The Chemistry of Life
Bonds
• Bond is a force that holds atoms together
O
H H
Covalent bonds
• Force that holds 2 atoms together when
they share electrons
Ionic bonds
• Atoms bond with each other by gaining or
losing electrons in outer shells, opposite
forces attract
– Example...
Compound
• Substance composed of atoms that are
bonded together
• Examples:
• 2 types
– Organic compounds: contain carbon ...
Look at p. 51 fig. 3-1 organic or inorganic
PP: What is a monomer, polymer, and
macromolecule?
Read 1st paragraph on p. 53...
Carbohydrates
“Carbon Water”
• C, H, O
• Always Ratio of 2
Hydrogens to 1
Oxygen CH2O
• Main Role in Body:
– Simple Carbs ...
Monosaccharide
“One Sugar”
• Monomer unit of carb
• C6H12O6
• Types:
– Glucose- made by plants
– Fructose-Fruits
• OSE-end...
Disaccharide
“Two Sugars”
• Two
monosaccharides
linked together
• Types:
– Sucrose- Table Sugar
– Lactose- Milk Sugar
• C1...
Polysaccharide
“Many Sugars”
• 1000s of
monosaccharides
linked
• Complex carb:
provides long
sustaining energy but
must be...
Types of Polysaccharides
• Starch
– Made by plants for energy storage
– We can get energy by eating these
– Potatoes, Past...
Lipids
• Elements: C, H, O (much
less O)
• Will NOT dissolve in
water
• Main Functions:
– Fats: store energy,
padding, and...
Fatty Acid
• Monomer of Lipid
• Saturated Fatty Acid:
Full amount of
Hydrogens
• Unsaturated Fatty
Acid: Missing
hydrogens...
Common Fats
• Saturated
– Made by animals (lard)
– Solid at room temp
– Made with saturated
Fatty Acids
• Unsaturated
– Ma...
Other Types of Lipids
• Wax
– Waterproofing agent
– Earwax, candle wax
• Steriods
– Make up hormones like
testosterone
Proteins
• C, H, O, N
• Nitrogen is not in
carbs or lipids
• Types:
– Structural:
• Muscle, hair, enzymes
– Enzymes:
• spe...
Amino Acids
• Monomer of Proteins
• 20 Different Kinds
• R group is the group
that makes each
amino acid different
Peptide Means protein
• Peptide bond- bond
between two amino
acids
• Dipeptide- two amino
acids linked
• Polypeptide- many...
Nucleic Acids
• 2 types
– DNA (deoxyribonucleic
acid) in nucleus, in
chromosomes,
molecule of heredity
– RNA (ribonucleic ...
Organic or Inorganic?
• N3H4
• C6H12O6
• C12H22O11
• C18H42O3
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Organic compounds

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Organic compounds

  1. 1. The Chemistry of Life
  2. 2. Bonds • Bond is a force that holds atoms together O H H
  3. 3. Covalent bonds • Force that holds 2 atoms together when they share electrons
  4. 4. Ionic bonds • Atoms bond with each other by gaining or losing electrons in outer shells, opposite forces attract – Example: sodium loses an electron to become stable chlorine gains an electron and becomes stable
  5. 5. Compound • Substance composed of atoms that are bonded together • Examples: • 2 types – Organic compounds: contain carbon rings or chains – Inorganic: don’t have carbon rings or chains
  6. 6. Look at p. 51 fig. 3-1 organic or inorganic PP: What is a monomer, polymer, and macromolecule? Read 1st paragraph on p. 53 and define those words.
  7. 7. Carbohydrates “Carbon Water” • C, H, O • Always Ratio of 2 Hydrogens to 1 Oxygen CH2O • Main Role in Body: – Simple Carbs (Sugars) • Immediate Energy but doesn’t last long – Complex Carbs (Starches) • Longer lasting energy but not immediate
  8. 8. Monosaccharide “One Sugar” • Monomer unit of carb • C6H12O6 • Types: – Glucose- made by plants – Fructose-Fruits • OSE-ending= Oh So SwEEEt • Simple Sugar • Isomer- different structures but same chemical formula
  9. 9. Disaccharide “Two Sugars” • Two monosaccharides linked together • Types: – Sucrose- Table Sugar – Lactose- Milk Sugar • C12H22O11 • Simple Sugar
  10. 10. Polysaccharide “Many Sugars” • 1000s of monosaccharides linked • Complex carb: provides long sustaining energy but must be broken down first
  11. 11. Types of Polysaccharides • Starch – Made by plants for energy storage – We can get energy by eating these – Potatoes, Pastas, Breads etc • Glycogen – Made by animals for limited energy storage – Stored in liver and muscle • Cellulose – Made by plants for structure – We cannot digest this for energy: It is fiber – Leafy veggies, CELLERY, grass
  12. 12. Lipids • Elements: C, H, O (much less O) • Will NOT dissolve in water • Main Functions: – Fats: store energy, padding, and insulation – Wax: waterproof, forms protective layers – Oil: protects skin, hair, feathers
  13. 13. Fatty Acid • Monomer of Lipid • Saturated Fatty Acid: Full amount of Hydrogens • Unsaturated Fatty Acid: Missing hydrogens due to double bond Carbons • Head end: hydrophilic • Tail end : hydrophobic
  14. 14. Common Fats • Saturated – Made by animals (lard) – Solid at room temp – Made with saturated Fatty Acids • Unsaturated – Made plants- OILS – Liquid at room temp – Made with unsat FAs
  15. 15. Other Types of Lipids • Wax – Waterproofing agent – Earwax, candle wax • Steriods – Make up hormones like testosterone
  16. 16. Proteins • C, H, O, N • Nitrogen is not in carbs or lipids • Types: – Structural: • Muscle, hair, enzymes – Enzymes: • speed up chemical reactions
  17. 17. Amino Acids • Monomer of Proteins • 20 Different Kinds • R group is the group that makes each amino acid different
  18. 18. Peptide Means protein • Peptide bond- bond between two amino acids • Dipeptide- two amino acids linked • Polypeptide- many amino acids linked
  19. 19. Nucleic Acids • 2 types – DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in nucleus, in chromosomes, molecule of heredity – RNA (ribonucleic acid) makes proteins, ribosomes
  20. 20. Organic or Inorganic? • N3H4 • C6H12O6 • C12H22O11 • C18H42O3

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