NC Biology EOC Review


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Review Presentation for NC 2004 SCoS in Biology

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NC Biology EOC Review

  1. 1. You Asked for it….. Biology REVIEW
  2. 2. biomolecules
  3. 3. CELLS EUKARYOTIC PROKARYOTIC Eukaryotic cells have their DNA surrounded by a membrane.  (They have a nucleus).  Two examples shown are plant cells and animal cells, but fungi and protists are also eukaryotic Notice, plants have chloroplasts (for photosynthesis) and cell walls made of cellulose. Animal cells don't have these parts.  Also, plant cells have a larger vacuole for storage.  Both plants and animals have mitochondria to make ATP. All eukaryotic cells have ribosomes to make protein These cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells have DNA and ribosomes, but they have no internal membranes! (They don't have a nucleus) They have ribosomes to make proteins These are the simplest cells Examples are bacteria, like those that cause strep throat.
  4. 4. CELL MEMBRANE The plasma membrane surrounds EVERY cell. It is made of lipid and protein It controls what goes in and out of a cell. Associated with HOMEOSTASIS
  6. 6. Enzymes are specific for reactions speed up reactions bind to substrate at active site are reusable are not changed in the reaction are made of PROTEIN
  7. 7. Photosynthesis and Respiration Converts sunlight to chemical energy Converts energy in food (glucose) to ATP Cellular Respiration Takes place in mitochondrion Releases the energy stored in glucose AKA aerobic respiration (NEEDS oxygen)
  8. 8. AEROBIC vsAnAEROBIC RESPIRATION AEROBIC RESPIRATION Requires oxygen Makes A LOT of ATP Produces carbon dioxide and water Happens in mitochondrion ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Does not use oxygen Makes only 2 ATP Small amount of ATP Also called fermentation YEASTS make ethyl alcohol BACTERIA and MUSCLECELLS (w/o O2) make LACTIC ACID Happens in cytoplasm (cytosol)
  10. 10. Asexual vs Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Adds genetic variation Involves meiosis and fertilization TWO parents involved Diploid and haploid cells Creates identical copies (clones) Only involves MITOSIS ONE parent involved Common in bacteria and unicellular protists
  11. 11. Mitosis and Meiosis Meiosis mitosis One division 2n  2n (same number of chromosomes) Results in 2 genetically identical cells Two divisions 2n  n Half the number of chromosomes Results in 4 DIFFERENT haploid cells Forms gametes (egg and sperm)
  12. 12. DNA DNA is a polymer of nucleotides. A nucleotide is made up of three parts: a sugar, a phosphate and one of four bases In DNA, the bases are A, T, C, and G DNA’s shape is a double helix The two strands are held together by HYDROGEN bonds A binds to T C binds with G
  13. 13. DNA Replication Process of DNA copying itself Steps DNA Unzips (Hydrogen bonds break) Each side acts as a template New DNA nucleotides are added according to base-pairing rules Two new molecules of DNA result – each with one old and one new strand. Happens in INTERPHASE (before mitosis or meiosis)
  14. 14. Protein Synthesis Remember, genes are made of DNA and are in the nucleus Genes (DNA) contain the instruction for making  a protein In transcription, DNA is used to make mRNA in the nucleus mRNA then leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome In translation, tRNAthen brings amino acids in the proper order to make the protein on the ribosome. DNA mRNA  protein Made of amino acids
  16. 16. DNA mRNA Nucleus Cytoplasm Ribosome Codon Anticodon tRNA Amino acid Protein (polypeptide) Can you IDENTIFY the parts?
  17. 17. Be sure to use mRNA You won’t have to memorize this! What amino acid is coded for by the DNA ATA GAG READING THE CODON CHART First convert DNA to mRNA ATA GAGUAU CUC UAU = tyr CUC = Leu
  18. 18. We have two genes for each trait – this is our GENOTYPE One gene came from mom, one from dad If the genes are alike, the individual is homozygous (RR, rr) If the genes are different , they are heterozygous (Rr) Some genes are dominant and others are recessive We only show a recessive trait if we have no dominant gene RR and Rr would “look” dominant rr would look recessive This diagram shows the cross between 2 heterozygous purple flowers Cross is: Bb x Bb Notice that 75% are purple and 25% white Genetics
  19. 19. Females are XX Males are XY Sex-linked traits are on X chromosome Trait is more common in MALES Examples are colorblindness and hemophilia (blood fails to clot) Sex Linkage Males give X chromosomes to their daughters and Y’s to their sons Moms give X’s to both daughters and sons
  20. 20. Four blood types A, B, AB, O Three different alleles: A, B or neither A = AA or AO B = BB or BO AB = AB O = OO CODOMINANCE – BLOOD TYPE Agglutinogen = protein
  21. 21. PEDIGREES Tracing traits through generations Males are squares Females are circles Horizontal line means married Vertical line means children Filled in circle means the individual HAS the condition Can you identify the genotypes of individuals 4, 7, 12? 4 = Ee (parent 2 had to give an e) 7 = Ee (child is ee, so they had to have one e) 12 = ee (affected with recessive condition)
  22. 22. KARYOTYPE In humans, 22 pair of autosomes 1 pair of sex chromosomes XX = female XY = male Extra chromosomes a result of non-disjunction Chromosome pairs fail to separate in meiosis One example is DOWN SYNDROME (extra 21) Another example is KLINEFELTERS (XXY) A chart showing arrangement of chromosomes XY = male 3 21’s = Down Syndrome
  23. 23. GENETIC TECHNOLOGY DNA FINGERPRINTING TRANSGENIC organisms Use gel electrophoresis to compare DNA fragments IF DNA matches, it’s from the same individual Organisms that have 2 different kinds of DNA Gene cloning Uses bacteria to make human proteins like insulin Evidence points to suspect 2
  24. 24. EVOLUTION – change over time EVIDENCE Fossil evidence Fossils found in sedimentary rock Lower level fossils are older and more PRIMITIVE We can compare fossils to modern organisms Similar structure suggests common ancestor Biochemical evidence DNA and protein similarities suggest common ancestor Natural Selection Credited to Charles Darwin Organisms in populations have variations that can be passed from generation to generation More organisms born that environment can support Organisms compete for resources Those organisms with favorable variations have more babies and the population evolves
  25. 25. Cladograms Determining evolutionary relationships Which type of plant is most closely related to flowering plants? CONIFERS
  26. 26. History of classification systems Aristotle – Plants and Animals Linneaus – developed BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE TWO KINGDOMS: plants and animals THREE kingdoms: plant, animal, Protist FIVE kingdoms: plant, animal, Protist, fungi, Moneran
  27. 27. CLASSIFICATION Scientific name is genus and species name. Organisms in same genus are closely related
  29. 29. Dichotomous key Always begin with #1 Follow directions using choices given What shape is “Gina”? Equilateral triangle
  30. 30. Types of Plants
  31. 31. PLANT ADAPTATIONS Flowers and Fruits Root, stem, Leaf Flowers have bright petals to attract pollinators Pollen (Sperm) can be transferred by animals When egg joins with pollen, a seed is formed in the ovary The ovary becomes the fruit Fruit surrounds and protects seed Fruit also helps get baby plants in seeds away from parent plant Roots are adapted to absorb water with root hairs Leaves are adapted for photosynthesis by being flat and green Stems move water with xylem
  33. 33. Disease causing viruses VIRUS STRUCTURE A virus is not made of cells It is nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by protein coat (Capsid) Viral reproduction Virus can’t reproduce unless it is inside a living cell The virus uses the cells enzymes and ribosomes to make DNA and protein New viruses either bud off of the cell or the cell bursts, releasing lots of viruses
  34. 34. BACTERIA vs VIRUSES Bacteria Made of cells Can be killed by antibiotics Examples of disease caused by bacteria is strep throat Virus Not made of cells MUCH SMALLER THAN CELLS Can’t be killed by antibiotics Example of diseases caused by viruses are AIDS (HIV), Smallpox, Influenza
  35. 35. Internal and external factors in disease
  36. 36. IMMUNITY
  37. 37. PASSIVE vs. ACTIVE immunity Passive immunity ACTIVE IMMUNITY Person DOES make antibodies AND memory cells Provides long term immunity Natural: you have disease Artificial – you get a VACCINATION Person does NOT make memory cells or antibodies Antibodies only are transferred Doesn’t provide long-term protection Natural: from breastfeeding Artificial: Rabies “shot”
  38. 38. Behavioral Adaptations Behavior is any thing an animal DOES. Animal behaviors also help animals survive and/or reproduce.
  39. 39. Innate behavior is also called inborn behavior. It is programmed in DNA Innate behaviors include reflexes and instincts Examples human suckling. spiders spinning webs Migration: birds flying south for the winter Hibernation – dormant when cold Estivation – dormant when hot Innate Behavior
  40. 40. Learned Behavior
  41. 41. Social behavior
  43. 43. Food CHAINS Original source of energy for most chains is the sun 1st trophic level is producer 2nd trophic level is primary consumer 2rd trophic level is secondary consumer Decomposer not shown on chain, but they recycle nutrients Energy is “lost” as you mover “up” the food chain
  44. 44. SYMBIOSIS
  45. 45. Predation Predator EATS Prey The populations cycle Predator has lower curve There can’t be more predators than prey
  46. 46. Population GROWTH EXPONENTIAL GROWTH J-curve Occurs when unlimited resources are available Logistic growth S-curve Occurs because resources are limited Carrying capacity reached
  47. 47. HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH Overpopulation of humans leads to Destruction of habitats (pollution and/or destroying) Loss of biodiversity Introduced species Outcompete nativespecies
  48. 48. Carbon CYCLE Cycling of carbon and oxygen Three main processes Photosynthesis – plants use carbon dioxide; produce oxygen Respiration – uses oxygen, produces carbon dioxide (both plants and animals) Combustion – burning – releases more carbon dioxide Greenhouse Effect Carbon dioxide traps heat in the atmosphere, making life possible Increased carbon dioxide can make temperatures rise more Human activities can lead to GLOBAL WARMING