Mespotamia the first civilization

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Mespotamia the first civilization

  1. 1. MESOPOTAMIA THE FERTILE CRESCENT
  2. 2. How Does a Civilization Develop? <ul><li>1) Advanced Cities - center of trade for a larger area than just itself </li></ul><ul><li>2) Specialized Workers </li></ul><ul><li>food surplus allowed for specialization </li></ul><ul><li>artisans- skilled workers who make goods by hand. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Complex Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. government, religion, and the economy </li></ul><ul><li>religious temples served as the government, religious, and economic center </li></ul><ul><li>(problems with something like this in America?) </li></ul><ul><li>4) Record Keeping </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. collecting taxes, passage of laws, when religious services occur </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian scribes came up with cuneiform (wedge-shaped) beginning of written history. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Improved Technology </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE FERTILE CRESCENT <ul><li>BY ABOUT 4000 B.C PEOPLE BEGAN TO SETTLE IN A REGION CALLED THE FERTILE CRESENT </li></ul><ul><li>TWO RIVERS FORMED A FERTILE AREA ALSO CALLED MESOPOTAMIA </li></ul><ul><li>MESOPOTAMIA MEANS “THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS” </li></ul><ul><li>THE 2 RIVERS ARE THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES </li></ul><ul><li>THE MODERN COUNTRY OF IRAQ IS LOCATED IN THIS REGION </li></ul>
  4. 4. MSEOPOTAMIA FROM SPACE
  5. 5. The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area The Middle East: “The Cradle of Civilization”
  6. 7. TWO RIVERS <ul><li>THE TIGRIS RIVER IS TO THE NORTH </li></ul><ul><li>THE EUPHRATES RIVER IS TO THE SOUTH </li></ul><ul><li>THE RIVER’S SOURCE IS IN THE TAURUS MTS. </li></ul><ul><li>THE RIVERS EMPTY INTO THE PERSIAN GULF </li></ul><ul><li>THEY FLOW TO THE SOUTHEAST </li></ul>
  7. 8. FLOODS <ul><li>THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVERS WOULD FLOOD EVERY YEAR. </li></ul><ul><li>THE FLOODWATERS LEFT BEHIND SOIL FOR THE FARMERS TO PLANT CROPS IN. </li></ul><ul><li>THIS SOIL IS CALLED SILT </li></ul><ul><li>FLOODS COULD ALSO WASH AWAY CROPS AND EVEN WHOLE VILLAGES ! </li></ul>
  8. 9. IRRIGATION <ul><li>IRRIGATION WAS USED TO CONTROL THE FLOW OF WATER FOR FARMING . </li></ul><ul><li>FARMERS NEEDED TO CONTROL THE FLOODING RIVERS </li></ul><ul><li>THEY ALSO NEEDED TO SUPPLY THEIR CROPS WITH WATER DURING THE DRY GROWING SEASON </li></ul><ul><li>IRRIGATION METHODS USED WERE: DIKES, CANALS, GATES, AND ARTIFICIAL LAKES </li></ul>
  9. 10. IRRGATION CANALS
  10. 11. PLOW
  11. 13. AGRICULTURE <ul><li>THE MOST IMPORTANT CROPS WERE WHEAT AND BARLEY </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER CROPS INCLUDED: BEANS, ONIONS, LETTUCE , DATE PALMS , AND APPLES. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>CROPS WERE PLANTED ALONG CANAL BANKS </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMALS RAISED OR DOMESTICATED INCLUDED SHEEP , CATTLE , AND GOATS </li></ul><ul><li>CATTLE WERE USED FOR MILK , LEATHER , AND MEAT. </li></ul><ul><li>SPRING WAS THE HARVEST TIME </li></ul>
  13. 15. THE FIRST CITIES <ul><li>FARMERS WERE SOON ABLE TO PRODUCE A SURPLUS OF FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>THIS ALLOWED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES </li></ul><ul><li>A GOVERNMENT IS AN ORGANIZED SYSTEM WHERE A GROUP MAKES LAWS AND DECISIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MOST CITIES FIRST DEVELOPED IN THE REGION OF SUMER </li></ul><ul><li>EACH CITY STATE WAS SELF-GOVERNING, SO IT WAS CALLED A CITY-STATE </li></ul>
  14. 16. SUMER <ul><li>THE CITY-STATES IN SUMER HAD A MONARCHY STYLE OF GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>IN A MONARCHY, ONE PERSON HAS THE POWER </li></ul><ul><li>EACH CITY ALSO HAD A ZIGGURAT, A TEMPLE WITH A BUILDING AT ITS PEAK </li></ul><ul><li>THE SUMERIANS BELIEVED IN MANY GODS </li></ul><ul><li>THE BELIEF IN MANY GODS IS CALLED POLYTHEISM </li></ul><ul><li>SOME OF THEIR GODS INCLUDED; ENLIL, AND EA </li></ul>
  15. 18. ZIGGURAT AT UR
  16. 24. ECONOMY AND SOCIETY <ul><li>SOME CITY-STATES LIKE URUK HAD UP TO 60,000 PEOPLE LIVING THERE </li></ul><ul><li>AGRICULTURE MADE THIS POSSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>A DIVISION OF LABOR FORMED </li></ul><ul><li>THIS MEANT THAT SOME PEOPLE HAD JOBS OTHER THAN FARMING </li></ul><ul><li>SOME JOBS INCLUDED; CRAFTWORKERS, MANAGERS, AND MERCHANTS </li></ul>
  17. 25. <ul><li>THE DIVISION OF LABOR SOON LED TO DIFFERENT SOCIAL CLASSES </li></ul><ul><li>THE HIGHEST SOCIAL CLASS BELONGED TO THE KING </li></ul><ul><li>THE MIDDLE CLASS INCLUDED; MERCHANTS AND SCRIBES </li></ul><ul><li>A SCRIBE IS A PERSON IN ANCIENT TIMES THAT CAN READ AND WRITE </li></ul><ul><li>THE LOWEST CLASS HAD UNSKILLED WORKERS AND SLAVES </li></ul><ul><li>THERE WAS ALSO A SOCIAL DIVISION BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN. </li></ul>
  18. 26. INNOVATIONS <ul><li>AN INNOVATION IS A NEW WAY OF DOING THINGS </li></ul><ul><li>A LAND INNOVATION WAS CALLED THE “ IKU ” OR “ACRE” TODAY </li></ul><ul><li>MEASURING WHEAT AND BARLEY LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUART </li></ul><ul><li>THE GREATEST INVENTION WAS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM OF WRITING . </li></ul><ul><li>THIS SYSTEM OF WRITING WAS CALLED CUNEIFORM </li></ul><ul><li>WRITING WAS DONE ON CLAY TABLETS </li></ul>
  19. 27. Hammurabi's Code
  20. 28. Mesopotamian Harp
  21. 29. Board Game from Ur
  22. 30. Metal Working Skills
  23. 31. Is Mesopotamia the 1 st Civilization? <ul><li>Advanced Cities? </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Workers ? </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Institutions? </li></ul><ul><li>Record Keeping? </li></ul><ul><li>5) Improved Technology? </li></ul>

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