EBMgt Course Module 5: Formulating a Focused Question
Postgraduate CourseEvidence-based management:Formulate a focused question
Postgraduate CourseThe 5 steps of EBP1. Formulate a focused question (Ask)2. Search for the best available evidence (Acquire)3. Critically appraise the evidence (Appraise)4. Integrate the evidence with your professionalexpertise and apply (Apply)5. Monitor the outcome (Assess)
Postgraduate CourseAsking the right question?Effect vs Non-effect
Postgraduate CourseTypes of questions: effectDoes it work?Does it work better than ....?Does it have an effect on ....?What is the success factor for ....?What is required to make it work ...?Will it do more good than harm?Effect
Postgraduate CourseTypes of questions: non-effectNeeds: What do people want or need?Attitude: What do people think or feel?Experience: What are peoples’ experiences?Prevalence: How many / often do people / organizations ...?Procedure: How can we implement ...?Process: How does it work?Explanation: Why / how does it work?Economics: How much does it cost?
Postgraduate CourseFocused question? Does team-building work? What are the costs and benefits of self-steering teams? What are the success factors for culture change? Does management development improve theperformance of managers? Does employee participation prevent resistance tochange? How do employees feel about 360 degree feedback?
Postgraduate Course What is a ‘team’? What kind of teams? In what contexts/settings? What counts as ‘team-building’? What does ‘work’ mean? What outcomes are relevant? Over what time periods?Focused question? Does team-building work?
Postgraduate CourseFocused question: PICOCImagine you are a consultant, your client is the board ofdirectors of a large Canadian health-care organization.The board of directors has plans for a merger with asmaller healthcare organization in a nearby town.However, it’s been said that the organizational culturediffers widely between the two organizations. The boardof directors asks you if this culture-difference can impedea successful outcome of a merger. Most of themintuitively sense that cultural differences matter, but theywant an evidence-based advice.
Postgraduate CourseAnswerable question: PICOCWhat else would you like to know?
Postgraduate CourseAnswerable question: PICOCP: What kind of Population are we talking about? Middle managers,back-office employees, medical staff, clerical staff?O: What kind of Outcome are we aiming for? Employee productivity,return on investment, profit margin, competitive position, innovationpower, market share, customer satisfaction?P/C: And how is the assumed cultural difference assessed? Is it thepersonal view of some managers or is it measured by a validatedinstrument?
Postgraduate CourseAccording to the board the objective of the merger is tointegrate the back-office of the two organizations (ICT,finance, purchasing, facilities, personnel administration,etc.) in order to create economy of scale. The frontoffices and primary process of the two organizations willremain separate.The cultural difference is not objectively assessed (it isthe perception of the senior managers of bothorganizations).Answerable question: PICOC
Postgraduate CourseP = back office employeesI = merger, integration back officeC = status quoO = economy of scaleC = healthcare, different organizational culture, unequalAnswerable question: PICOC
Postgraduate CourseDoes a difference in organizational cultureaffect a successful integration of back-officefunctions during a merger between twohealthcare organizations of unequal size?Focused question
Postgraduate Course4 sources of evidenceUse the 4 sources of evidence toformulate sub questions