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Joints

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Movements of synovial joints

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Joints

  1. 1. Katie Graves Do Something Cool Project Human Anatomy and Physiology Barbara Burckart December 1, 2010
  2. 2. A Photographic Portrayal of Movements Permitted in Synovial Joints <ul><li>(includes) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Supination </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul>
  3. 4. Flexion of the Knee <ul><li>The angle between the posterior thigh and leg decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the semitendinosus, the semimembranosus, the biceps femoris (long head), the popliteus, the medial and lateral gastrocnemius, the sartorius, and the gracilis. </li></ul><ul><li>During flexion, most ligaments are slack, allowing rotation in the joint. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Extension of the Hip <ul><li>Caused by contraction of the gluteus maximus, the biceps femoris (long head), the semimembranosus, the semitendinosus, the gluteus medius (posterior), and the adductor magnus. </li></ul><ul><li>In a grand arabesque (the position of the dancer in the photo), the hip extends as well as laterally rotates. </li></ul>
  5. 8. Abduction of the Little Finger <ul><li>Movement of the little finger away from the middle finger. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the abductor digiti minimi. </li></ul>
  6. 10. Adduction of the Little Finger <ul><li>Movement of the little finger towards the middle finger. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the palmar interosseous muscles. </li></ul>
  7. 12. Supination of the Forearm <ul><li>Combined with the flexion of the elbow, the palm of the hand faces upward. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the supinator muscle, as well as the long and short head of the biceps brachii. </li></ul><ul><li>The radius and ulna are situated parallel to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Supination can be easily confused with lateral rotation of the shoulder joint, but they are not the same function. </li></ul>
  8. 14. Pronation of the Forearm <ul><li>Combined with the flexion of the elbow, the palm of the hand faces downward. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the humeral and ulner head of the pronator teres, the pronator quadrates, and the flexor carpi radialis. </li></ul><ul><li>The radius crosses over the ulna. </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation can be easily confused with medial rotation of the shoulder joint, but they are not the same function. </li></ul>
  9. 16. Inversion of the Foot <ul><li>Produced by a combination of adduction, supination, and plantar flexion (extension). </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the flexor digitorum longus, the tibialis anterior and posterior, the flexor hallucis longus, and the triceps surae. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs around the axis of Henke (an imaginary line that enters the posterolateral tuberosity of the calcaneus, runs anterosuperomedially, and exits through the medial neck of the talus). </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion only applies to the feet. </li></ul>
  10. 18. Eversion of the Foot <ul><li>Produced by abduction, pronation, and dorsiflexion (flexion). </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the peroneus longus and brevis, the extensor digitorum longus (lateral part), and the peroneus tertius muscle (which is absent in some people). </li></ul><ul><li>Also occurs around the axis of Henke, but is the opposite movement to Inversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion only applies to the feet. </li></ul>
  11. 20. Medial Rotation of the Shoulder <ul><li>Specifically, the inward rotation of the humerus. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the subscapularis, the latissimus dorsi, the pectoralis major, the teres major, and the anterior deltoid. </li></ul><ul><li>Often confused with pronation of the forearm. </li></ul>
  12. 22. Lateral Rotation of the Shoulder <ul><li>Specifically, the outward rotation of the humerus. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the infraspinatus, the teres minor, and the posterior deltoid. </li></ul><ul><li>Often confused with supination of the forearm. </li></ul>
  13. 24. Elevation of the Scapula <ul><li>Lifting of the scapula. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the upper fibers of trapezius, the levator scapulae, and the rhomboids. </li></ul><ul><li>Often pairs with flexion of the scapula (though this is a learned behavior). </li></ul><ul><li>Fun fact: upper fibers of the trapezius muscles are overused in everyday activities. </li></ul>
  14. 26. Depression of the Scapula <ul><li>Moves the scapula down. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the contraction of the lower trapezius and the lower serratus anterior muscles. </li></ul>
  15. 27. WORKS CITED <ul><li>Longenbaker, Susannah Nelson., and Sylvia S. Mader. Mader's Understanding Human Anatomy & Physiology. Boston, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Calais-Germain, Blandine. Anatomy of Movement. Seattle: Eastland, 2007. </li></ul>

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