Bimber compresentation3 19a

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Bimber Presentation - PoliCom101

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  • In detailing the second information revolution Bimber makes it clear that the technologies that were created during this time were not strictly speaking technologies at all. Instead he references the scope of socioeconomic changes brought on by the industrial revolution. He recognizes that the 2 nd information revolution was in part a product of the industrial. More policy issues … … combined with more private and public players… … created a need for new organizations: the Interest Group.
  • Most obviously seen in the economy, where industrialization brought increased complexity. Bimber references a sociaologist, James Beniger,… ..saying that Industrialization and Progressivism.. ...entailed as much a revolution.. ..in information as in industry. Preindustrial methods of communication were inadequate.
  • So, we saw.. ..Substantial changes in the cost or structure of political information ..and new forms of political intermediation and organized civic engagement ..but this had little direct effect on overall levels of engagement. While the first information revolution started a huge rise in political participation ..voting increased from 10% to 80% in 20 years. The second revolution changed the political structure, but the level of participation decreased. ..voting declined to 50% by the 1920s, Variety and vibrancy pg 67 …National Easter Seal Society, American Lung Association, Mental Health Association PROFESSIONAL GROUPS
  • This revolution did not so much displace.. ..the interest group-based second regime as hybridize it Blending both group based and mass media communications.. ..and Adding a new kind of dynamic centered on the mass audience The central impetus in these developments.. ..was the emergence of broadcast media: ..radio, TV This affected forms of organizations from the first and second revolutions This new technology provided the ability.. ..to gain the attention of a huge audience .. ..all across the nation. Mass broadcast media was centralized and expensive.. ..but it had the potential to influence policy making .. ..and collective action.. ..because it reached such a large number of people at once.
  • Al Smith’s acceptenc speech at the 1928 convention was broadcast by GE in Schenectady, NY on the “highly experimental new technology called TV The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith . a sensational headline appeared in the New York: "Secret Rich Men's Trust Fund Keeps Nixon in Style Far Beyond His Salary." The headline appeared just a few days after Eisenhower had chosen him as his running mate. Many Republicans urged Eisenhower to remove Nixon from the ticket before it was too late. Nixon used TV to take his case directly to the American people He had his wife sitting stoically nearby He offered an apologetic explanation of all of his finances and told a story of a little dog named Checkers given as a present to his young daughters. “ … I want to say right now that regardless of what they say, we're going to keep it." He turned the last section of his address into a political attack But let me just say this last word. Regardless of what happens, I am going to continue this fight. I am going to campaign up and down America until we drive the crooks and the Communists and those that defend them out of Washington, and remember folks, Eisenhower is a great man. Folks, he is a great man, and a vote for Eisenhower is a vote for what is good for America. 1956 Presidential Rematch, Nearly one-third of the expenditures for national campaign committees went to broadcasting, with television the dominant medium.
  • Notes to wrap up previous slides So Bimber uses these historical happenings.. ..not so much to describe the technologies of the times,.. ..but to elicit these “concepts” for information regimes. He uses the organizational “business” model.. ..to highlight some aspects of how political organizations change. But he recognizes that formal organizations rooted in the Constitution.. ..are very slow to change. He highlights interest groups, civic organizations… ..and other non-governmental groups.. ..as those most like businesses,.. ..and so most adaptable to changing conditions. Political parties fall somewhere in the middle of these two.
  • low-cost channels for the distribution of information by political elites and organizations ex. Electronic mail- provides affordable means for every candidate to distribute information. new technology to allow elites and organizations to acquire highly detailed information at low costs to tailor their messages. capacity of new technology to allow citizens to communicate directly with one another. Ex. Online forums the ability for any news organization to distribute information globally The ability to archive news and other information.
  • Bimber doesn’t’ expound on the internet and new media available. Instead he points to 5 aspects of information intensiveness in politics low-cost channels for the distribution of information by political elites and organizations ex. Electronic mail New technology to allow elites and organizations to acquire highly detailed information at low costs to tailor their messages. Capacity of new technology to allow citizens to communicate directly with one another. Ex. Blogs The ability for any news organization to distribute information globally The ability to archive news and other information. Bimber says these changes in the structure of political information.. ..and opportunities and constraints on communicaiton.. ..all contribute towards a state of information abundance.. ..in the political system.
  • Bimber doesn’t’ focus on the internet and new media available. Instead he points to 5 aspects of information intensiveness in politics low-cost channels for the distribution of information by political elites and organizations ex. Electronic mail New technology to allow elites and organizations to acquire highly detailed information at low costs to tailor their messages. Capacity of new technology to allow citizens to communicate directly with one another. Ex. Online forums The ability for any news organization to distribute information globally The ability to archive news and other information.
  • Bimber compresentation3 19a

    1. 1. Information and American Democracy Bimber Joanna Nicodemus, Kevin Barhydt
    2. 2. Presentation Agenda • Background • Bimbers’ Context • Theory and Method • Information Revolutions and Regime Theory • Historical Theoretical Claim • Closing
    3. 3. Background Chapter 1 – Information and Political Change It does not appear that new technology leads to higher levels of political engagement The access of information through technology is more unequal then the norm of equality in society The ability of those involved in politics, such as lobbyist, to overcome physical and social barriers through technology To explore an aspect of democratic politics in the United States about which is surprisingly little known: the relationship between characteristics of political power and practice. A largely null finding of participation and effects Existence of digital divide between individuals Presence of novel forms of collective action
    4. 4. Three Main Questions Chapter 1 – Information and Political Change Democracy Information Technology What do stories like “Know Your Customer” mean? Will similar developments lead to political transition as well as technical change? What do the possibilities portend for how scholars theorize about politics? P. 5
    5. 5. What is Information Chapter 1 – Information and Political Change “ Knowledge communicated concerning some particular fact, subject, or event.” Oxford English Dictionary Bimber does NOT exclude information to fact! Opinions Statements by politicians Research
    6. 6. Chapter 1 – Information and Political Change Method Information Matters!! Historical Contemporary Information Revolution 1. A set of dominant properties of political information, such as high cost. 2. A set of opportunities and constraints on the management of political information that these properties create. 3. The appearance of characteristic political organizations and structures adapted to those opportunities and constraints. Information Revolution
    7. 7. Chapter 1 – Information and Political Change First Information Revolution: 1820s-1830s Technological and institutional developments lead to: The first possibilities for mass flows of political information These contributed to the information regime with: A centralized, simple system of political organizations (parties) serving as the dominant influence on policy-making and collective action.
    8. 8. Chapter 1 – Information and Political Change Third Information Revolution: 1950s-1970s Technological development leads to: Possibilities for commanding the attention of a national-scale mass audience. These contributed to the information regime with: A centralized, extremely resource-dependent system of market-driven organizations capable of influencing policy-making and some forms of collective action along with the specialized political organizations of the previous information regime.
    9. 9. Chapter 1 – Information and Political Change Second Information Revolution: 1880s-1910s Socio-economic development leads to: National-scale political information growing costly, specialized, and complex. These contributed to the information regime with: A decentralized, complex system of specialized and resource-dependent organizations (interest groups) serving as the dominant influence on policy-making and collective action.
    10. 10. Chapter 1 – Information and Political Change First Information Revolution: 1820s-1830s Technological and institutional developments lead to: The first possibilities for mass flows of political information These contributed to the information regime with: A centralized, simple system of political organizations (parties) serving as the dominant influence on policy-making and collective action. Second Information Revolution: 1880s-1910s Socio-economic development leads to: National scale political information growing costly, specialized and complex. These contributed to the information regime with: A decentralized, complex system of specialized and resource-dependent organizations (interest groups) serving as the dominant influence on policy-making and collective action . Third Information Revolution: 1950s-1970s Technological and institutional developments lead to: Possibilities for commanding the attention of a national-scale mass audience. These contributed to the information regime with: A centralized, extremely resource-dependent system of market-driven organizations capable of influencing policy-making and some forms of collective action, along with the specialized political organization of the previous information regime. Fourth Information Revolution: 1990s- Technological and institutional developments lead to: Condition of information abundance. This contributes to the possibilities of an information regime with: Post-bureaucratic political organization as the basis for policy-making and collective action
    11. 11. Chapter 2 – Information Revolutions in American Political Development INFORMATION INFORMATION Federal Government Local Government Local Government Local Government Federalist Anti-Federalist Centralized De-centralized Information Theory of the Federalist
    12. 12. Chapter 2 – Information Revolutions in American Political Development Information Theory of the Federalist Information problems can be solved by: Increasing size and depth of government. Information can not be generalized by the government, but requires a specific knowledge. Information overload on a centralized government will become complex, so complex the state will fail. High quantity of information can not only be accepted but should be welcomed because of the perspectives it will bring to a centralized government. Federalist Anti-Federalist
    13. 13. Chapter 2 – Information Revolutions in American Political Development First Information Revolution 1790 75 Post Offices 300,000 Letters/Year 1 Offices/43,000 People .01 Letters/capita each year 1840 13,000+ Post Offices 40,000,000 Letters 1 Office/1,000 People .325 Letters/capita each year*
    14. 14. Chapter 2 – Information Revolutions in American Political Development First Information Revolution Cont’d Early Newspaper • Primarily advertisement • Mostly Mercantile Information • Some Political Information • Targeted toward Elites • Cost $0.6 Penny Paper • Political and Public Opinion • Social and Community Affairs • Targeted toward Mass Audience • Cost $0.1 1850s-1860s Telegraph helped feed the fire of newspapers Voting Participation rose! 10%-----1820 80%-----1840 REVOLUTION • 35 Weeklies • 0 Dailies 1830s • 650 Weeklies • 65 Dailies
    15. 15. Chapter 2 – Information Revolutions in American Political Development Second Information Revolution and the Roots of Pluralism - 1880 ~ 1910s <ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Civic </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul>More topics More information Plurality of information Interest Groups <ul><li>Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer rights </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbyists </li></ul>“ mania for association formation” Not a change of technology More an increase of information
    16. 16. Chapter 2 – Information Revolutions in American Political Development Second Information Revolution and the Roots of Pluralism - 1880 ~ 1910s <ul><li>Radically altered communication </li></ul><ul><li>Vastly more complex information of all kinds </li></ul><ul><li>“ Industrialization and Progressivism </li></ul><ul><li>entailed as much a revolution </li></ul><ul><li>in information as in industry.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New forms of communication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of goods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing and advertising </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polling the public </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Chapter 2 – Information Revolutions in American Political Development Second Information Revolution and the Roots of Pluralism - 1880 ~ 1910s New opportunities for political organization… Changes in the dynamics of political engagement, Reduced the overall influence of the established political parties. Altered electoral participation: 1 st IR - voting increased from 10% to 80% in 20 years 2 nd IR - . voting declined to 50% by the 1920s, Variety and Vibrancy Jewish Women, Daughters of the American Revolution, Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, YMCA, Big Brother/Sisters, NESS, NLA, MHA Professional Groups
    18. 18. Chapter 2 – Information Revolutions in American Political Development Third Information Revolution and the Mass Audience - 1950s ~ 1970s National audience Centralized Expensive “ This revolution did not so much displace the interest group-based second regime as hybridize it” <ul><li>Broadcast media </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul>Influence policy
    19. 19. Chapter 2 – Information Revolutions in American Political Development Third Information Revolution and the Mass Audience - 1950s ~ 1970s Slow but steady embrace of mass media <ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>1928: Al Smith </li></ul><ul><li>1952: The Tipping Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st televised primary coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “checkers” speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Race </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1953: Eisenhower’s inaugural address </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Hoover </li></ul><ul><li>Collidge </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt’s fireside chats </li></ul>1956 Presidential Rematch, nearly one-third of the expenditures for national campaign committees went to broadcasting.
    20. 20. Chapter 3 – Forth Information Revolution and Postbureauratic Pluralism The Question of Information Abundance Hide Slide for Notes Page
    21. 21. Fourth Information Revolution: 1990s ~ Technological and institutional developments lead to: Condition of information abundance. This contributes to the possibilities of an information regime with: Post-bureaucratic political organization as the basis for policy-making and collective action Chapter 3 – Forth Information Revolution and Postbureauratic Pluralism
    22. 22. Chapter 3 – Forth Information Revolution and Postbureauratic Pluralism The Question of Information Abundance Money Staff Experience Organization “ Resources confer command over information and communication…” Obama 50M Clinton 44M Obama: is “better” has “power” is “winning” “ ..and command over these enhances political influence.” What if technology changed that dynamic?
    23. 23. Chapter 3 – Forth Information Revolution and Postbureauratic Pluralism The Question of Information Abundance Low-cost channels for distribution New technology to acquire information at low costs Allow citizens to communicate directly with one another Ability to distribute information globally Ability to archive * Five main aspects of information intensiveness in politics * Makes the past more accessible to the present “ The lesson of the sequence of historical information revolutions is that information abundance should have important effects on political organizations as intermediaries”.
    24. 24. Chapter 3 – Forth Information Revolution and Postbureauratic Pluralism The Question of Information Abundance Low-cost channels for distribution New technology to acquire information at low costs Allow citizens to communicate directly with one another Ability to distribute information globally Ability to archive * * Makes the past more accessible to the present
    25. 25. Chapter 3 – Forth Information Revolution and Postbureauratic Pluralism The Bureaucratic Conception of Pluralism
    26. 26. Chapter 3 – Forth Information Revolution and Postbureauratic Pluralism Postbureaucratic Political Organization

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