SlideShare a Scribd company logo

The changing voice_of_women

1 of 8
Download to read offline
407/751         Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia
                               COMUNICACIONES
                                The changing voice of women
                                          Barry Pennock
                                     Universitat de València


          ABSTRACT
          Although changes in our verbal behaviour have affected both men and women, the
          latter have probably undergone more sweeping changes than the former. These
          changes have been remarked upon by many linguists, Lakoff (1975) and Tannen
          (1991) to mention but two. Most studies of the way women speak have centred on
          what women say rather than the way they say it (Coleman 1976, Graddol & Swann
          1983, Biemans 1998, Cameron 1998, 2000). In this paper, therefore, I would like
          to look at voice quality and they way it conveys ideas about what women may be
          like to the listener. To illustrate the way voice quality affects our perception of
          women’s personality I have focused on the voices of three famous contemporary
          American actresses.




1. INTRODUCTION
       In today's post-industrial society in which the service industries have taken over
from the traditional industries of manufacturing, the way we dress, act and, what we are
interested in here, speak, has become increasingly important, especially in the work
place (Cameron 1998, 2000). Graddol & Swann (1987: 36) put this point even more
forcefully when they say that one’s voice “… can directly affect the lives of individuals,
their job opportunities and their relationships with other people.” A corollary of this
standpoint is that what we say and the way we say it may have changed over time due to
societal pressure.
       It is my contention that one particular voice characteristic, known as creaky
voice, has become a common characteristic of the speech of young Americans, both
male and female and that the increasing use of this type of voice among women has
brought both groups closer together. In order to prove that creak is now an important
characteristic of the speech of young American females I will compare the voices of
three young actresses from the United States playing both American and British
characters to show that they deliberately manipulate voice quality to attain specific
“styling” effects.


2. ANATOMICAL CONSTRAINTS ON VOICE
       It might be thought that the sound of each individual voice is as fixed as our
fingerprints and it is true that anatomically a person’s voice is relatively stable and is
414/751        Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia
                              COMUNICACIONES
generally beyond our conscious control. An example of just how difficult it is to change
the basic characteristics of one’s voice can be found in the case of men who go through
a sex change. Although it is now possible to transform women into men and men into
women using surgery and hormone treatment, in the latter case, the original sex of the
transformee is often still evident even after speech therapy. This is because, according
to most accounts men’s fundamental frequency, and its perceptual correlate, pitch, is
considerably lower than women’s due to anatomical differences in the vocal folds and
this is very difficult to change. Differences in the size of supra-vocal tract also
differentiate men from women. Graddol & Swann (1989: 15) state that the “size of the
vocal cavities affect a voice’s timbre rather than its pitch but the two impressions are
frequently difficult for listeners to disentangle.” Pitch, like many voice characteristics,
may carry information for the listener which the speaker is unaware of. Such
information is given the name “informative” by Lyons (1979: 33) in contrast to
“communicative” which refers to the information we deliberately wish to convey.
       .


3. VOICE SETTINGS
       Among women and men there are, of course, innumerable types of voices and so
one’s biological sex is just one factor to be taken into account.. To explain these
individual differences, Abercrombie (1967) uses the term “voice settings”, that is the
muscular adjustments that we all tend to make and which characterize our voices. Voice
settings include such phenomena as pitch, creak, breathy voice, etc. In other words, our
voices give other information we might be unaware of.
       Although, as we have seen, pitch is determined by our physical size, that is, it is
informative, according to Lyons (1979), it can also be manipulated purposely in which
case it becomes communicative. For instance, Mattingly (1966: 75) found that the
differences in pitch between adult males and females are actually greater than one
would expect if only anatomical differences are taken into account while Graddol &
Swann (1983) found that although men’s size was reflected in the pitch at which they
spoke, this was not always the case with women. Men appear to stay within the lower
limits of their pitch range, which are rather more monotonous while women are more
variable in range and the differences between individual females are greater. This points
to a greater tendency for women to change intonation depending on the context and
perhaps to the fact that men deliberately restrict themselves to the lower frequencies. In
413/751          Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia
                                COMUNICACIONES
this respect, Brend (1975: 86) contends that men have three levels of pitch while women
have four, that is, women use more of their range than men. Perhaps this is because men
and women know intuitively that listeners judge speakers’ ‘masculinity’ or ‘femininity’
mainly through pitch, a fact which is made clear in Coleman (1973) and many other
studies.
         Pitch manipulation seems to start early. Mattingly (1966) found that pre-
pubescent girls actually had lower fundamental frequencies than their male peers even
though differences in size between the sexes with regards to vocal folds and vocal tract
are negligible at this stage in development. However the formants for the vowels /i/ and
/u/ were lower for boys than girls. Apparently boys round their lips, which lengthens the
vocal tract and, therefore, lowers the formants making their voices sound lower.
Mattingly (1966: 75) affirms that women have a tendency to talk and smile at the same
time, which produces the opposite effect. Evidence of lip-spreading and the concomitant
raising of pitch have also been found by Stuart-Smith (1999: 211) in the voices of
middle-class Glaswegian girls although she was loath to speculate as to whether this
was done to sound ‘feminine’.
         Ohala (1983) sees lower pitch in both humans and animals as a sign of
dominance and authority while high-pitched sounds are generally made by subordinate
members of a group. This would explain, for example, why in questions we use high
pitch at the end of an utterance. Obviously the connotations with regard to male and
female speech are clear. Graddol & Swann (1989: 34) seem to agree with Ohala (1983)
when they state that “the meanings of different voice qualities are not entirely arbitrary
or conventional”. Just like young boys women can learn to lower their pitch but doing
that and acquiring a more authoritative voice has its drawbacks (Graddol & Swann
1989: 38):


           … it seems that whilst a man can aspire to a voice quality which attracts many
           socially desirable connotations (bigness, sexually experienced, and authoritative) a
           woman will be faced with compromises. The vocal attributes which signal authority
           and competence, for example, conflict with those that signal desirable features of
           femininity and female sexuality.


         The most obvious case of a woman who deliberately changed her voice quality
to achieve a voice that conveyed more authority within politics is that of Margaret
Thatcher (Cameron 1995: 170), a move which probably contributed to her masculine
image.
414/751        Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia
                              COMUNICACIONES


4. CREAKY VOICE
       Creaky voice, which is normally low pitch, is a voice setting produced by the
vocal folds opening and closing very slowly. The frequency of creaky voice is often
irregular. It is not usually found throughout an utterance but tends to occur with falling
intonation at the end. In a way, it is an artificial method of lowering one’s fundamental
frequency and therefore one’s pitch. Moreover, individuals with a high fundamental
frequency, i.e., women, are capable of producing creaky voice just as well as men, who
generally produce utterances with a low fundamental frequency.
       Creaky voice may also depend on where one is from. It is not found in all
varieties of English but it has been identified with speakers of Received Pronunciation
[hereafter RP] (Laver 1980: 351 cited in Laver & Trudgill 1980). Creak is often
accompanied by low falling intonation, signalling completion of turn. Esling (1978:
176) discovered in Edinburgh that greater social status corresponds to a greater increase
of “creaky” phonation; lower social status, greater whisperiness and harshness.
Paralinguistically, for RP speakers, a complete utterance with creaky voice signals
“bored resignation” (Laver 1980: 126). Henton & Bladon (1988), Klatt & Klatt (1990)
and Stuart-Smith (1999) all found evidence that men in certain geographical areas have
creakier voices than women. Evidently, whether speakers in these areas acquired creaky
voice in a conscious fashion or not, it is clear that creak can be learned. Another
possible cause of creaky voice is age (Pittman 1994: 67) but in this case it is not a voice
setting which is acquired deliberately.


5. CREAKY VOICE IN YOUNG AMERICAN ACTRESSES
       During my experience as a teacher of both Spanish, British and American
students I noticed that some young American female students had noticeably creaky
voices and that all the other students of this nationality shared this trait to a certain
extent. I then noticed that creak could also be heard in the voices of young American
actresses. This prompted me to analyze this phenomena and its possible causes.
Therefore I focused on three famous Hollywood actresses in roles that embody positive
stereotypes of femininity as it was my hypothesis that if creaky voice was prevalent in
the voices of these actresses, it might mean that it was also a prestigious characteristic
of contemporary female speech. As Graddol & Swann (1989: 27) point out:
413/751          Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia
                                COMUNICACIONES
           It would be surprising if people did not use their voices to project a culturally
           desirable image. Other parts of the human body which have been endowed with
           social significance are manipulated, groomed or decorated before being presented in
           public.


          I chose: Gwyneth Paltrow, Reece Witherspoon and Renée Zellweger due to the
fact that they have played British and American characters. My hypothesis is that creak
is an important component of contemporary female speech in the United States and not
in Britain and this should be borne out if creak is not found in their portrayal of British
women.
          I looked at five films in which Gwyneth Paltrow appears: Duos and Shallow Hal
in which she plays an American and Emma, Shakespeare in Love and Sliding Doors in
which she plays a British character. In the latter three, according to most critics, she
does a very good job imitating an English accent. Although less creaky than other
actresses, creak is heard in the American films but not in the English ones.
          In the case of Renée Zellweger, I analyzed two films, Jerry Maguire and Bridget
Jones’s Diary. In the first, Zellweger’s voice is often creaky at the end of an utterance
and is sometimes breathy –especially in intimate scenes. This ties in with Gobl &
Chasaide’s (2000: 182) research results which indicate that lax-creaky voice is
associated with a high level of intimacy –even more so than breathy voice. In the British
film, in which Zellweger was praised for her imitation of an English accent, creaky
voice is also present to a much lesser extent as is breathiness –at least one reviewer
mentions this as a characteristic of Zellweger’s lapsing into Texan English. However, in
later scenes in the film the creakiness is a lot less evident.
          Finally, the Reece Witherspoon films I looked at were Legally Blonde and The
Importance of Being Earnest. Of the three actresses, Witherspoon has by far the
creakiest voice. Creak is present in many utterances in Legally Blonde but is entirely
absent in this film version of Wilde’s play. Of course, as the latter is a costume drama
set in Victorian times, the comparison between the two films is complicated by the time
factor.
          These results would seem to point to the fact that stereotypically young
American women employ creaky phonation to a greater extent than young English
women. Thus creak is a voluntary articulatory setting in the case of these three
actresses. So, desirability depends on the cultural setting –creak is desirable in America
but less so in Britain.
414/751         Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia
                               COMUNICACIONES


6. CONCLUSIONS
         The fact that creaky voice is a component of the voices of young American
actresses who act as role models to so many young women in America leads me to
conclude that it enhances their desirability. As usual, to decide whether art is imitating
life or vice-versa would be sterile and impossible to prove empirically. My guess would
be the former. I believe actresses are a product of their environment though they may
later influence the environment themselves. If I am right, why have they acquired this
feature of speech? It could be that creak is just a speech fashion which has caught on
through imitation, a way of showing indifference or a certain detachment, which has
also been a characteristic of the speech of the male members of the upper classes in
Britain for quite a long time (Laver 1980). However, one only has to listen to the voices
of British actresses from the same period to discover that creaky voice was not usually
heard in the speech of women of this class, no matter what their age.
         On the other hand, even if the reason for using creaky voice is to show a certain
indifference, that is, if women artificially lower their fundamental frequency through
creak, one result is that their speech is closer to that of men, whose voices are naturally
lower.
         In this respect it is interesting to compare creak with High Rising Terminal
(HRT) where statements receive rising intonation as this phenomena is also found more
commonly among women although the motivation for it would seem to be that if you
sound like you are asking a question, you are leaving the responsibility for what you say
to the listener (Gordon and Deverson 1999) and it could be said that a subservient role
is being accepted by the speaker.
         In the case of creak it is possible to conjecture that what is happening is that
women are converging with men as far as pitch is concerned, possibly in an attempt to
be like them. As women are becoming more and more integrated in the workplace and
are sharing more and more roles with men, it is conceivable that convergence in this
area is a positive step for them. Butler’s (1990, 1993) concept of gender as being
performative would fit in with this viewpoint in that taking on a different voice quality
seems to prove that a favourable gender image is constructed rather than given.
         From a pragmatic point of view further research is needed to ascertain whether
creak in the speech of young American females depends on context although from a
preliminary analysis of the speech of the protagonist in Legally Blonde, it is found in

Recommended

P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0
P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0
P2BK 6 presentation vol. 2.0Yousef Aldaour
 
Urban Tree Forge
Urban Tree ForgeUrban Tree Forge
Urban Tree ForgeJoey Cordes
 
Reading and studying
Reading and studyingReading and studying
Reading and studyingdrmccreedy
 
Storify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalism
Storify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalismStorify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalism
Storify and rebelmouse as curation tools in journalismIvan Lajara
 

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

My family tkachyov leonid 5_v_murmansk_7
My family tkachyov leonid 5_v_murmansk_7My family tkachyov leonid 5_v_murmansk_7
My family tkachyov leonid 5_v_murmansk_7Lilia Ayatskova
 
Presentazione Training Meta
Presentazione Training MetaPresentazione Training Meta
Presentazione Training MetaTrainingmeta
 
Esol day of action
Esol day of actionEsol day of action
Esol day of actionElaineMW
 
Digital initiatives
Digital initiativesDigital initiatives
Digital initiativesIvan Lajara
 
My usual day молчанова диана 5б класс гимназия 196 г.санкт петербург учитель ...
My usual day молчанова диана 5б класс гимназия 196 г.санкт петербург учитель ...My usual day молчанова диана 5б класс гимназия 196 г.санкт петербург учитель ...
My usual day молчанова диана 5б класс гимназия 196 г.санкт петербург учитель ...Lilia Ayatskova
 
Sand Sculpture - Proposal
Sand Sculpture - ProposalSand Sculpture - Proposal
Sand Sculpture - ProposalYousef Aldaour
 
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...University of Valencia
 
Keys to managing test anxiety
Keys to managing test anxietyKeys to managing test anxiety
Keys to managing test anxietydrmccreedy
 
The Elements of Influence Presentation
The Elements of Influence PresentationThe Elements of Influence Presentation
The Elements of Influence PresentationJesse Davis
 
Welcometo college
Welcometo collegeWelcometo college
Welcometo collegedrmccreedy
 
Creativu Cebit Crs4
Creativu Cebit Crs4Creativu Cebit Crs4
Creativu Cebit Crs4mauromereu
 
[고시]시공감리 현장참여자 업무지침서_개정_전문(최종)
[고시]시공감리 현장참여자 업무지침서_개정_전문(최종)[고시]시공감리 현장참여자 업무지침서_개정_전문(최종)
[고시]시공감리 현장참여자 업무지침서_개정_전문(최종)보훈 현
 
[고시]건설공사 감리보고서 작성지침 개정 전문(최종)
[고시]건설공사 감리보고서 작성지침 개정 전문(최종)[고시]건설공사 감리보고서 작성지침 개정 전문(최종)
[고시]건설공사 감리보고서 작성지침 개정 전문(최종)보훈 현
 

Viewers also liked (20)

My family tkachyov leonid 5_v_murmansk_7
My family tkachyov leonid 5_v_murmansk_7My family tkachyov leonid 5_v_murmansk_7
My family tkachyov leonid 5_v_murmansk_7
 
Chore keynote
Chore keynoteChore keynote
Chore keynote
 
Genre approach to_goals_tv
Genre approach to_goals_tvGenre approach to_goals_tv
Genre approach to_goals_tv
 
Presentazione Training Meta
Presentazione Training MetaPresentazione Training Meta
Presentazione Training Meta
 
Esol day of action
Esol day of actionEsol day of action
Esol day of action
 
Digital initiatives
Digital initiativesDigital initiatives
Digital initiatives
 
My usual day молчанова диана 5б класс гимназия 196 г.санкт петербург учитель ...
My usual day молчанова диана 5б класс гимназия 196 г.санкт петербург учитель ...My usual day молчанова диана 5б класс гимназия 196 г.санкт петербург учитель ...
My usual day молчанова диана 5б класс гимназия 196 г.санкт петербург учитель ...
 
La carne
La carneLa carne
La carne
 
Sand Sculpture - Proposal
Sand Sculpture - ProposalSand Sculpture - Proposal
Sand Sculpture - Proposal
 
Voice overs english_spanish
Voice overs english_spanishVoice overs english_spanish
Voice overs english_spanish
 
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...
Analysing Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration...
 
Mobile future in_focus
Mobile future in_focusMobile future in_focus
Mobile future in_focus
 
Keys to managing test anxiety
Keys to managing test anxietyKeys to managing test anxiety
Keys to managing test anxiety
 
The Elements of Influence Presentation
The Elements of Influence PresentationThe Elements of Influence Presentation
The Elements of Influence Presentation
 
Welcometo college
Welcometo collegeWelcometo college
Welcometo college
 
Creativu Cebit Crs4
Creativu Cebit Crs4Creativu Cebit Crs4
Creativu Cebit Crs4
 
My Native Town
My Native TownMy Native Town
My Native Town
 
[고시]시공감리 현장참여자 업무지침서_개정_전문(최종)
[고시]시공감리 현장참여자 업무지침서_개정_전문(최종)[고시]시공감리 현장참여자 업무지침서_개정_전문(최종)
[고시]시공감리 현장참여자 업무지침서_개정_전문(최종)
 
[고시]건설공사 감리보고서 작성지침 개정 전문(최종)
[고시]건설공사 감리보고서 작성지침 개정 전문(최종)[고시]건설공사 감리보고서 작성지침 개정 전문(최종)
[고시]건설공사 감리보고서 작성지침 개정 전문(최종)
 
Our school
Our schoolOur school
Our school
 

Similar to The changing voice_of_women

Physics of an Effective Public Speaker
Physics of an Effective Public SpeakerPhysics of an Effective Public Speaker
Physics of an Effective Public SpeakerJohn Scrugham
 
Compare Jitter, Shimmer And Harmonics To Noise Ratio In...
Compare Jitter, Shimmer And Harmonics To Noise Ratio In...Compare Jitter, Shimmer And Harmonics To Noise Ratio In...
Compare Jitter, Shimmer And Harmonics To Noise Ratio In...Ashley Jean
 
The, The Fundamental Way Of Communication
The, The Fundamental Way Of CommunicationThe, The Fundamental Way Of Communication
The, The Fundamental Way Of CommunicationKristin Oliver
 
Communication Changes For Healthy Ageing And Effective...
Communication Changes For Healthy Ageing And Effective...Communication Changes For Healthy Ageing And Effective...
Communication Changes For Healthy Ageing And Effective...Jessica Briggs
 
How Social History Has Given Voice Of The Voiceless
How Social History Has Given Voice Of The VoicelessHow Social History Has Given Voice Of The Voiceless
How Social History Has Given Voice Of The VoicelessLucy Nader
 
Social Variation Of American English
Social Variation Of American EnglishSocial Variation Of American English
Social Variation Of American EnglishJill Lyons
 
Cricothyroid Stereotypes
Cricothyroid StereotypesCricothyroid Stereotypes
Cricothyroid StereotypesJennifer Mower
 
A.primate communication
A.primate communicationA.primate communication
A.primate communicationRoya Shariati
 
Rules for Ritual Insults
Rules for Ritual InsultsRules for Ritual Insults
Rules for Ritual InsultsAdonis Enricuso
 
Handschrift Schriftart Neat Handwriting, Learn Handwri
Handschrift Schriftart Neat Handwriting, Learn HandwriHandschrift Schriftart Neat Handwriting, Learn Handwri
Handschrift Schriftart Neat Handwriting, Learn HandwriSamantha Martinez
 
Lang & gender culture influence
Lang & gender   culture influenceLang & gender   culture influence
Lang & gender culture influencegwenyvonne
 
Language and Gender
Language and GenderLanguage and Gender
Language and GenderLaiba Yaseen
 
Waterstreet The Gin Game Analysis
Waterstreet The Gin Game AnalysisWaterstreet The Gin Game Analysis
Waterstreet The Gin Game AnalysisMichelle Davis
 
Example Of Syntactical Ambiguity
Example Of Syntactical AmbiguityExample Of Syntactical Ambiguity
Example Of Syntactical AmbiguityAnn Johnson
 
Bytheway_Sexist_language_20090604
Bytheway_Sexist_language_20090604Bytheway_Sexist_language_20090604
Bytheway_Sexist_language_20090604Otago Polytechnic
 
sexism in language
sexism in languagesexism in language
sexism in languagebryanPagoada
 
Language Change Part 3: UK Studies
Language Change Part 3: UK StudiesLanguage Change Part 3: UK Studies
Language Change Part 3: UK Studiessuasenglish
 

Similar to The changing voice_of_women (20)

Physics of an Effective Public Speaker
Physics of an Effective Public SpeakerPhysics of an Effective Public Speaker
Physics of an Effective Public Speaker
 
Compare Jitter, Shimmer And Harmonics To Noise Ratio In...
Compare Jitter, Shimmer And Harmonics To Noise Ratio In...Compare Jitter, Shimmer And Harmonics To Noise Ratio In...
Compare Jitter, Shimmer And Harmonics To Noise Ratio In...
 
The, The Fundamental Way Of Communication
The, The Fundamental Way Of CommunicationThe, The Fundamental Way Of Communication
The, The Fundamental Way Of Communication
 
Communication Changes For Healthy Ageing And Effective...
Communication Changes For Healthy Ageing And Effective...Communication Changes For Healthy Ageing And Effective...
Communication Changes For Healthy Ageing And Effective...
 
How Social History Has Given Voice Of The Voiceless
How Social History Has Given Voice Of The VoicelessHow Social History Has Given Voice Of The Voiceless
How Social History Has Given Voice Of The Voiceless
 
Social Variation Of American English
Social Variation Of American EnglishSocial Variation Of American English
Social Variation Of American English
 
Cricothyroid Stereotypes
Cricothyroid StereotypesCricothyroid Stereotypes
Cricothyroid Stereotypes
 
A.primate communication
A.primate communicationA.primate communication
A.primate communication
 
Rules for Ritual Insults
Rules for Ritual InsultsRules for Ritual Insults
Rules for Ritual Insults
 
Handschrift Schriftart Neat Handwriting, Learn Handwri
Handschrift Schriftart Neat Handwriting, Learn HandwriHandschrift Schriftart Neat Handwriting, Learn Handwri
Handschrift Schriftart Neat Handwriting, Learn Handwri
 
Lang & gender culture influence
Lang & gender   culture influenceLang & gender   culture influence
Lang & gender culture influence
 
Language and Gender
Language and GenderLanguage and Gender
Language and Gender
 
Waterstreet The Gin Game Analysis
Waterstreet The Gin Game AnalysisWaterstreet The Gin Game Analysis
Waterstreet The Gin Game Analysis
 
Example Of Syntactical Ambiguity
Example Of Syntactical AmbiguityExample Of Syntactical Ambiguity
Example Of Syntactical Ambiguity
 
Together
TogetherTogether
Together
 
Stuttering its natureandmanagement
Stuttering its natureandmanagementStuttering its natureandmanagement
Stuttering its natureandmanagement
 
Bytheway_Sexist_language_20090604
Bytheway_Sexist_language_20090604Bytheway_Sexist_language_20090604
Bytheway_Sexist_language_20090604
 
The voice
The voiceThe voice
The voice
 
sexism in language
sexism in languagesexism in language
sexism in language
 
Language Change Part 3: UK Studies
Language Change Part 3: UK StudiesLanguage Change Part 3: UK Studies
Language Change Part 3: UK Studies
 

Recently uploaded

UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUSC_Library
 
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfEDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfElizabeth Walsh
 
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptx
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptxRoutes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptx
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptxRenuka N Sunagad
 
Grades 7 to 8 Anti- OSAEC and CSAEM session.pptx
Grades 7 to 8 Anti- OSAEC and CSAEM session.pptxGrades 7 to 8 Anti- OSAEC and CSAEM session.pptx
Grades 7 to 8 Anti- OSAEC and CSAEM session.pptxGladysValencia13
 
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfWriting Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdf
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdfA LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdf
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdfDr.M.Geethavani
 
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasFood Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasAlexandraSwartzwelde
 
Persuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of PersuasionPersuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of PersuasionCorinne Weisgerber
 
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...EduSkills OECD
 
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
Creative, Technical, and Academic Writing
Creative, Technical, and Academic WritingCreative, Technical, and Academic Writing
Creative, Technical, and Academic WritingMYDA ANGELICA SUAN
 
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAYSOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAYGloriaRamos83
 
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUSC_Library
 
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...Rabiya Husain
 
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptxOdontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptxMennat Allah Alkaram
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdfAynouraHamidova
 

Recently uploaded (20)

UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
 
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfEDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
 
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptx
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptxRoutes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptx
Routes of Drug Administrations PPT..pptx
 
Grades 7 to 8 Anti- OSAEC and CSAEM session.pptx
Grades 7 to 8 Anti- OSAEC and CSAEM session.pptxGrades 7 to 8 Anti- OSAEC and CSAEM session.pptx
Grades 7 to 8 Anti- OSAEC and CSAEM session.pptx
 
first section physiology laboratory.pptx
first section physiology laboratory.pptxfirst section physiology laboratory.pptx
first section physiology laboratory.pptx
 
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfWriting Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
 
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdf
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdfA LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdf
A LABORATORY MANUAL FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.pdf
 
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future- Wheat, Rice...
 
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasFood Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
 
Persuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of PersuasionPersuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
 
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
 
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
 
Lipids as Biopolymer
Lipids as Biopolymer Lipids as Biopolymer
Lipids as Biopolymer
 
Creative, Technical, and Academic Writing
Creative, Technical, and Academic WritingCreative, Technical, and Academic Writing
Creative, Technical, and Academic Writing
 
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
 
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAYSOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
 
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
 
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
 
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptxOdontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
 

The changing voice_of_women

  • 1. 407/751 Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia COMUNICACIONES The changing voice of women Barry Pennock Universitat de València ABSTRACT Although changes in our verbal behaviour have affected both men and women, the latter have probably undergone more sweeping changes than the former. These changes have been remarked upon by many linguists, Lakoff (1975) and Tannen (1991) to mention but two. Most studies of the way women speak have centred on what women say rather than the way they say it (Coleman 1976, Graddol & Swann 1983, Biemans 1998, Cameron 1998, 2000). In this paper, therefore, I would like to look at voice quality and they way it conveys ideas about what women may be like to the listener. To illustrate the way voice quality affects our perception of women’s personality I have focused on the voices of three famous contemporary American actresses. 1. INTRODUCTION In today's post-industrial society in which the service industries have taken over from the traditional industries of manufacturing, the way we dress, act and, what we are interested in here, speak, has become increasingly important, especially in the work place (Cameron 1998, 2000). Graddol & Swann (1987: 36) put this point even more forcefully when they say that one’s voice “… can directly affect the lives of individuals, their job opportunities and their relationships with other people.” A corollary of this standpoint is that what we say and the way we say it may have changed over time due to societal pressure. It is my contention that one particular voice characteristic, known as creaky voice, has become a common characteristic of the speech of young Americans, both male and female and that the increasing use of this type of voice among women has brought both groups closer together. In order to prove that creak is now an important characteristic of the speech of young American females I will compare the voices of three young actresses from the United States playing both American and British characters to show that they deliberately manipulate voice quality to attain specific “styling” effects. 2. ANATOMICAL CONSTRAINTS ON VOICE It might be thought that the sound of each individual voice is as fixed as our fingerprints and it is true that anatomically a person’s voice is relatively stable and is
  • 2. 414/751 Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia COMUNICACIONES generally beyond our conscious control. An example of just how difficult it is to change the basic characteristics of one’s voice can be found in the case of men who go through a sex change. Although it is now possible to transform women into men and men into women using surgery and hormone treatment, in the latter case, the original sex of the transformee is often still evident even after speech therapy. This is because, according to most accounts men’s fundamental frequency, and its perceptual correlate, pitch, is considerably lower than women’s due to anatomical differences in the vocal folds and this is very difficult to change. Differences in the size of supra-vocal tract also differentiate men from women. Graddol & Swann (1989: 15) state that the “size of the vocal cavities affect a voice’s timbre rather than its pitch but the two impressions are frequently difficult for listeners to disentangle.” Pitch, like many voice characteristics, may carry information for the listener which the speaker is unaware of. Such information is given the name “informative” by Lyons (1979: 33) in contrast to “communicative” which refers to the information we deliberately wish to convey. . 3. VOICE SETTINGS Among women and men there are, of course, innumerable types of voices and so one’s biological sex is just one factor to be taken into account.. To explain these individual differences, Abercrombie (1967) uses the term “voice settings”, that is the muscular adjustments that we all tend to make and which characterize our voices. Voice settings include such phenomena as pitch, creak, breathy voice, etc. In other words, our voices give other information we might be unaware of. Although, as we have seen, pitch is determined by our physical size, that is, it is informative, according to Lyons (1979), it can also be manipulated purposely in which case it becomes communicative. For instance, Mattingly (1966: 75) found that the differences in pitch between adult males and females are actually greater than one would expect if only anatomical differences are taken into account while Graddol & Swann (1983) found that although men’s size was reflected in the pitch at which they spoke, this was not always the case with women. Men appear to stay within the lower limits of their pitch range, which are rather more monotonous while women are more variable in range and the differences between individual females are greater. This points to a greater tendency for women to change intonation depending on the context and perhaps to the fact that men deliberately restrict themselves to the lower frequencies. In
  • 3. 413/751 Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia COMUNICACIONES this respect, Brend (1975: 86) contends that men have three levels of pitch while women have four, that is, women use more of their range than men. Perhaps this is because men and women know intuitively that listeners judge speakers’ ‘masculinity’ or ‘femininity’ mainly through pitch, a fact which is made clear in Coleman (1973) and many other studies. Pitch manipulation seems to start early. Mattingly (1966) found that pre- pubescent girls actually had lower fundamental frequencies than their male peers even though differences in size between the sexes with regards to vocal folds and vocal tract are negligible at this stage in development. However the formants for the vowels /i/ and /u/ were lower for boys than girls. Apparently boys round their lips, which lengthens the vocal tract and, therefore, lowers the formants making their voices sound lower. Mattingly (1966: 75) affirms that women have a tendency to talk and smile at the same time, which produces the opposite effect. Evidence of lip-spreading and the concomitant raising of pitch have also been found by Stuart-Smith (1999: 211) in the voices of middle-class Glaswegian girls although she was loath to speculate as to whether this was done to sound ‘feminine’. Ohala (1983) sees lower pitch in both humans and animals as a sign of dominance and authority while high-pitched sounds are generally made by subordinate members of a group. This would explain, for example, why in questions we use high pitch at the end of an utterance. Obviously the connotations with regard to male and female speech are clear. Graddol & Swann (1989: 34) seem to agree with Ohala (1983) when they state that “the meanings of different voice qualities are not entirely arbitrary or conventional”. Just like young boys women can learn to lower their pitch but doing that and acquiring a more authoritative voice has its drawbacks (Graddol & Swann 1989: 38): … it seems that whilst a man can aspire to a voice quality which attracts many socially desirable connotations (bigness, sexually experienced, and authoritative) a woman will be faced with compromises. The vocal attributes which signal authority and competence, for example, conflict with those that signal desirable features of femininity and female sexuality. The most obvious case of a woman who deliberately changed her voice quality to achieve a voice that conveyed more authority within politics is that of Margaret Thatcher (Cameron 1995: 170), a move which probably contributed to her masculine image.
  • 4. 414/751 Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia COMUNICACIONES 4. CREAKY VOICE Creaky voice, which is normally low pitch, is a voice setting produced by the vocal folds opening and closing very slowly. The frequency of creaky voice is often irregular. It is not usually found throughout an utterance but tends to occur with falling intonation at the end. In a way, it is an artificial method of lowering one’s fundamental frequency and therefore one’s pitch. Moreover, individuals with a high fundamental frequency, i.e., women, are capable of producing creaky voice just as well as men, who generally produce utterances with a low fundamental frequency. Creaky voice may also depend on where one is from. It is not found in all varieties of English but it has been identified with speakers of Received Pronunciation [hereafter RP] (Laver 1980: 351 cited in Laver & Trudgill 1980). Creak is often accompanied by low falling intonation, signalling completion of turn. Esling (1978: 176) discovered in Edinburgh that greater social status corresponds to a greater increase of “creaky” phonation; lower social status, greater whisperiness and harshness. Paralinguistically, for RP speakers, a complete utterance with creaky voice signals “bored resignation” (Laver 1980: 126). Henton & Bladon (1988), Klatt & Klatt (1990) and Stuart-Smith (1999) all found evidence that men in certain geographical areas have creakier voices than women. Evidently, whether speakers in these areas acquired creaky voice in a conscious fashion or not, it is clear that creak can be learned. Another possible cause of creaky voice is age (Pittman 1994: 67) but in this case it is not a voice setting which is acquired deliberately. 5. CREAKY VOICE IN YOUNG AMERICAN ACTRESSES During my experience as a teacher of both Spanish, British and American students I noticed that some young American female students had noticeably creaky voices and that all the other students of this nationality shared this trait to a certain extent. I then noticed that creak could also be heard in the voices of young American actresses. This prompted me to analyze this phenomena and its possible causes. Therefore I focused on three famous Hollywood actresses in roles that embody positive stereotypes of femininity as it was my hypothesis that if creaky voice was prevalent in the voices of these actresses, it might mean that it was also a prestigious characteristic of contemporary female speech. As Graddol & Swann (1989: 27) point out:
  • 5. 413/751 Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia COMUNICACIONES It would be surprising if people did not use their voices to project a culturally desirable image. Other parts of the human body which have been endowed with social significance are manipulated, groomed or decorated before being presented in public. I chose: Gwyneth Paltrow, Reece Witherspoon and Renée Zellweger due to the fact that they have played British and American characters. My hypothesis is that creak is an important component of contemporary female speech in the United States and not in Britain and this should be borne out if creak is not found in their portrayal of British women. I looked at five films in which Gwyneth Paltrow appears: Duos and Shallow Hal in which she plays an American and Emma, Shakespeare in Love and Sliding Doors in which she plays a British character. In the latter three, according to most critics, she does a very good job imitating an English accent. Although less creaky than other actresses, creak is heard in the American films but not in the English ones. In the case of Renée Zellweger, I analyzed two films, Jerry Maguire and Bridget Jones’s Diary. In the first, Zellweger’s voice is often creaky at the end of an utterance and is sometimes breathy –especially in intimate scenes. This ties in with Gobl & Chasaide’s (2000: 182) research results which indicate that lax-creaky voice is associated with a high level of intimacy –even more so than breathy voice. In the British film, in which Zellweger was praised for her imitation of an English accent, creaky voice is also present to a much lesser extent as is breathiness –at least one reviewer mentions this as a characteristic of Zellweger’s lapsing into Texan English. However, in later scenes in the film the creakiness is a lot less evident. Finally, the Reece Witherspoon films I looked at were Legally Blonde and The Importance of Being Earnest. Of the three actresses, Witherspoon has by far the creakiest voice. Creak is present in many utterances in Legally Blonde but is entirely absent in this film version of Wilde’s play. Of course, as the latter is a costume drama set in Victorian times, the comparison between the two films is complicated by the time factor. These results would seem to point to the fact that stereotypically young American women employ creaky phonation to a greater extent than young English women. Thus creak is a voluntary articulatory setting in the case of these three actresses. So, desirability depends on the cultural setting –creak is desirable in America but less so in Britain.
  • 6. 414/751 Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia COMUNICACIONES 6. CONCLUSIONS The fact that creaky voice is a component of the voices of young American actresses who act as role models to so many young women in America leads me to conclude that it enhances their desirability. As usual, to decide whether art is imitating life or vice-versa would be sterile and impossible to prove empirically. My guess would be the former. I believe actresses are a product of their environment though they may later influence the environment themselves. If I am right, why have they acquired this feature of speech? It could be that creak is just a speech fashion which has caught on through imitation, a way of showing indifference or a certain detachment, which has also been a characteristic of the speech of the male members of the upper classes in Britain for quite a long time (Laver 1980). However, one only has to listen to the voices of British actresses from the same period to discover that creaky voice was not usually heard in the speech of women of this class, no matter what their age. On the other hand, even if the reason for using creaky voice is to show a certain indifference, that is, if women artificially lower their fundamental frequency through creak, one result is that their speech is closer to that of men, whose voices are naturally lower. In this respect it is interesting to compare creak with High Rising Terminal (HRT) where statements receive rising intonation as this phenomena is also found more commonly among women although the motivation for it would seem to be that if you sound like you are asking a question, you are leaving the responsibility for what you say to the listener (Gordon and Deverson 1999) and it could be said that a subservient role is being accepted by the speaker. In the case of creak it is possible to conjecture that what is happening is that women are converging with men as far as pitch is concerned, possibly in an attempt to be like them. As women are becoming more and more integrated in the workplace and are sharing more and more roles with men, it is conceivable that convergence in this area is a positive step for them. Butler’s (1990, 1993) concept of gender as being performative would fit in with this viewpoint in that taking on a different voice quality seems to prove that a favourable gender image is constructed rather than given. From a pragmatic point of view further research is needed to ascertain whether creak in the speech of young American females depends on context although from a preliminary analysis of the speech of the protagonist in Legally Blonde, it is found in
  • 7. 413/751 Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia COMUNICACIONES scenes involving intimacy and those in which the characters seem to be in control of the situation, or at least wish to be seen as being in control, a trait which would be very useful for women wanting to fit into what is still a man’s world. Not all young women in the English speaking world have adopted creaky voice –in Australia and other regions HRT is also prevalent– but this may be because different societies move at different speeds and new dialectal characteristics take time to spread. Only time will tell whether gender convergence with regard to pitch will spread to other parts of the world or whether creak in women’s voices is simply a passing linguistic fancy. 7. REFERENCES Abercrombie, D. 1967: Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Addington, D. W. 1971: “The effect of vocal variations on ratings of source credibility”. Speech Monographs, 28, 242-247. Butler, J. 1990: Gender Trouble. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London and New York: Routledge. ---------- 1993: Bodies that Matter. On the Discursive Limits of "Sex". London and New York: Routledge. Brend, R. M. 1975: “Male-female Intonation Patterns in American English”. Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance. Eds. Thorne Henley & Nancy Henley. Rowley Mass. Newbury House. 84-87. Cameron, D. 1985 Feminism and Linguistic Theory. London: Macmillan. ---------- 1995: Verbal Hygiene. London: Routledge. ---------- 2000: Good to Talk. London: Sage. Coleman, R. O. 1973: “A Comparison of the Contributions of Two Vocal Characteristics to the Perception of Maleness and Femaleness in the Voice”. STL- QPSR, 2-3: 13-22. Esling, J. K. 1978: Voice Quality in Edinburgh: a Sociolinguistic and Phonetic Study. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. Gobl, C. & A. Ní Chasaide 2000: “Testing Affective Correlates of Voice Quality Through Analysis and Resynthesis”. Proceedings of the ISCA Workshop on Speech and Emotion: A Conceptual Framework for Research. Eds. R. Cowie, E. Douglas-Cowie & M. Schröder. Belfast: Queen's University. 178-183.
  • 8. 414/751 Actas XXVIII Congreso Internacional AEDEAN. Valencia COMUNICACIONES Gordon, E. & T. Deverson 1998: New Zealand English and English in New Zealand, Malaysia, New House Publishers Ltd. Graddol, D. & J. Swann 1989: Gender Voices. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Henton, C. G. & R. A. W. Bladon 1985: “Breathiness in Normal Female Speech: Inefficiency Versus Desirability”. Language and Communication, 5: 221-227. Klatt, D. H. and L. C. Klatt 1990: “Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Voice Quality Variations Among Female and Male Talkers”. JASA, 87(2): 820-857. Laver, J. 1980: The Phonetic Description of Voice Quality. Cambridge: C.U.P Laver, J. & P. Trudgill 1979: “Phonetic and Linguistic Markers in Speech”. Social Markers in Speech. Eds. K. R. Scherer & H. Giles. Cambridge: C.U.P. 1-32. Lyons, J. 1977: Semantics. 2 volumes. Cambridge: C.U.P. Mattingly, I. 1966: “Speaker Variation and Vocal Tract Size”. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 39, 1219. Ohala, J. 1983: “Cross-language Use of Pitch: an Ethological View”. Phonetica, 40, 1- 18. Pittman, J. 1994: Voice in Social Interaction: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Sage Publications. London, New Delhi. Stuart-Smith, J. 1999: “Glasgow: Accent and Voice Quality”. Urban voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. Eds. P. Foulkes & G. Doherty. London: Edward Arnold. 201-22.