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  1. 1. Bacteria Kingdoms Archaea & Eubacteria
  2. 2. Two Kingdoms of Bacteria <ul><li>Two Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaea (Archaebacteria)- Extreme Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eubacteria- True Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why seperated into two kingdoms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall of peptidoglycan- Eubacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall of unique lipids- Archaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different RNA base sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>React differently to antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eubacteria-susceptible Archaea- resistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why were they at once one kingdom (Monera) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar size and shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Archaebacteria Types Swamps; intestines of organisms Methanogens High Pressure Barophiles Below 15 C Psychrophiles 5-20% salt Halophiles Ph9-11 Alkophile pH 1-2 Acidophile Above 60 C Thermophile 20-45 C Mesophiles Environment Archaea Type
  4. 4. Archaebacteria
  5. 5. Archaebacteria Locations Salt Lake in Kenya- The red color of the lake is caused by halophiles Heat Vent in Yellowstone the red on the rocks is thermophiles Methanogens located in swamps & intestines of organisms
  6. 6. Evolution of Archaea Archaea diverged totally separate from other bacteria and from eukaryotes
  7. 7. Eubacteria <ul><li>Defining Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic unicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Wall of Peptidoglycan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most heterotrophic; some autotrophic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller ribosomes and circular chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placed into three main groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrphic (absorb nutrients or are saprobes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophic-photosynthetic- Cyanobacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophic-chemosynthetic </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cyanobacteria Chlorophyll is not contained in chloroplasts but rather is located in the cytoplasm
  9. 9. Eubacteria Shapes Cocci Spirilla Bacilli
  10. 10. Eubacteria Arrangement Strept Staph Diplo
  11. 11. Bacteria Structure
  12. 12. Gram Positive vs Gram Negative <ul><li>Appear Purple when stained </li></ul><ul><li>Retain the violet Gram stain </li></ul><ul><li>Thick peptidoglycan cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Some produce endospores </li></ul><ul><li>Produce exotoxins </li></ul><ul><li>Exp: Streptococcus ; Staphalococus ; Lactobacilli; Clostridium botulinum and tetani ; Mycobacterium tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Appear Pink when stained </li></ul><ul><li>Lose the violet Gram stain and pick up the pink counterstain (Safranin) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinner peptidoglycan cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Membrane outside cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Produce endotoxins </li></ul><ul><li>Exp: E. coli ; Enteric bacteria; nitrogen-fixing bacteria; chemoautotrophs; Salmonella; Neisseria gonorrhoeae </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gram Positives and Negatives
  14. 14. Bacteria Respiration <ul><li>Obligate aerobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have oxygen in order to survive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M. tuberculosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faculative anaerobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flourish in conditions without oxygen but can survive with oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obligate anaerobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are poisoned in the presence of oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clostridium tetani; Clostridium botulinum; syphilis </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Endospores <ul><li>Produced by some bacteria when in unfavorable conditions- dormant state </li></ul><ul><li>Hard outercovering that is resistant to drying out, chemicals, and boiling. </li></ul><ul><li>When encountering favorable conditions it resumes growth and reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Clostridium botulinum; C. tetani </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bacteria Reproduction <ul><li>Binary fission - asexual method in which chromosome is copied; cell grows; cell divides w/ one chromosome copy in each cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very rapid process- 20 min! </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Conjugation <ul><li>Process in which one bacterium transfers all or part of its chromosome to another cell through the pili. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other reproductive methods <ul><li>Transformation- bacteria cell takes in DNA from external environment. New DNA is substituted into the chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Transduction- Virus obtains fragment of DNA from host bacteria and when it infects another bacteria it releases the fragment into the new bacteria </li></ul>
  19. 19. Toxins <ul><li>Endotoxins- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produced by Gram negative bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not released until the bacteria is dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause fever, body aches, weakness and can damage blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exotoxins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by Gram positive bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced while bacteria is living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect nerve and muscle tissue </li></ul></ul>