TURKISH MUSICAL INSTRUMENTSTanbursThe Tambur is a fretted string instrument of Turkey and the former lands of the Ottoman Empire.Like the ney, the armudi (lit. pear-shaped) kemençe and the kudüm, it constitutes one of the fourinstruments of the basic quartet of Turkish classical music. Of the two variants, one is played with aplectrum (mizrapli tambur) and the other with a bow (yayli tambur). The player is called a tanburî.Tamburs are made almost entirely of wood. The shell (Tekne) is assembled from strips of hardwoodcalled ribs joined edge to edge to form a semi-spherical body for the instrument. The number ofribs traditionally amounts to 17, 21 or 23, yet examples with slightly wider and consequently fewerribs (7, 9 or 11) can also be found among older specimens. Traditionally, thinner strips called filetoare inserted between the ribs for ornamental purposes, but are not obligatory.NeyThe ney is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music. In some of thesemusical traditions, it is the only wind instrument used. It is a very ancient instrument, with depictionsof ney players appearing in wall paintings in the Egyptian pyramids and actual neys being found inthe excavations at Ur. This indicates that the ney has been played continuously for 4,500–5,000years, making it one of the oldest musical instruments still in use. It is a forerunner of the modernflute.The ney consists of a piece of hollow cane or reed with five or six finger holes and one thumbhole. Ney is an old semitic arabic word means crying from the word (naei) because its soundresembles a person crying. Modern neys may be made of metal or plastic tubing instead. The pitchof the ney varies depending on the region and the finger arrangement. A highly skilled ney playercan reach more than three octaves, though it is more common to have several "helper" neys tocover different pitch ranges or to facilitate playing technical passages in other maqamat.