><li>experimentation. (Generally write the hypothesis in an “if… then statement). </li></ul><ul><li>“ If salt is added to boiling water then it will cause the food to cook faster” </li></ul><ul><li>Don't change your hypothesis even if experimentation does not </li></ul><ul><li>support it - that’s science! If time permits, repeat or redesign the </li></ul><ul><li>experiment to confirm your results. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Experimentation <ul><li>“ TESTING ” the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Know your “ variables ” </li></ul><ul><li>Independent (manipulated) variable: is the variable you purposely </li></ul><ul><li>manipulate ( change ). Ex . Adding salt </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent (responding) variable: is the variable that changes in </li></ul><ul><li>response to the independent variable – water temp . </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled (constants) variables: are variables that are not changed . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex . Amount of water used. </li></ul><ul><li>Control Group: A group that is tested in which the independent variable is not applied. It is used as the standard by which the test results can be compared (Exp: Boiling the water without the salt added) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Experimentation <ul><li>Does and Don’ts of Experimentation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do have only one independent variable during an experiment. All others must be controlled variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do repeat the experiment to verify your results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do have a control group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do have more than one control, with each being identical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do organize data. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Observe and Record <ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Organize data- charts; graphs; tables; etc </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the data </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to detail </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation and evaluation of results </li></ul><ul><li>Write the results in a clear and concise </li></ul><ul><li>manner so others can understand them </li></ul>
  10. 10. Conclusion <ul><li>After recording the results of the experimentation, you need a s ummary of the results and a statement of how the results relate to the hypothesis . Remember : </li></ul><ul><li>* If your results do not support your hypothesis (refutes) : </li></ul><ul><li>DON'T leave out experimental results that do not support your hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>DON'T change your hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>DO give possible reasons for the difference between your hypothesis and the experimental results. </li></ul><ul><li>DO give ways that you can experiment further to find a solution . </li></ul><ul><li>* If your results support your hypothesis: Reward yourself! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conclusion <ul><li>When writing a conclusion make sure to include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements on how the results of the experiment related to your hypothesis (whether it was supported or refuted) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanations as to why the experimental results were achieved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other hypotheses that can be made based on the experimental results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any experimental flaws in your experiment </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Theory vs. Law <ul><li>Theory - an explanation of things or events based on many observations and investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Law - Statement about what happens in nature that seems to be true at all times. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exp: Law of Gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike theories…laws do NOT explain why. </li></ul></ul>