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Organizational Behavior - Chapter 11 Communication

Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge

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  • After studying this chapter you should be able to:
  • Transfer means the message was received in a form that can be interpreted by the receiverUnderstanding the message is not the same as the receiver agreeing with the message.
  • Almost every communication interaction that takes place in a group or organization performs one or more of these functions, and none of the four is more important than the others.To perform effectively, groups need to maintain some form of control over members, stimulate members to perform, allow emotional expression, and make decision choices
  • 8 key parts:
  • To engage in effective upward communication, try to - reduce distractions (meet in a conference room if you can, rather than your boss’s office or cubicle), communicate in headlines not paragraphs (your goal is to get your boss’s attention, not to engage in a meandering discussion), support your headlines with actionable items (what you believe should happen), and prepare an agenda to make sure you use your boss’s attention well.
  • - Face-to-face , Telephone, Group meetings, Formal presentations, Hotlines, Computer conferencingTeleconferences, Videoconferences-In an organization, where decisions and other communiqués are verbally passed up and down the authority hierarchy, considerable opportunities arise for messages to become distorted.
  • - Fax machines, Employee publications, Bulletin boards, Audio and video tapes, Memos, Traditional Mail, Voice mail, E-mail- written communications are more likely to be well thought out, logical, and clear.
  • May stand alone / together with verbal message- Body language: A body position or movement can communicate something of the emotion behind a message, but when it is linked with spoken language, it gives fuller meaning to a sender’s message.- intonations: can change the meaning of a message.- Facial expressions: show arrogance, aggressiveness, fear, shyness, and other characteristics
  • We’re more likely to position ourselves closer to people we like and touch them more often.
  • Firstly we come with the most common method, email. It’s hard imagine life without it.This is highly advantageous and efficient for organizations because of the quick turn around, written record, and low cost of distribution. However, there are many disadvantages. The biggest problem with email is that the message is often misinterpreted. You can not read body language or see emotional cues when you read an email, so it is hard to decode the message that is sent. Drawbacks for communicating negative messages. Email can also be misused because it tends to make the sender feel more removed from the situation and it may remove their inhibitions and cause them to write things they normally would not have said. In addition, the volume of email has increased so significantly that it is overloading readers and causing frustration or anxiety. Time consuming : Every year approximately 60 percent, or 36 trillion, emails are sent are non-spam messages that someone has to answer.● Limited expression of emotions. We tend to think of e-mail as a sort of sterile, faceless form of communication. Some researchers say the lack of visual and vocal cues means emotionally positive messages, like those including praise, will be seen as more emotionally neutral than the sender intended. 28 But as you no doubt know, e-mails are often highly emotional. E-mail tends to have a disinhibiting effect on people; without the recipient’s facial expression to temper their emotional expression, senders write things they’d never be comfortable saying in person. When others send flaming messages, remain calm and try not to respond in kind. And, as hard as it might sometimes be, try to see the flaming message from the other party’s point of view. That in itself may calm your nerves.Privacy concerns: 1st: your e-mails may be, and often are, monitored. You can’t always trust the recipient of your e-mail to keep it confidential, either 2nd: you need to exercise caution in forwarding e-mail from your company’s e-mail account to a personal or “public” e-mail account (for example, Gmail, Yahoo!, MSN). These accounts often aren’t as secure as corporate accounts, so when you forward a company e-mail to them, you may be violating your organization’s policy or unintentionally disclosing confidential
  • We are in a current state where people want real-time communication when sending short messages. This is a growing area of interest in an organization due to the explosion of portable communication devices. Two commonly used methods are instant messaging and text messaging.intrusive and distracting: Its continual presence can make it hard for employees to concentrate and stay focused. A survey of managers revealed that in 86 percent of meetings, at least some participants checked TM, and another survey revealed 20 percent of managers report having been scolded for using wireless devices during meetings. 32 Finally, because instant messages can be intercepted easily, many organizations are concerned about the security of IM and TM. One other point: it’s important to not let the informality of text messaging (“omg! r u serious? brb”) spill over into business e-mails. Many prefer to keep business communication relatively formal. A survey of employers revealed that 58 percent rate grammar, spelling, and punctuation as “very important” in e-mail messages. 34 By making sure your professional communications are, well, professional, you’ll show yourself to be mature and serious.
  • MySpace and Facebook are types of networking software that link people around the globe and they are growing in number and scope. These can be helpful ways to stay in touch, but there are a few cautions. It is important to remember that these are public spaces and anyone can see what you post. These sites are being utilized by future employers to find out more about their applicants, so it is very important to be careful what you put on your site. Also, due to the increasing number of ways to communicate, people are becoming overstimulated with all the information and contact.
  • Blogs and videoconferencing are two electronic methods of communications that are being used more in the field of business. Blogs are Web sites about a person, entity, or movement that are updated regularly. They are very popular but have caused some trouble for employees recently. If an employee posts something on their blog that is potentially damaging to the organization, they may be dismissed for that. Videoconferencing connects people in different locations through live audio and video. It is an inexpensive way to hold a meeting in different cities and not miss the important aspects of nonverbal communication.
  • What is Information Overload: A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity.With various electronic devices used today, we are easily to be bombarded with big information from emails, blogs, internet surfing, instant messages, cell phones or televisions… Following a report, the largest part of an average worker’s day – about 43 percent is spent on matters that are neither important nor urgent, such as reply non-crucial mails or surfing the web. Intel designed an 8 month experiment to see how limiting this information overload might add productivity. They limit both digital and in-person contact for 4 hours on Tuesdays of a group and this group was more productive.So we should review some ways of reducing the time sunk into emails: Don’t check e-mail in the morning.● Check e-mail in batches. . Unsubscribe.● Stop sending e-mail. ● Declare e-mail bankruptcy. connect to technologies less frequently, have a strategy to take a break from digital information each day.As information technology and immediate communication have become a more common component of modern organizational life, more employees find they are never able to get offline. Some business traveler were disappointed when airlines began offering wireless connection so the travel time is no longer a rare opportunity to relax. Employees must balance the need for constant communication with their own personal need for breaks from work.
  • Security is a huge concern for nearly all organizations with private or proprietary information with clients, customers, and employees. A Merrill Lynch survey of 50 executives found 52 percent rated leaks of information as their number one information security concern, topping virus and hackers.So most companies actively monitor employee Internet use and email records, and some video and record phone conversations. Though such practices can seem invasive to employees. An organization can relieve employee concern by engaging them in information security policies and giving them some control over how their personal information is used.
  • Why do people choose one channel of communication over another—say, a phone call instead of a face-to-face talk? A model of media richness helps explain channel selection among managersAn individual must carefully choose the channel of communication based on the message they want to send or the media richness. A “rich” channel will be able to handle multiple cues at the same time, facilitate rapid feedback, and be very personal. Different generations will see communication channels differently in this regard. Managers must take this into account when communicating.Routine messages tend to be straightforward and have minimal ambiguity; channels lowin richness can carry them efficiently. Non routine communications are likely to be complicated and have the potential for misunderstanding. Managers can communicate them effectively only by selecting rich channels.
  • .Channels differ in their capacity to convey information. Some are rich in that they can (1) handle multiple cues simultaneously, (2) facilitate rapid feedback, and (3) be very personal. Others are lean in that they score low on these factors. As Exhibit 11-6 illustrates, face-to-face conversation scores highest in channel richness because it transmits the most information per communication episode—multiple information cues (words, postures, facial expressions, gestures, intonations), immediate feedback (both verbal and nonverbal), and the personal touch of being present. Impersonal written media such as formal reports and bulletins rate lowest in richness.The choice of channel depends on whether the message is routine. Routine messages tend to be straightforward and have minimal ambiguity; channels low in richness can carry them efficiently. Non routine communications are likely to be complicated and have the potential for misunderstanding. Managers can communicate them effectively only by selecting rich channels.
  • We’ve discussed a number of methods for communication up to this point. Now we turn our attention to one of the functions of communication and the features that might make messages more or less persuasive to an audience.- Automatic and Controlled Processing: how we process information. Quickly or Carefully.
  • Think about the last time you bought a can of soda. Did you carefully research brands and engage in your own double-blind taste test to see which types you actually prefer? Or did you reach for the can that had the most appealing advertising images? We often rely on automatic processing , a relatively superficial consideration of evidence and information making use of heuristic.
  • consider the last time you chose a place to live. For this more important decision, you probably did do some independent research among experts who know something about the area, gathered information about prices from a variety of sources, and considered the costs and benefits of renting versus buying. Here, you’re relying on more effortful controlled processing , a detailed consideration of evidence and information relying on facts, figures, and logic.
  • - Interest Level: it reflects the impact a decision is going to have on your life. When people are very interested in the outcome of a decision, they’re more likely to process information carefully. - Prior Knowledge: People who are very well informed about a subject area are also more likely to use controlled processing strategies. They have already thought through various arguments for or against a specific course of action, and therefore they won’t readily change their position unless very good.- Personality: Are you the type of person who always likes to read at least five reviews of amovie before deciding whether to see it? Do you carefully consider several movies before making a choice? Perhaps you even research recent films by the same stars and director. If so, you are probably high in need for cognition, a personality trait of individuals who are most likely to be persuaded by evidence and facts.- Message Characteristics: of the message itself. Messages provided through relatively lean communication channels, with little opportunity for users to interact with the content of the message, tend to encourage automatic processing.
  • The most important implication of all this research is to match your persuasive message to the type of processing your audience is likely to use. When the audience is not especially interested in a persuasive messagetopic, when they are poorly informed, when they are low in need for cognition, and when information is transmitted through relatively lean channels, they’ll be more likely to use automatic processing. In these cases, use messages thatare more emotion-laden and associate positive images with your preferred outcome. On the other hand, when the audience is interested in a topic, when they are high in need for cognition, or when the information is transmitted throughrich channels, then it is a better idea to focus on rational arguments and evidence to make your case.
  • An example of cultural differences is that all the common U.S. hand signs shown in this slide are very offensive signs somewhere else in the world.
  • In summary, good communication will always reduce uncertainty and beats out ambiguity every time. Communication has a better chance of succeeding if the right channel is used, the receiver is a good listener, and feedback is utilized. It is important to remember that even though electronic communication is quicker and easier to use, it can also raise the potential for misunderstanding. Finally, keep in mind that in different cultural contexts things have different meanings and there are a lot of barriers to overcome for effective communication – do your homework and do not rush to conclusions.
  • Communication-Robbins&Judge-Team11

    1. 1. BIS-2012 Management in IT Instructor Prof. Dr. Tomas Benz Communication  Nguyen Dao Tan Bao  Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phu  Le An Vinh 
    2. 2. Agenda 1. Introduction 2. What ? – – – Functions of communication Communication process Direction of communication 4. Barriers to effective communication 5. Conclusion for Managers 3. How ? – – – Interpersonal communication Organizational communication Persuasive communication 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 2
    3. 3. Introduction • Smoke signals • Sign languague • Birds 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 3
    4. 4. Why important? 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 4
    5. 5. Learning objectives 1. Identify the main functions of communication. 2. Describe the communication process and distinguish between formal and informal communication. 3. Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication, and provide examples of each. 4. Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication. 5. Analyze the advantages and challenges of electronic communication. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 5
    6. 6. Learning objectives 5. Show how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel. 6. Differentiate between automatic and controlled processing of persuasive messages. 7. Identify common barriers to effective communication. 8. Show how to overcome the potential problems in crosscultural communication. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 6
    7. 7. What is Communication? • Communication – The transfer and understanding of meaning. • Transfer means the message was received in a form that can be interpreted by the receiver. Constantly talking isn’t necessarily communicating • Understanding the message is not the same as the receiver agreeing with the message. - Joel in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind – Interpersonal Communication • Communication between two or more people – Organizational Communication • All the patterns, network, and systems of communications within an organization 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 7
    8. 8. Four functions of Communication Control Motivation Emotional expression Information  Formal and informal communications act to control individuals’ behaviors in organizations  Formal way Communications clarify for employees what is to done, how Social interaction in groups of work group communications  Individuals and workthe formneed information to make wellReport tasks, … it, and what can be done to improve • they have done provides or to for employees decisionsa way do their work. to express themselves. performance • Comply company policies  Informal way • Group 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 8
    9. 9. Communication process • The Sender – initiates message • Encoding – translating thought to message • The Message – what is communicated • The Channel – the medium the message travels through • Decoding – the receiver’s action in making sense of the message • The Receiver – person who gets the message • Noise – things that interfere with the message • Feedback – a return message regarding the initial communication 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 9
    10. 10. Communication process Source: Organizational Behaviour (15e) – Stephen P Robbins & Timothy A Judge 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 10
    11. 11. Direction of communication Vertical communication Downward  Assign goals, provide job instructions, explainjob, … ..  Provide feedback, inform progress, relay the policies, Upward  One-way nature  Understand employee’s feeling, for ideas, for improvement Save time  Distractions -> communication is increasingly difficult  Facilitate coordination  To be effective: reduce distractions, communicate in  To be effective: must explain, repeat many times + media headlines, prepare agenda. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication Lateral communication 11
    12. 12. Interpersonal communication • Oral + Speed and feedback – The more people, the greater the potential distortion. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 12
    13. 13. Interpersonal communication • Written + Tangible and verifiable + For complex and lengthy communication + More likely to be well thought out, logical, and clear – Time-consuming + lack of built-in feedback mechanism 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 13
    14. 14. Interpersonal communication Body movement Physical distance Give fuller meaning to message Non-verbal communication Intonation Can change message’s meaning How closer the relationship Facial expression 1/3/2014 Show more emotion Chapter 11 - Communication 14
    15. 15. Interpersonal communication Body movement I love you, guys.. Usain Bolt I win.. I’m the champion Source: 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 15
    16. 16. Interpersonal communication Source: • “I didn’t hang-out with her last night” Intonation  It isn’t him who went out but someone else. • “I didn’t hang-out with her last night”  it’s not true that he went out • “I didn’t hang-out with her last night”  this is not what he did but maybe something else 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 16
    17. 17. Interpersonal communication Source: 1 2 Surprise Confusion 3 Body movement Outrage Facial expression Shock 1/3/2014 Embarrassment 4Chapter 11 - Communication 5 17
    18. 18. Interpersonal communication • Can you see what he does not say? + Is the extent to which we are interested in + The perceived status between sender & receiver - Misunderstanding due to cultural differences. - Should be aware of contradictions between the messages. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 18
    19. 19. Organizational communication Source: Organizational Behaviour (15e) – Stephen P Robbins & Timothy A Judge • Formal small group networks: Chain 3-level hierachy structure 1/3/2014 Wheel All channel Strong leader Scrum team Chapter 11 - Communication 19
    20. 20. Organizational communication Source: Organizational Behaviour (15e) – Stephen P Robbins & Timothy A Judge 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 20
    21. 21. Organizational communication • The Grapevine: – Informal communication network in organization • Gossip • Rumors – the appointment of new bosses – the relocation of offices – downsizing decisions – or the realignment of work assignments. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 21
    22. 22. Organizational communication • The Grapevine – Why need ? Manager • a feel for the morale of their organization • identifies issues employees consider important • helps tap into employee anxieties • small talk creates a sense of closeness and friendship among those who share Employee information 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 22
    23. 23. Electronic communications • E-mail – Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution – Disadvantages: • • • • • • Messages are easily and commonly misinterpreted Not appropriate for sending negative messages Overused and overloading readers Time-consuming nature Limited expression of emotions. Non-private: e-mail is often monitored and may be forwarded to anyone 11-23
    24. 24. Electronic communications • Instant / Text messaging Forms of “real time” communication of short messages that often use portable communication devices. – Explosive growth in business use – Fast and inexpensive means of communication – Can be intrusive and distracting – Easily “hacked” with weak security – Can be seen as too informal • Instant Messaging – Immediate e-mail sent to receiver’s desktop or device • Text Messages – Short messages typically sent to cell phones or other handheld devices 11-24
    25. 25. Electronic communications • Social networking – Linked systems organically spread throughout the nation and world that can be accessed by a PC – Includes: • Social networks like MySpace® and Facebook® • Professional networks like Zoominfo® and Ziggs® • Corporate networks such as IBM’s BluePages® – Key Points: • These are public spaces – anyone can see what you post • Can be used for job application screening 11-25
    26. 26. Electronic communications • Blogs: Web sites about a single person (or entity) that are typically updated daily – A popular, but potentially dangerous activity: • Employees may post harmful information • Such comments may be cause for dismissal • Can be against company policies to post in a blog during company time and on company equipment/connections • Video conferencing: uses live audio and video Internet streaming to create virtual meetings – Now uses inexpensive webcams and laptops in place of formal videoconferencing rooms 11-26
    27. 27. Managing Information Dealing with Information Overload 11-27
    28. 28. Managing Information Threats to Information Security 11-28
    29. 29. Choice of Communication Channel • The model of “media richness” helps explain an individual’s choice of communication channel – Channels vary in their capacity to convey information • A “rich” channel is one that can: – Handle multiple cues simultaneously – Facilitate rapid feedback – Be very personal • Choice depends on whether the message is routine 11-29
    30. 30. Model of Media Richness 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 30
    31. 31. Persuasive Communication • The Process of Communication – Automatic and Controlled Processing 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 31
    32. 32. Persuasive Communication • Automatic processing • A relatively superficial consideration of evidence and information. • It takes little time and low effort. • Disadvantage – It lets us be easily fooled by a variety of tricks, like a cute jingle or glamorous photo. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 32
    33. 33. Persuasive Communication • Controlled processing – You do independent research among experts who know something about the subject, gather information about prices from a variety of sources, and consider the costs and benefits of renting versus buying. – Controlled processing requires effort and energy, but it’s harder to fool someone who has taken the time and effort to engage in it. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 33
    34. 34. Persuasive Communication • Features determining how persuasive the message is – – – – Interest Level Prior Knowledge Personality Message Characteristics 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 34
    35. 35. Persuasive Communication 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 35
    36. 36. Barriers to Effective communication 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 36
    37. 37. Barriers for effective communication Filtering Silence Language Emotions Communication Lying Communication Apprehension 1/3/2014 Slide 37 Chapter 11 - Communication Information Overload Selective Perception
    38. 38. Barriers to Effective communication Filtering – The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver. Selective Perception – People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Information Overload – The quantity of information we have to work with exceeds our capacity to process it. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 38
    39. 39. Barriers to Effective communication Emotions – Interpreting messages differently, depending on whether we’re happy or distressed. Language – Words mean different things to different people. Senders tend to assume that words they use mean the same to the receiver as they do to them. Silence – Ignored by absence of information 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 39
    40. 40. Barriers to Effective communication Communication Apprehension – Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both Lying – Outright misrepresentation of information 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 40
    41. 41. Word Connotations Semantics Barriers to Effective Cross-Cultural Communication Tone Differences 1/3/2014 Perception Differences Chapter 11 - Communication 41
    42. 42. Cross-cultural barriers 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 42
    43. 43. Cross-cultural barriers 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 43
    44. 44. Cross-cultural barriers 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 44
    45. 45. Cross-cultural barriers Differences in tolerance for conflict and methods for resolving conflicts 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 45
    46. 46. Body Language Issues All of these common U.S. hand signs are offensive somewhere in the world. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 46
    47. 47. Communication Barriers & Cultural Context High-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues to communication. Low-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 47
    48. 48. Communication Barriers & Cultural Context High-Context vs. Low-Context Cultures 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 48
    49. 49. A Cultural Guide Assume differences until similarity is proven Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation Practice empathy. Put yourself in the recipient’s shoes Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 49
    50. 50. Summary and Managerial Implications • The less employees are uncertain, the greater their satisfaction; good communication reduces uncertainty! • Communication is improved by: – Choosing the correct channel – Being a good listener – Using feedback • Potential for misunderstanding in electronic communication is higher than for traditional modes • Based on Automatic/ Controlled processing type of audiences to choose good communication strategies. • Remember barriers to communication 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 50
    51. 51. 1/3/2014 Chapter 11 - Communication 51