Syllabus of Research Methodology5. Introduction to Research and Research Design6. Measurement and Scaling, Data Source and Data Collection7. Data Analysis and Presentation8. Technical Writing
Research methodology Research may be define as a documented prose work. Documented prose work means organized analysis of the subject based on borrowed material with suitable acknowledgement and consultation in the main body of the paper.
Meaning Research Research has been defined by various authors in different ways. It always begins with a question or a problem. Its purpose is to find answer to question through the application of systematic and scientific methods. Thus, research is the systematic approach towards purposeful investigation.
Objective of Research To obtain familiarity of a phenomenon. To determine the association or independence of an activity. To determine the characteristics of an individual or a group of activities and the frequency of its occurrence.
Features of good research study Objectivity Control Generalisability Free from personal bias Systematic Reproducible
Types of research studies Fundamental research Applied research Descriptive research Historical research Exploratory research Experimental research Ex-post-facto research Case study approach
Role of research in business/industry Marketing research Govt. policies and economic system Solving various operation and planning problems in business Social relationship
Research process1. Defining the research problem and reviewing the literature2. Formulation of hypothesis3. Research design4. Collecting data5. Analyzing data and testing hypothesis6. Preparation of report and preliminary analysis7. Interpreting and reporting the findings
Research process Defining the research problem:-Formulation of problem:How problem can be formulate1. Statement of the problem in a general way2. Understanding the nature of the problem3. Surveying the available literature4. Developing the idea through discussion.5. Rephrasing the research problem into a working proposition.
Formulation of Hypothesis Concept of hypothesis: – A hypothesis is a proposition-a tentative assumption which a researcher wants to test for its logical or empirical consequences. – Hypothesis are generally concerned with the causes of a certain phenomenon or a realtion ship between two or more variables under investigation. – HYPOTHESIS TESTING:- 1. formulate a hypothesis. 2. Set up a suitable significance level. (type-I &II error) 3. Choose a test criterion. 4. Compute the statistics. 5. Make decision.
Type of errors Type I error: an error made in rejecting the null hypothesis, when in fact it is true. Tyep II error: an error made in accepting the null hypothesis when in fact it is untrue.
Research Design A research design is the arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Research design is in fact the conceptual structure within the research is conducted. Research design as a “Blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data”
Types of research design Exploratory research studies Descriptive research studies Hypothesis testing studies
Exploratory research studies “to explore a subject” Features: – The small sample size. – Non probability sampling design. – Data requirements are vague. – Objective is general rather than specific. – No recommendation are made.
Descriptive studies Features: – Study describes the phenomena. – Collected data are related to demographic or behavioural respondents. – For specific objective – Use large sample – Probability sampling design – Recommendation are provided.
Casual research studies Used to provide a stronger basis for the existence. Create relation between variables. Control influence of variables. If not possible to control variable, its call confounded variables.
Difference between research designRESEARCH DESIGN EXPLORATORY DESCRIPTIVESampling design Non probability ProbabilityStatistical design No pre planned Pre-plannedObservational design Unstructured StructuredOperational design No fixed decision Advance decisionOverall design Flexible Rigid
What is experimentation? Experiments are studies involving intervention by the researcher beyond, measurement. There is one (IV) and (DV) in a casual relationship. Correlation of IV and DV, the time order of occurrence of variables must be considered. They may occur almost simultaneously.
What is experimentation? Controls are important, further precaution are needed so that the results achieved reflect the influence of the IV alone on the DV
Conducting Experiment1. Select relevant variables2. Specify the level of treatment3. Control the experimental design4. Choose the experimental design5. Select and assign the subjects6. Pilot-test, revise and test7. Analyze the data.