Giotto di Bondone1267-1337 Italian painter and architect from Florence, generally considered the first in a line of greatartists who contributed to the Renaissance. Introduced humanism Volume, mass and landscape Worked in fresco Judas Kisses Jesus
Leonardo de Vinci1452 - 1519•Perfected aerial perspective•Linear perspective andsfumato•Always trying newtechniques so often picturesdidn’t last.•Would get bored and go onto something else, so fewpieces left.•Artist musician, inventor•Often didn’t finish what hestarted -few works left•Perfected several paintingtechniques that scientificallyproduce realism Vitruvian Man
Linear Perspective The Last Supper by Leonardo Di Vinci A mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. Artists must imagine the picture surface as an open window. Involves three ideas.1 The horizon line runs across the canvas at the eye level of the viewer. 2 The horizon line is where the sky appears to meet the ground.3 The vanishing point should be located near the horizon line. The vanishing point is where all parallellines that run toward the horizon line come together like train tracks in the distance.
Aerial perspectiveDistant landscapes look bluerand more blurred. Nearestobjects are painted their truecolor. Objects in thebackground areproportionately bluer andblurred. Madonna Of The Yarnwinder
SfumatoMeans dark smoke inItalian. The blurring orsoftening of sharpoutlines in painting bysubtle and gradualblending of one toneinto another. Used tocreate atmosphericperspective, depth,volume and form. Mona Lisa
Bas-reliefShallow relief sculpturethat, in Donatellos case,incorporated significantdevelopments inperspective. baptistry font
Michelangelo 1475-1564Painter , sculptor, architect•Leading artist of the highRenaissance•Studied Giotto andDonatello•Scientific studies of humanbody•Classical influence•Concerned with what liesbeneath the surface of thebody and the mind•Emotional and passionate•Technically perfect Pieta
Sistine ChapelThere are 300 figures infrescoThe ceiling, completed in1512 and theThe Last Judgment 1541are widely believed to beMichelangelos crowningachievement in painting.
Donatello 1386-1466Master of sculpture inboth marble and bronze,•David is the first bronzesince classical time. Lostwax technique.•Reflects classicalinfluence of physicalbeauty.•Humanistic and realistic. David
Durer 1471-1528German painter andengraverUsed Science inperspective and detailsGerman gloom; religious;inner emotionsInterpreted subjects inrealistic contemporaryterms Young hare
Hieronymus Bosch1450 –1516Dutch Painter known forhis use of fantastic imageryto illustrate moral andreligious concepts andnarratives.Garden of Earthly Delights:Duck Feeding man
Brunelleschi 1377-1446Foremost architect andengineer of the ItalianRenaissance.He used classical influencewhich reflected in theharmony of shapesHe is perhaps most famousfor engineering the dome ofthe Florence Cathedral, buthis accomplishments alsoinclude other architecturalworks, sculpture,mathematics, engineering andeven ship design
Gutenberg Press 1444Movable-type printingpress.1455 printed completeversion of the Bible.Helped spread new ideas.Availability of booksencouraged people tolearn to read.Books printed in localvernacular.Encourages the ProtestantReformation becauseindividuals could now readthe Bible for themselves.
William Shakespeare 1564-1616The spread of booksallowed for the writtenword to take on animmortal life through;literature, plays, poetry.The First Folio, a collectededition of his dramaticworks that included all buttwo of the plays nowrecognized asShakespeares.
Miguel de Cervantes 1547-1616Spanish novelist, poet, andplaywright. His work, DonQuixote, is considered to bethe first modern Europeannovel, and regarded amongstthe best works of fiction everwritten.[His influence on the Spanishlanguage has been so greatthat the language is oftencalled la lengua de Cervantes. Don Quixote
Scientific Revolution Influenced by: • Classical writers (Socratic method) • Muslim science • Protestant Reformation • Era of Exploration. Methods: • Careful Observation of the natural world • Questions about accepted theories • Answers to practical problems in scientific observation • Experimentation.
Nicolas Copernicus 1473-1543Used mathematicalcalculations proved that thesun is the center of theuniverseDistances of the planetsfrom the sun bore a directrelationship to the size oftheir orbits.Heliocentric idea wascontroversial and it was thestart of a change in the waythe world was viewedCopernicus seen as theinitiator of the ScientificRevolution.
Galileo Galilei 1564-16421609: invented the telescopeProved all objects fall at thesame speedSupported Copernicusresearch and is tried forheresy at the Inquisition inRome1616 condemned andthreatened with tortureDenies his beliefBy 1630, everyone supportedthe idea that the sun was thecenter of our universe
Isaac Newton 1642 –1727Used the scientific method toexpand the knowledge of theuniversePrincipia, which mathematicallyexplained the workings of theuniverse and said everything ismechanical.Explained light (colors) andgravityBuilt a reflecting telescopeInvented calculus VIDEO click the Picture
Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723Considered to be the firstmicrobiologistHe perfected themicroscope in 1670. It hadthe magnifying power of300XFirst to observe anddescribe single-celledorganisms, muscle fibers,bacteria, spermatozoa,and blood flow incapillaries.
Gabriel Fahrenheit 1686-1736 Developed the first mercurythermometer with a standardizedscale,The Fahrenheit scale divided thefreezing and boiling points of waterinto 180 degrees.32°F was the freezing pint of waterand 212°F was the boiling point ofwater.0°F was based on the temperature ofan equal mixture of water, ice, andsalt. The first portable self-registering thermometer, first designed in 1780, which recorded the maximum and minimum temperatures reached. Designed by James Six (1731-1793)
Evangelista Torricelli 1608 –1647Invented the Barometer in 1643This instrument measured thepressure of the earth’s atmosphere.A glass tube with a height of at least84 cm, closed at one end, with anopen mercury-filled reservoir at thebase.Mercury in the tube adjusts until theweight of the mercury columnbalances the atmospheric forceexerted on the reservoir.Torricelli documented that the heightof the mercury in a barometerchanged slightly each day andconcluded that this was due to thechanging pressure in the atmosphere.The pressure is the level of themercurys height in the verticalcolumn. 1 atmosphere is equivalent toabout 760 millimeters of mercury.
Rene Descartes 1596 - 1650A French philosopherBelieved that every ideashould be doubted and provenBelieved that God created tworealities: Physical reality andwhat people thinkPeople can use their rationalmind to understand the truthsof the physical world. Butcannot totally trust the senses.Eroded the authority of the Scientific Rationalizationchurch and established forms “I think, therefore I am”of government
John Locke 1632–1704Wrote Two Treatises of Government:1690Said government was an agreement orcontract between the people and therulerThe people allowed the ruler to rule aslong as he ruled fairlyThe people had the right to overthrowthe ruler if he did not honor thiscontractThe ruler must accept the naturalrights of his subjects: life, liberty andproperty
Baron de Montesquieu 1689 –1755He is famous for hisarticulation of the theoryof separation of powersThought governmentworked best when thepower of the ruler waslimited.Government worked bestwhen divided into threeparts: legislative,executive, and judicial.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712 –1778)Made contributions to political andmoral psychology, active composerand music theorist, pioneer of modernautobiography, a novelist, and abotanist.Appreciation of the wonders of natureand his stress on the importance offeeling and emotion made him animportant influence on and anticipatorof the romantic movementBelieved people should participatedirectly in the government they elect;champion of democracy.Contracts between subjects and rulersshould not be severed for trivialreasons.