CHANGE MANAGEMENT- Framework
1. Understanding the Change Process- Toffler’s view and
2. What factors are causing these changes?
3. Why is there resistance to Change?
4. How can the resistance be minimized?
5. Planning Organizational Change
6. Change - a challenge to Organisational Leadership
A. Alvin Toffler’s Analysis
1. The fact of change
2. Geometrical instead of Arithmetical change
3. Speed of travel
4. Publishing of books
5. The 1 million mile club
6. The ‘throw away’ culture
7. Mega Cities
8. Energy Consumption
B. Naisbith’s Mega Trends
1. Agriculture- Industry-Tertiary
2. Villages- towns-cities- mega-cities
4. Nationalization-Liberalization- Privatization-Globalization
5. Tall organizations to Flat organizations
6. Elimination of manual work,clerical work and middle management
work through automation, computerization
7. Managing without Management
Man’s existence estimated to be about 50,000 years old
Can be broken up into Lifetimes of 62 years each
Out of the 800 lifetimes, 650 lifetimes have been spent in caves
We are in the 800th
lifetime which is the most significant one and there
has been a major break with the past in terms of :
(a) Agriculture has ceased to be the major basis of civilization as less
than 6% of people in the USA are on the land and are feeding 200m
Americans and and 160m others. In
other progressive countries only 15% are engaged in agriculture.
1850- 4 cities with a population of 1m
(c ) Energy consumption- 18 centuries after Christ- one- half Q( 33m
tons of coal) per century. By 1850 rose to 1Q per century and today
it is 10Q per century.Means that half the energy consumed in the last
2000 years by man has been consumed in the last 100 years
(d) Speed of Transportation
6000 b.c. – camel caravan- 8 m.p.h.
1600 b.c. - chariot - 20 m.p.h.
1784 a.d. - mail coach - 10 m.p.h.
1825 a.d. - steam loco - 13 m.p.h.
1880 a.d. - steam loco(a)- 100 m.p.h.
1938 a.d. - aeroplane - 400 m.p.h.
1960 a.d. - rocket plane - 4000 m.p.h.
60s - satellite - 16000 m.p.h.
Prior to 1500 – 1000 titles per year(100 years for 100,000 titles)
1950- 120000 titles per year
1960- century’s work in seven and a half months
1965 – 1000 titles per day
CHANGE MANAGEMENT- Exercise
1. Write down 10 things which have changed
2. Write down 5 things which have not changed
3. Write down 10 points as to what are the factors that is causing this
4. Write down 10 points as to why there is resistance to change?
5. Write down 10 points as to how to reduce resistance to change?
Stages in the Change Process
4. Information Collection
6. Action Proposal
Context of the CHANGE
LEWIN’S CHANGE MODEL
The process of Change involves three steps
Unfreezing:Managers must create a need for change
(a) Establishing a good relationship with the people involved
(b) Helping people realize the present behaviour is ineffective
(c) Minimizing the resistance to change
Changing: Managers must implement the change by
(a) Identification of more effective behaviour
(b) Choosing appropriate changes in tasks, culture, technology and
(c) Taking action
Refreezing: Managers must stabilize the change by
(a) Creating acceptance and continuity for the new behaviour
(b) Providing support
(c) Using performance- contingent rewards and positive reinforcement
General principles of managing CHANGE
1. An environment of trust and shared commitment
2. Full and genuine participation of all employees concerned
3. Team spirit and willingness to accept change
4. Incentive schemes to motivate or fair distribution of savings
5. A socio-technical approach in work organization to satisfy
individual and organizational needs
6. Careful attention to work design,relationships,job contents and
MANAGER VS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER
1. Establishing a sense of urgency
2. Forming a powerful guiding coalition
3. Creating a vision
4. Communicating the vision
5. Empowering others to act on the vision
6. Planning for and creating short-term wins
7. Consolidating improvements and producing still more change
Change Management- A Model for Organizational Change
What is to be Changed?
Unfreeze Move Refreeze
Survival Rates of U.S. Corporations
Age in Years % Surviving to % Not Surviving
this year this year
5 38 62
10 21 79
15 14 86
20 10 90
25 7 93
50 2 98
75 1 99
100 0.5 99.5
100 plus 0 100
EFFECTIVE CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Creating readiness for change
Overcoming resistance to change
Creating a vision
Developing Political Support
Assessing change agent power
Identifying key stake holders
Managing the Transition
Providing resources for change
Building a support system for change agents
Developing new competencies and skills
Reinforcing new behaviours