Immigrants in Spain: Employment and Welfare Assimilation

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Núria Rodríguez Planas

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,

Barcelona GSE, MOVE, and IZA



Trobada Barcelona GSE

October 21st, 2011

Published in: Travel, News & Politics
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Immigrants in Spain: Employment and Welfare Assimilation

  1. 1. Unprecedented immigration boom in a shortperiod of time
  2. 2. Foreign-born population as a % of thepopulation in Spain 1998-2011
  3. 3. What factors explain this surge?
  4. 4. An immigrant-friendly countryYear Number Benefit granted Conditions regularized1985-1986 38,181 Residence and work All unauthorized workers permit and residents1991 110,100 Residence and work In Spain since May 15, permit 19911996 21,300 1 year residence and In Spain since January 1, work permit 19962000 163,900 1 year residence and Either worked or applied work permit for residence in the 3 years prior to 20002001 216,400 1 year residence and Had to prove work permit employment and social ties2005 548,700 6 months residence Had to have a job offer and work permit lasting for 6 months
  5. 5. Over time, origin of immigrants haschanged Cohort
 EU15
 Other Latin Africans
 Europeans
 Americans
 Pre-1990
 0.273
 0.009
 0.016
 0.089
 1990-1994
 0.126
 0.030
 0.030
 0.143
 1995-1999
 0.158
 0.093
 0.094
 0.237
 2000-2004
 0.217
 0.585
 0.504
 0.364
 2005-2009
 0.072
 0.263
 0.156
 0.128
 Sample size
 6,803
 8,463
 20,321
 8,392

  6. 6. Natives: 34% HS dropouts, 50% HSgrads, 16% college grads
  7. 7. How do immigrants compare to natives in termsof employment?
  8. 8. Strong occupational segregation at alllevels
  9. 9. Wage differential using Social Security records
  10. 10. What about use of cash-benefit socialprograms?   Contributary component: –  Unemployment benefits –  Disability pensions –  Survivors’ pension   Non-contributary component: –  Family allowances –  Other social programs
  11. 11. Relative Weight of the Spanish Social ProtectionBenefits as a Percentage of the EU15 Average(in PPS per inhabitant)
  12. 12. Observed Differences in Welfare Participation,Immigrants versus Natives, by Years SinceMigration
  13. 13. Observed Differences in UI Receipt, Immigrantsversus Natives, by Years Since Migration
  14. 14. Observed Differences in Disability Receipt,Immigrants versus Natives, by Years SinceMigration
  15. 15. Food for thought..

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